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Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network
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Protocols For Self Organisation Of A Wireless Sensor Network

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  • Each sensor will have a registry designed to hold the information regarding the best candidate(s) it knows.In the beginning, each sensor will initialize the registry with its own ID and election metric and multicast this information to all neighbors in the cooperative group.In response to an incoming Elect message, each node will comparing the proposed candidate(s) with those in its own registrywhen better candidates are found, the registry will be updated and all 1-hop neighbors belonging to the cooperative group will be notified. Each Elect message sent may spawn further exchange of Elect message as each sensor continue to compare candidates and update its own registryMessage exchange will eventually terminate when all sensors choose the same winner(s).
  • Since the energy cost of uploading long data stream to the central node is high, a Multi-Winner Election(MWE) process is used to limit the number of sensor source nodes (SN) that will provide the data.Instead of keeping record of one best candidate,each node will now keep up to n of them. Just as in the non-coherent case, for each winning SN candidate,a minimum-energy path can be computed by piggybacking link power information on the Elect messages.At the end of the MWE process, each sensor in the network has a set of minimum energy path to each SN.Then the total energy consumption to upload data from each SN to each node in the local network can becomputed.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PROTOCOLS FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION OF A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
      Published in “Personal Communications, IEEE, vol 7, no 5, 2000”
      Presented by
      Saatviga S.
    • 2. Authors
      KatayounSohrabi
      B.S & M.S degrees in Electrical Engineering, University of Missouri, Rolla. Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles
      VishalAilawadhi
      B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering, Ph.D. in electrical engineering, University of California, Los Angeles
      Jay L. Gao
      B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering, Ph.D. in electrical engineering, University of California, Los Angeles
      Gregory J. Pottie
      B.Sc. in engineering physics, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario,
      Canada. M.Eng. And Ph.D. in electrical engineering from McMaster
      University, Hamilton, Ontario
    • 3. Road Map
      Wireless Sensor Network – A General Scenario
      Design Challenges Involved
      Related Wireless Network Models
      The Research Problem
      Link Layer Issues
      Mobile MAC Issues
      Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
      Multihop Routing
      Cooperative Signal Processing
      Conclusion
    • 4. Wireless Sensor Network – A General Scenario
      Internet
      Sink Node
      Sensor
      Node
      Wireless Sensor Network
      Target
      User
      WINS Sensor Node Architecture
      Processing
      Event Classification and identification
      Wireless network
      interface
      Signal processing for event detection
      Sensor
      Interface
      Control
      Actuator
    • 5. Design Challenges Involved
      Hardware
      MEMS Sensor Technology
      Digital Circuit Design & System Integration
      Designing Low-power RF front-end and circuitry
      Wireless Networking
      Robust & Energy-Efficient Communication
      Channel Access, Routing, Mobility Management
      Applications
      Detection, Data Collection & Signal Processing
    • 6. Related Wireless Network Models
      Mobile Ad hoc Network
      Mobile Node
      Wireless link
      Cellular Network
      Mobile
      Cluster Head
      Stationary Base Station
      Wired link
      Wireless link
      Mobile User
    • 7. Research Problem
      • Energy Consumption – sensing, data processing and communications
      • 8. Communications in a network consumes lot of energy
      • 9. Trade-off between data processing and wireless communications
      • 10. More local processing done in sensors
      • 11. Message overhead should be reduced
      • 12. Need For Highly Localized And Distributed
      Algorithms For Data Processing And Networking
    • 13. Link Layer Issues
      Formation of topology & Channel Access
      Contention/ Explicit Organization based Channel Access
      TDMA/FDMA/CDMA schemes
      Transceivers have to monitor channels at all times
      Expensive in the context of sensor networks
      Organized Channel Access
      Discover neighbors and then assign collision-free channels
      Hierarchical structure
      Network-wide Synchronization
      Centralized / Distributed Channel Assignment
    • 14. Mobile MAC Issues
      Provides connectivity to mobile sensors as they interact with static networks
      It has to adhere to the stationary network constraints
      Mobility Management
      MANET – Through Mobile Cluster Heads
      Cellular Network – Hand-off Techniques by Base stations
      Sensor Networks
      Consists of mobile nodes and stationary nodes
      Must focus on energy consumption than anything else
      What is the Mechanism/Algorithm to handle mobility????
    • 15. Protocols that perform ORM
      • Network Start up & Link layer organization
      • 16. SMACS (Self-Organizing Medium Access Control for Sensor Networks)
      • 17. Stationary Wireless Nodes and Mobility Management
      • 18. EAR (Eavesdrop-And-Register) algorithm
      • 19. Multihop Routing
      • 20. SAR (Sequential Assignment Routing) algorithm
      • 21. Signaling & Data Transferring
      • 22. SWE (Single Winner Election) algorithm
      • 23. MWE (Multi-Winner Election) algorithm
    • SMACS
      • It is an infrastructure building, distributed protocol that forms a flat topology
      • 24. Neighbor discovery and channel assignment phases are combined
      • 25. TDMA slots are assigned to links and then they operate on different frequencies
      • 26. To reduce likelihood of collisions
      A
      D
      C
      B
      F
    • 27. Link-layer self-organizing procedure
      Node B
      TYPE1
      TYPE3
      Initial listening time
      TYPE2
      TYPE4
      Node C
      TYPE2
      TYPE3
      TYPE1
      Trans.
      SLOT
      Rec.
      SLOT
      D and A find each other
      T frame
      fx
      fx
      Node D
      Td
      fx
      fx
      Node A
      Ta
      fy
      Node B
      Tb
      B and C find each other
      fy
      Node C
      Tc
    • 28. EAR Algorithm
      A Typical Wireless Sensor Network
      Attempts to offer continuous service to these mobile nodes under both mobile and stationary constraints.
      Adheres to mobile nodes’ limited power constraints within the stationary network
      Mobility Management
      Stationary sensor
      Wireless link
      Mobile sensor
    • 29. Signaling Method
      Broadcast Invite (BI)
      Stationary node transmits invitation to surrounding neighbors –Stationary MAC protocol
      Mobile node extracts SNR, node ID, transmitted power etc and holds it in the registry
      Mobile Invite (MI)
      Mobile node responds to BI to request a connection
      Mobile Response (MR)
      Stationary node accepts the connection and selects the slots for communication
      Adds it to the registry
      Mobile Disconnect (MD)
      Disconnection of nodes are determined through predefined thresholds
      Timeouts for limiting errors
    • 30. Routing
      Multihop Routing
      AODV (Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector)
      TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm)
      Power –Aware Routing Algorithm
      Minimum energy/packet
      Minimum cost/packet
      SAR Algorithm
      Path Selection – Energy Resource, QoS , Priority of Packet
      Minimizes average weighted QoS metric
      Focus on High Mobility
      Focus on Energy Efficiency
    • 31. Cooperative Signal Processing
      A form of hierarchical information processing where raw sensor data is first collected and processed by individual nodes to generate a parametric or filtered version of the original data, and later gathered at a single location for combined processing.
      Eliminates the communication cost for relaying the raw data to some entity outside of the sensor network for processing.
      Adaptive Local Routing Algorithm (SWE, MWE)
      Coherent and
      Non-Coherent event-based cooperative signal processing.
    • 32. Noncoherent Cooperative Function
      Raw data is often parameterized and or highly compressed
      Data traffic is lower
      Energy minimization is best achieved by reducing the overhead in the algorithm itself.
      Communication cost can be significantly reduced
    • 33. Processing Network Formation
      SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio)
      SWE ,
      ST algorithm
    • 34. SWE Algorithm
      Routing information & Election information is piggybacked on the Elect message so that a minimum-hop spanning tree can be built from each sensor node to the eventual winner(s) of the election
      Overhead-Delay Tradeoff
      By the end of the SWE process, a minimum-hop spanning tree will completely cover the network.
    • 35. ST Algorithm
      The routing algorithm computes a minimum-hop spanning tree connecting each participating sensor to the winner(s) of the election.
      No additional complexity is added to the algorithm complexity
      Ultimately shortens the duration of the entire network routing algorithm
      Also cuts overhead by compressing election and routing information into a single message.
    • 36. Coherent Cooperative Function
      Raw data is only mildly filtered before combined processing takes place
      Data traffic is higher
      Communication cost associated with relaying long data streams can be prohibitively high because of energy resource limitation
      Focus is on finding the optimal processing node and the minimum energy routes.
    • 37. MWE Algorithm
      • Limits the number of sensor nodes that provide data
      • 38. Each node will now keep up to n of the best candidates
      • 39. At the end of the MWE process, each sensor in the network has a set of minimum energy path to each SN
      • 40. Total energy consumption to upload data from each SN to each node is computed
      Formation Process for Coherent Routing
    • 41. Test Simulation Implementation
      The simulation environment models each node as a separate Parsec entity.
      The functionality of each layer, namely MAC, mobile MAC, and the network layer, is implemented as a function inside the node.
    • 42. Conclusion
      The algorithms exploit the low mobility and abundant bandwidth, while coping with the severe energy constraint and the requirement for network scalability.
    • 43. Thank You..
    • 44. Related Wireless Network Models
      Bluetooth Network
      Piconet 3
      Slave/Slave Bridge
      Master
      Slave
      Master/Slave Bridge
      Piconet 1
      Piconet 2
      Home RF

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