OTTO KOENIGSBERGER (1908-1999)ARCHITECT and DEVELOPMENTPLANNERBODAS ANAGHA4THYEAR B.ARCH
OTTO KOENIGSBERGER OTTO KOENIGSBERGER,architect, planner andEgyptologist, enjoyed a long andremarkable career that beganwith work as a governmentarchitect in Berlin in the 1930s. He introduced the concept of"action planning" - community-based schemes supported bygovernment agencies - intomany parts of the Third World. He was one of the founders ofmodern urban developmentplanning in the rapidly growingcities of Africa, Asia and Latin
Works 1931- Diploma of Engineering (Architecture), Technical University,Berlin 1933-1937-Research and excavation in Egypt (Swiss Institute) 1935-Dr.-Ing, Technical University, Berlin, (Thesis on The Constructionof Ancient Egyptian Doors) 1939-1941-Chief Architect and Planner Mysore State, India 1948-1951-Director of Housing, Government of India. 1952-Planning Advisor, Basildon New Town 1954-1981-UN Planning and Housing Adviser to Governments ofGhana, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Singapore PlanningConsultant to Governments of Zambia, Brazil, and Costa Rica,Philippines, Brazil, Penang State 1966-1970-Housing Adviser to the UN Economic Commission for Africa 1957-1972- Director of the post graduate course in TropicalArchitecture, later the Department of Development and TropicalStudies at the Architectural Association, London 1973-1978 Professor of Development Planning and Head of theDevelopment Planning Unit, University College London
Awards 1933Schinkel Medal and State Prize inArchitecture 1979Hon Dr-Ing University of Stuttgart 1989UN Habitat Scroll of Honor (awarded by thethen UN Center for Human Settlements)
Key Concepts ARCHITECTURE AND TROPICS PLANNING IN THEThe special problems in architecture and planning in thetropics, based on Koenigsberger’s experiences as chiefarchitect in Mysore, India. Developed from his experienceas Director of Housing for India when he was faced withthe task of housing an estimated number of 5 millionrefugees, and from the situation of migrants and squattersfound in rapidly growing cities. HOUSING AND PLANNING POLICIESThe social and economic functions of housing policiesbased on his experience as a UN adviser. ACTION PLANNING AND PLANNING EDUCATIONPlanning methods for rapidly growing cities, ActionPlanning which were developed during his time of teachingat the Architectural Association and at the DPU UniversityCollege London.
BHUBANESWAR Bhubaneswar (20 degree15N latitude and 85 degree50E longitude) is the name,which has been given to aarea covering 91.9414square kilometers The place has evidentlyderived its name from itsprincipal deity Tri-Bhubaneswar orBhubaneswar. Has two distinct divisions,viz., the Old Town and theNew Capital.
OLD AND NEW TOWN The Old Town ischaracterized by mixedland-use which is ausualphenomenon with allancient towns and citiesof India. It containssplendid specimens ofKalinga architecturespanning some twenty-five centuries of history,depicting the grace, thejoy and the rhythm of lifein all its wondrousvariety. The New Capital, thefoundation of which was laidin 1948, was started with aportion of a reserved forestas nucleus. It has nowbecome a city which hasbeen built expending croresof rupees. This part isplanned administrativetown with broadavenues, self-containedresidential units, modernbuildings and institutions.Thus Bhubaneswar offers anopportunity to beholdcenturies-old art andarchitecture, side-by-sidemodern massive buildingsand institutions.
The site for the NewCapital was selected aftercareful consideration. It has the advantage oflying on the borderbetween the fertile deltaland and the hilly forestareas of Orissa.It has thenatural advantage withregard to drainage. The ground slopes fromwest to east and is dividedinto two parts intersectedby the railway line. The western part is highland with laterite soil thatpermits the growth of forestand the eastern part is lowwith alluvial soil suitablefor agriculture. The velocity of wind is
• A plan for the New Capital was prepared in 1948 byDr. Otto H. Koenigsberger. On his recommendationthe design of the New Capital is based on the systemof neighborhood units which means a group of houses,large enough to afford the major amenties of urban lifelike schools, dispensaries, shoping-centres,entertainment, public libraries, etc. but at the sametime small enough to keep all these amenties in shortdistances, so that the main advantage of rural life canbe preserved. To avoid boredom and unformity the neighbourhoodunits are designed individually with the object ofgiving it a distinct character. In contrast to the Old Town, the land under differentuses are segregated from each other so that the foulsmell, smoke or dust of an industry does not affectthe residential areas nor the crown and noise of acommercial area affect the silence and solemnityof an administrative or educational area.
• Four categories of roads have been adopted for the city viz.(a) Arterial Road,(b) Major Unit Road,(c) Major Housing Street and(d) Minor Housing street.The Arterial roads are 200 feet(60.9600 metres) in width withearthen flanks or foot-path of 10 feet (3.0480 metres) on eachside and provided with drains and plantations. Rajpath, Janpath,Gandhi Marga, Sachivalaya Marga, and Udyana Marga comeunder this category.The Major Unit Roads are 150 feet (45.7200 metres) in widthwith earthen flanks, drains and plantations on each side.Ekamra Marga, Lewis Road, Gopabandhu Marga, BhubaneswarMarga, Vivekananda Marga, Bidyt Marga and Puri Marga areunder this category. The Major Housing Streets are the roadswhich collect the internal traffic of housing units and transmitto the major and arterial roads. The width of such roads is 100feet (30.4800 metres) provided with earthen flanks and drains.The width of Minor Housing Streets varies between 30 feet(9.1440 metres) to 40 feet (12.1920 metres) depending upon
The Units are named after the great personalities andthe royal dynasties of Orissa viz., Bapuji Nagar,Kharavela Nagar, Asoka Nagar, Kesari Nagar,Gopabandhu Nagar, Bhauma Nagar, Ganga Nagar,Goutama Nagar, Surya nagar, Bhoi Nagar, MadhusudanNagar, Buddha Nagar,etc.• The areas particularly allotted for the construction ofprivate buildings are named as Labour Colony, BapujiNagar, Satya Nagar, Sahid Nagar, Jayadev Nagar,Acharya Vihar, etc.• Besides, there are certain areas which have beenallotted for the construction of private buildings. Theinstitutional areas are named as the Vani Vihar, theRegional Research Laboratory, the Orissa University ofAgriculture and Technology and the Regional College ofEducation Campus. The Gift Press and the Sainik Schoolare situated in the Garkan mauza and the Capital WaterWorks in the Pandara mauza• An area of 231 acres has been allotted for an Industrial
Few notable buildings in the New Capital are as follows- • The Raj Bhawan (Governor’s House) • The Orissa Secretariat • The Orissa Legislative Assembly • The Orissa State Museum • The Multi-storied Heads of departments • The Industrial Development and InfrastructureCorporation Ltd., • The Orissa State Housing Board • The Rabindra Mandap • The Orissa State Archives, • The University of Agriculture and Technology • Tribal Research Bureu, State Forensic Laboratory • Regional Research Institute (Ayurveda) • The Central Market