Organizational Change andDevelopmentConcept of ChangeForces for ChangeAreas of Organizational ChangeResistance to ChangeOvercoming/Reducing Resistance to ChangeConcept of Paradigm ShiftsConcept of Organizational development(OD)Re-viewing above topics
Concept of Change• Change refers to making things different. It is inevitable for modern organizations in order to cope with changes in environment and stay ahead of competitors.
Forces of changeA. External forces for change 1. Political-legal forces for change 2. Economic and market forces 3. Socio-cultural forces 4. Technological forcesB. Internal forces for change 1. Goal succession and displacement 2. Structure changes 3. Resource changes 4. Change in organizational policies
Areas of Organizational Change1. Structural change2. Changing technology3. Redesigning business process or tasks4. Changing behaviors or culture
Overcoming/Reducing Resistance tochange1. Education, training and communication2. Participation and involvement3. Facilitation and support4. Negotiation and agreement5. Manipulation and co-optation6. Explicit or implicit coercion
Concepts of Paradigm Shifts Paradigm shifts in business refers to the great or dramatic change in the way of doing things in business.Conditions for Paradigm Shifts First, the established technology in the industry is mature and approaching to its natural limit. Second, a new disruptive technology has entered the marketplace and is taking root in market niches that are poorly served by present companies. Third, a company develops a new business model that is radically different from that used by the competitors, enabling it to capture a large market share
Concept of OrganizationalDevelopment(OD) OD is a strategic approach for managing planned change in organizations. According to S.P. Robbins and S. Shangi, “OD is a collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and well-being.” Main underlying values in most OD efforts: 1. Respect for people 2. Trust and support 3. Power equalization 4. Confrontation 5. Participation
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According to Henri Bergson: To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on creating oneself endlessly.