Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control

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Graduation project 2012

M ansoura Unveristy

Faculty of engineer

Electronic and communication Departm
"Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control"

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Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control

  1. 1. I Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control Graduation Project 2011-2012
  2. 2. II Falcon Team 1.Ahmed Hussein AbdElaziz 2.Asem Mohamed Eissa 3.Saad Eied Zanfal 4.Mahmoud Wafik ElTokhey 5.Mostafa Mohamed Elsayed Supervised by Dr. SherifKishk
  3. 3. III Team words " Life is about decisions so think twice before you take any decision " Ahmed " I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work " Asem " If your ship doesn't come in, swim out to it " Saad " good memories lasts forever " Mahmoud " too much ego will kill your talent " Mostafa
  4. 4. IV
  5. 5. V Acknowledgments Special thanks to everyone gave us support, help and care to reach this stage. Dr. Sherif Kishk : Professor at Electronics and Communications Engineering Department - Mansoura University Eng. Salwa Abd elbaset : Telecom Engineer @ SIS Company . Coordinator Team l MIE Organizer Eng. Amir Ali Abo El-ftoh
  6. 6. VI
  7. 7. VII Abstract We Face every year a lot of natural disasters Like Earthquakes, volcanoes and hurricanes like Egypt earthquake 1992 , Japan earthquake 2011, Tsunami 2004 , Elsalam Ship 2006...etc. It would be difficult to move the rescue teams to help the affected people, With the help of our quadcopter{ a four rotor vertical-take-off-and-landing unmanned aerial vehicle} we can help in making a human life in safe. Our quadcopter can measure the Temperature, Sense gas leak and measure the pressure in the damaged site To take the necessary precautions, it can also Measure the height of the rubbles to help the rescue teams in choosing the equipments that can help them most , Sense the presence of humans under rubble , Provide a real time video stream for the damaged locations , Measure the height of the floods, Determining suitable path for rescue teams to enter the damaged locations using GPS Our quadcopter can provide the services mentioned above because it can penetrate areas which may be too dangerous for human being to reach as it can fly and also because it has a small size.
  8. 8. VIII
  9. 9. IX Table of Contents TEAM WORDS .........................................................................................................................................III ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................. VII LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................................................XI LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................................................................... XIV 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................1 1.1 MOTIVATION.....................................................................................................................................2 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT.........................................................................................................................2 1.3 PROBLEM SOLUTION ...........................................................................................................................2 1.4 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION .....................................................................................................................3 1.5 OUR VISION.......................................................................................................................................4 2 QUADCOPTER ..................................................................................................................................5 2.1 UAV................................................................................................................................................6 2.1.1 What are UAVs and MAVs ?......................................................................................................6 2.1.2 Definition.................................................................................................................................11 2.1.3 Classification of UAV Platforms...............................................................................................12 2.1.4 Applications.............................................................................................................................14 2.1.5 Future Research and Development of Autonomous UAVs and MAVs.....................................15 2.2 HISTORICAL ROLE OF QUADCOPTER ......................................................................................................18 2.3 BASIC CONCEPTS ..............................................................................................................................22 3 MECHANICAL & ELECTRONIC DESIGN.............................................................................................27 3.1 WHY QUADCOPTER? ..................................................................................................................28 3.2 FRAME ...........................................................................................................................................30 3.2.1 Balsa Wood .............................................................................................................................30 3.2.2 Aluminum................................................................................................................................30 3.2.3 Fiberglass ................................................................................................................................30 3.2.4 Carbon Fiber............................................................................................................................31 3.3 MOTORS ........................................................................................................................................32 3.4 ESC (ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL) .................................................................................................... 33 3.5 BATTERY.........................................................................................................................................33 3.6 PROPELLERS ....................................................................................................................................35 4 ELECTRONIC ...................................................................................................................................37 4.1 MAIN CONTROLLER ..........................................................................................................................38 4.2 IMU..............................................................................................................................................41 4.2.1 HMC5883 Magnometer...................................................................................................42 4.2.2 MPU-6000 Gyroscope & accelerometer.......................................................................43 4.3 GPS ............................................................................................................................................45 4.4 VIDEO STREAMING............................................................................................................................47 4.4.1 Camera Feature ...............................................................................................................47 4.4.2 FPV Tx & Rx Feature ......................................................................................................48
  10. 10. X 5 BASE STATION................................................................................................................................49 5.1 REMOTE CONTROLLER .......................................................................................................................50 5.2 GLCD............................................................................................................................................53 5.3 RF-MODULE ...................................................................................................................................55 6 SENSORS ........................................................................................................................................63 6.1 SONAR MODULE.............................................................................................................................64 6.2 IR MODULE .....................................................................................................................................66 6.3 PIR SENSOR ....................................................................................................................................69 6.4 HUMIDITY & TEMPERATURE...............................................................................................................71 7 MARKET RESEARCH REPORT ..........................................................................................................77 7.1 PRODUCT PLANNING .........................................................................................................................78 7.1.1 Identifying opportunities.........................................................................................................80 7.1.2 Evaluating and Prioritizing Projects ........................................................................................80 7.1.3 Market Plan.............................................................................................................................83 7.1.4 Allocate Pre-Project Resources and Time Planning.................................................................86 7.2 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS ...........................................................................................................90 7.2.1 Choosing Customers................................................................................................................90 7.2.2 Gathering and Interpreting Raw Data in terms of Customer Needs....................................... 90 7.2.3 Organize the needs into a hierarchy .......................................................................................92 7.2.4 Establish the relative importance of needs.............................................................................93 8 FUTURE WORK...............................................................................................................................95 8.1 DISASTER MANAGEMENT....................................................................................................................95 8.2 PREVENTION OF HOOLIGANS ..............................................................................................................95 8.3 GPS WAYPOINT...............................................................................................................................96 8.4 AERIAL SURVEY MONITORING.............................................................................................................97 8.5 HELP FROM THE AIR ..........................................................................................................................97 8.6 AERIAL VIDEO DOCUMENTATION.........................................................................................................98 8.7 SOLAR RESEARCH .............................................................................................................................98 8.8 SUPPORT IN EXCAVATION...................................................................................................................98 9 CONCLUSION ...............................................................................................................................100 10 COMPONENT ...............................................................................................................................101 11 ABBREVIATIONS...........................................................................................................................102 REFERENCES .........................................................................................................................................103
  11. 11. XI List of Figures FIGURE 1.1 : REMOTE CONTROLLER BLOCK DIAGRAM.............................................................................3 FIGURE 1.2 :QUADCOPTER BLOCK DIAGRAM ...........................................................................................4 FIGURE 2.1 : REGISTERED UAVS................................................................................................................6 FIGURE 2.2 : COUNTRY-WISE R&D EXPENDITURE ON UAVS .....................................................................7 FIGURE 2.3 : APPLICATION OF UAVS FOR CIVIL AND FOR MILITARY USE IN 2002 .....................................7 FIGURE 2.4 : ANNUAL FUNDING PROFILE OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ...................................9 FIGURE 2.5 : ANNUAL FUNDING PROFILE IN EUROPE ...............................................................................9 FIGURE 2.7 : SOME CONFIGURATIONS OF FIXED-WING UAVS ................................................................12 FIGURE 2.8 : EXAMPLES OF ROTARY-WING UAVS...................................................................................12 FIGURE 2.9 : EXAMPLES OF AIRSHIP-BASED UAVS..................................................................................13 FIGURE 2.10 : MICRO FLAPPING-WING UAVS .........................................................................................13 FIGURE 2.11 : UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES, FROM BIG PLATFORMS TO MICRO FLYING ROBOTS ........14 FIGURE 2.12 :(UCAV) AND (MAVS) AS TRENDS IN UAV PLATFORM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. .....15 FIGURE 2.13 : TREND IN UAV AUTONOMY. ............................................................................................16 FIGURE 2.14 : TREND IN PROCESSOR SPEED. ..........................................................................................17 FIGURE 2.15 : RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROCESSOR SPEED AND MEMORY...........................................17 FIGURE 2.16 : 3D MODEL OF THE GYROPLANE........................................................................................19 FIGURE 2.17 :BRÉGUET-RICHET GYROPLANE ..........................................................................................19 FIGURE 2.18 : THE OEMICHEN NO.2 OF 1922..........................................................................................20 FIGURE 2.19 :QUADCOPTER DESIGNED BY DR. BOTHEZAT AN IVAN JEROME. ........................................20 FIGURE 2.20 :CONVERTAWINGS MODEL A HELICOPTER .........................................................................21 FIGURE 2.21 : V-22 OSPRAY....................................................................................................................21 FIGURE 2.22 : CONCEPT OF BELL’S QUAD ...............................................................................................21 FIGURE 2.23 :SKYCAR DURING A TEST FLIGHT. .......................................................................................22 FIGURE 2.24: SIMPLIFIED QUADCOPTER MOTOR IN HOVERING .............................................................23 FIGURE 2.25 : THROTTLE MOVEMENT ....................................................................................................24 FIGURE 2.26 : ROLL MOVEMENT.............................................................................................................24 FIGURE 2.27: PITCH MOVEMENT............................................................................................................25 FIGURE 2.28 : YAW MOVEMENT.............................................................................................................25 FIGURE 3.1 : FRAME ...............................................................................................................................31 FIGURE 3.2 : 2824 BRUSHLESS OUTRUNNER 1300KV..............................................................................32
  12. 12. XII FIGURE 3.3 : ESC (ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL)....................................................................................33 FIGURE 3.4 : 4500MAH LIPO BATTERY....................................................................................................34 FIGURE 3.5:TURNIGYBATTERY CHARGER................................................................................................35 FIGURE 3.6:1047SF COMBO3 STANDARD & 3 COUNTER ROTATING . .....................................................36 FIGURE 4.1 :ARDUINO MEGA. ................................................................................................................38 FIGURE 4.2 : THE ARDUINO INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT. ............................................39 FIGURE 4.3 :ARDUIMU V3 ......................................................................................................................41 FIGURE 4.4 :ARDUIMU V3 STRUCTURE...................................................................................................42 FIGURE 4.5 :MEDIATEK-3329 . ................................................................................................................46 FIGURE 4.6 :FPV SYSTEM . ......................................................................................................................47 FIGURE 5.1 :ARDUINO UNO ...................................................................................................................50 FIGURE 5.2 : GLCD 128 × 64 PIXELS . .......................................................................................................53 FIGURE 5.3 : GLCD PAGES . .....................................................................................................................54 FIGURE 5.5 : HAC-UM96 . .......................................................................................................................55 FIGURE 5.5 : CONNECTION BETWEEN HAC- UM96 AND MICROCONTROLLER. ........................................58 FIGURE 5.6 : OUR REMOTE . ...................................................................................................................59 FIGURE 5.7 : GUI ....................................................................................................................................60 FIGURE 5.8 : EASYCAP ............................................................................................................................61 FIGURE 5.9 : VIDEO ................................................................................................................................61 FIGURE 6.1: PING))) ULTRASONIC SENSOR.............................................................................................64 FIGURE 6.2: COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ...........................................................................................66 FIGURE 6.3:IR INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM.............................................................................................67 FIGURE 6.4: TRIANGULATION STRATEGY................................................................................................67 FIGURE 6.5 : IR MODULE PHOTO ............................................................................................................68 FIGURE 6.6:ANALOG OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS. DISTANCE TO REFLECTIVE OBJECT......................................69 FIGURE 6.7 :PIR SENSOR.........................................................................................................................70 FIGURE 6.8 : EFFECT OF TEMP. ON PIR DISTANCE DETECTION ................................................................71 FIGURE 6.9 : DHT11 TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY SENSOR .....................................................................72 FIGURE 6.10 : OVERALL COMMUNICATION PROCESS .............................................................................74 FIGURE 6.11 : MCU SENDS OUT START SIGNAL & DHT RESPONSES.........................................................74 FIGURE 6.12 :DATA "0" INDICATION.......................................................................................................75 FIGURE 6.13 : DATA "1" INDICATION......................................................................................................75
  13. 13. XIII FIGURE 7.1 :MARKET GROWTH RATE .....................................................................................................82 FIGURE 7.2 :FIRST YEAR SALES PROPORTION FOR EACH SECTOR............................................................82 FIGURE 7.3 :CUSTOMERS BASED MARKET SEGMENTATION ...................................................................84 FIGURE 7.4 :PRODUCT PLATFORM PLANNING (OVER 3 PROTOTYPE)......................................................86 FIGURE 7.5 :CAPACITY UTILIZATION ( 1-11 TO 31-1) ...............................................................................87 FIGURE 7.6 :CAPACITY UTILIZATION ( 1-2 TO 31-4) .................................................................................88 FIGURE 7.7 :CAPACITY UTILIZATION ( 1-5 TO 31-6) .................................................................................89 FIGURE 8.1 : DISASTER MANAGEMENT...................................................................................................95 FIGURE 8.2 : PREVENTION OF HOOLIGANS.............................................................................................96 FIGURE 8.3 : GPS WAYPOINT..................................................................................................................96 FIGURE 8.4 : AERIAL SURVEY MONITORING............................................................................................97 FIGURE 8.5 : HELP FROM THE AIR...........................................................................................................97 FIGURE 8.6 : AERIAL VIDEO DOCUMENTATION.......................................................................................98 FIGURE 8.7 : SOLAR RESEARCH...............................................................................................................98 FIGURE 8.8 : SUPPORT IN EXCAVATION..................................................................................................99
  14. 14. XIV List of Tables TABLE 2.1 : NUMBER OF REGISTERED UAVS IN JAPAN..............................................................................7 TABLE 2.2 : CURRENT EXPORTERS, OPERATORS, MANUFACTURERS, AND DEVELOPERS OF UAVS..........11 TABLE 3.1: COMMON UAV-MAV CONFIGURATIONS...............................................................................29 TABLE 3.2 : VTOL CONCEPT COMPARISON (1=BAD, 4=VERY GOOD). ......................................................30 TABLE 3.3 : MATERIAL COMPARISON .....................................................................................................31 TABLE 5.1 : PIN DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................55 TABLE 5.3 : RF-MODULE CHANNEL .........................................................................................................57 TABLE 5.4 : RF-MODULE CONNECTING PINS . .........................................................................................58 TABLE 6.1: DHT11 SPECIFICATIONS.........................................................................................................73 TABLE 6.2 : ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS .............................................................................................76 TABLE 7.1 :EVALUATING AND PRIORITIZING PROJECTS ..........................................................................81 TABLE 7.2 :SIZE OF MARKET ...................................................................................................................84 TABLE 7.3 :RESOURCE ALLOCATION( 1-11 TO 31-1) ................................................................................86 TABLE 7.4 :RESOURCE ALLOCATION( 1-2 TO 31-4) ..................................................................................87 TABLE 7.5 :RESOURCE ALLOCATION ( 1-5 TO 31-6) .................................................................................88 TABLE 7.6 :CHOOSING CUSTOMERS........................................................................................................90 TABLE 7.7 :CUSTOMER NEEDS ................................................................................................................91 TABLE 7.8 : ORGANIZE THE NEEDS INTO A HIERARCHY...........................................................................93 TABLE 7.9 :THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NEEDS.................................................................................94
  15. 15. 1
  16. 16. 1 1 Introduction In this chapter, we will talk about what motivated us to make our project and we will also discuss the problem statement and solution that lead us to choose the quadcopter in solving the Crisis analysis problem , and at last we will talk about our vision for our project in the future. The first section (1.1: Motivation) Will show What motivated us to choose our project. The second section (1.2 Problem statement ) Will discuss the problem that we decided to solve . The third section (1.3 Problem solution ) Will discuss how we tried to solve the Problem The Fourth section (1.4 Technical Description ) Will show a technical description for the solution The fifth section (1.5 our Vision ) Will talk about our future plans for our project
  17. 17. Ch1 : introduction UAV-Egypt 2 1.1 Motivation Our teams wanted to make a useful project so that we can provide help for the world generally and for our country EGYPT specially .we discussed a lot of problems that we can solve using Electronics and communications systems and at last we choose our project idea 1.2 Problem statement 1- The main problem that we tried to solve is that we face every year a lot of natural disasters Like Earthquakes, volcanoes and hurricanes like Egypt earthquake 1992 /Japan earthquake 2011/ Tsunami 2004 / Elsalam Ship 2006...etc. and some of the common problems in these disasters was that :- • Rescue Team faced a lot of risks due to of effects of destruction . • It would be difficult to move the rescue teams to rescue the injured and extracting people from the rubble, as there is no data about the under rubble people . 2- The problem of gas and petroleum spills in petroleum plants and the resulting fires and accidents, which risk the lives of workers in the oil companies 1.3 Problem solution In this section We will discuss how we tried to solve the problem with quadcopter platform .using sensors we install on the quadcopter We can measure Temperature, Sense gas leak and measure pressure in damaged site To take the necessary precautions, Measuring the height of the rubble to allow rescue teams choose the right equipments, also sense presence of human under rubble , Provide a real time video stream for the damaged locations , Measure the height of the floods, Determining suitable path for rescue teams to enter the damaged locations using GPS. Our quadcopter can provide the services mentioned above because it can penetrate areas which may be too dangerous for human being to reach as it can fly and also because it has a small size.
  18. 18. Ch1 : introduction UAV-Egypt 3 For providing all of the service we mentioned above using our quadcopter it needs to :- 1- Broadcast video in range of 2 KM away from the user with the main controller 2- Measure the degree of Temperature 3- Measure the degree of Humidity 4- Measure the height from the land 5- Detect people Motion 6- able to fly for more than 15 minutes without changing battery 7- able to make safe landing if battery reach a threshold level 8- able to make safe landing if it's out of control 9- able to send its place accurately in the form of longitude and latitude 10- able to avoid obstacles during its flying time 1.4 Technical Description Our project can be divided into 2 main blocks (Base station and Quadcopter)in Addition to Video streaming Remote Controller : we use Atmel controller "Atmega 328p" to encode Digital and Analog switches values and send them to our quadcopter using RF – module "HAC- UM96" &also receive and decode from the quadcopter the sensor values and battery level and display them on GLCD screen , Figure 1.1 show block diagram of our remote controller Figure 1.1 : Remote Controller Block Diagram Quadcopter : we use Atmel controller "Atmega2560" as main controller at our quadcopter , its inputs are 1- received serial data from RF-module , the controller it extracts from this data the directions which the user with the remote controller is choosing 2- received serial data from IMU unit which contains stability sensors , the controller extracts from this data the angle with which the quadcopter is moving in the directions of (ROLL , PITCH , YAW) and according to this angles the main controller takes suitable decision to move the quadcopter back to a stable position
  19. 19. Ch1 : introduction UAV-Egypt 4 also the main controller is responsible for reading sensor values and sending them using the RF-Module to the remote controller , Figure 1.2 show block diagram of the whole process that takes place at the quadcopter. Figure 1.2 :Quadcopter Block Diagram Wireless Video system : we use FPV system which is a system responsible for making a real time video broadcasting . 1.5 Our vision Our vision is to establish the first company in Egypt that produce quadcopter parts and components and the market we will target is :- First : Civil Protection Units used by the Rescue teams. Second : a game for hobbies Third : in petroleum plants to Monitor the gas lines Fourth : Movies production Also our future steps contains :- 1- increasing the flight time 2- increasing the max height the quadcopter can reach 3- adding GPRS to our quadcopter to connect directly to the internet
  20. 20. 5 2 Quadcopter In this chapter, Quadcopters presented. the derivation of the quadcopter model is provided. This result is very important because it describes how the helicopter moves according to its inputs. What is quadcopter and its history and its classification and its application in civilian , military ,Safety ,Infrastructure Inspection , Law Enforcement , sports , Film Production Services,………….. The first section (2.1: UAV) contains non-technical general discussion about unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). And presents some fundamental definitions related to UAVs and MAVs for clarification. The second section (2.2 : Historical role of quadcopter ) show the history of quadcopter and show how it improved to be smaller , and have smaller weight and be more easy to fly. The third section (2.3: Basic concepts) shows the main idea of the quadcopter dynamics and describes intuitively which movements are allowed and how it manages to perform stationary flight (hovering).
  21. 21. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 6 2.1 UAV 2.1.1 What are UAVs and MAVs ? In recent years, there has been rapid development of autonomous unmanned aircraft equipped with autonomous control devices called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). These have become known as “robotic aircraft,” and their use has become wide spread. They can be classified according to their application for military or civil use. There has been remarkable development of UAVs and MAVs for military use. However, it can be said that the infinite possibilities of utilizing their outstanding characteristics for civil applications remain hidden. Figure2.1 shows that there was a large number of registered UAVs in Japan in 2002. This was because of the many unmanned helicopters used for agricultural–chemical spraying, as can be seen in Table 2.1. Figure 2.2 shows the country-wise R&D expenditure and Fig.2.3 indicates the application of UAVs for civil and military purposes. Figure 2.1 : Registered UAVs
  22. 22. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 7 Table 2.1 : Number of registered UAVs in Japan Figure 2.2 : Country-wise R&D expenditure on UAVs Figure 2.3 : Application of UAVs for civil and for military use in 2002
  23. 23. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 8 UAVs offer major advantages when used for aerial surveillance, reconnaissance, and inspection in complex and dangerous environments. Indeed, UAVs are better suited for dull, dirty, or dangerous missions than manned aircraft. The low downside risk and higher confidence in mission success are two strong motivators for the continued expansion of the use of unmanned aircraft systems. Furthermore, many other technological, economic, and political factors have encouraged the development and operation of UAVs. First technological advances provide significant leverage. The newest sensors, microprocessors, and propulsion systems are smaller, lighter, and more capable than ever before, leading to levels of endurance, efficiency, and autonomy that exceed human capabilities. Second UAVs have been used successfully in the battlefield, being deployed successfully in many missions. These factors have resulted in more funding and a large number of production orders. Third UAVs can operate in dangerous and contaminated environments, and can also operate in other environments denied to manned systems, such as altitudes that are both lower and higher than those typically traversed by manned aircraft. Several market studies [1–3] have predicted that the worldwide UAV market will expand significantly in the next decade. These studies also estimated that UAV spending will more than triple over the next decade, totaling close to $55 billion in the next 10 years . As stated in [2,4], over the next 5–7 years, the UAV market in the U.S. will reach $16 billion, followed by Europe, which is spending about $3 billion. In US for example, development budgets increased rapidly after 2001, as shown in Figure 2.4, and UAV research and development was given a powerful push . On the other hand, the R&D budgets in Europe have increased slowly, as seen in Figure 2.5. Today, there are several companies developing and producing hundreds of UAV designs. Indeed, major defense contractors are involved in developing and producing UAVs. At the same time, newer or smaller companies have also emerged with innovative technologies that make the market even more vibrant, as seen in Figure 2.6.U.S. companies currently hold about 63–64% of the market share, while European companies account for less than 7%. As shown in Table 2.2, in 2005, some 32 nations were developing or manufacturing more than 250 models of UAVs, and about 41 countries were operating more than 80 types of UAVs, primary for reconnaissance in military applications. Table 2.2 lists the results of an investigation that tracked
  24. 24. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 9 Figure 2.4 : Annual funding profile of the U.S. Department of Defense Figure 2.5 : Annual funding profile in Europe Figure 2.6 : The scale of the U.S. companies developing and manufacturing UAVs
  25. 25. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 10 and recorded the exporters, users, manufacturers, and developers of UAVs around the world. In some countries, including the group of seven (G7) industrialized countries and Russia, every category has a “Yes.” Although their use varies, except for Japan and some other countries, the majority of the research and development is supported by defense expenditures. However, the civil UAV market is predicted to emerge over the next decade, starting first with government organizations requiring surveillance systems, such as coast guards, border patrol organizations, rescue teams, police, etc. Although armed forces around the world continue to strongly in-vest in researching and developing technologies with the potential to advance the capabilities of UAVs, commercial applications now drive many unmanned technologies. Among these technologies, some apply equally to manned aircraft like platform technologies (airframe, materials, propulsion systems, aerodynamics, etc.) and payload technologies (mission sensors, weapons, etc.). Other technologies are specific to UAVs in the sense that they compensate for the absence of an onboard pilot and thus enable unmanned flight and autonomous behavior. Indeed, UAVs rely predominantly on • Navigation sensors and microprocessors: Sensors now represent one of the single largest cost items in an unmanned aircraft and are necessary for navigation and mission achievement. Processors allow UAVs to fly entire missions autonomously with little or no human intervention. • Communication systems (data link): The principal issues for communication technologies are flexibility, adaptability, security, and cognitive controllability of the bandwidth, frequency, and information/data flows. • Ground Station Command, Control, and Communications (C3):There are several key aspects of the off-board C3 infrastructure that are being addressed, such as man–machine interfaces, multi-aircraft C3, target identification, downsizing ground equipment, voice control, etc. Advancing the state of the art in all of the areas discussed above will allow a single person to control multiple aircraft. • Aircraft onboard intelligence (guidance, navigation, and control): The intelligence that can be “packed” into a UAV is directly related to how complicated a task that it can handle, and inversely related to the amount of oversight required by human operators. More work needs to be done to mature these technologies in the near term to show their utility and reliability. The reader can refer to for more details on forecasting trends in these technologies over the coming decades. ` MTCR member UAV exporter UAV operator UAV manufacturer UAV developer Argentina No Yes Yes Yes Australia Yes Yes Yes Yes Austria Yes No Yes Yes Belgium No Yes Yes Yes Brazil No No No No Canada Yes No Yes Yes Czech Republic No Yes Yes Yes Denmark No Yes No No Finland No Yes No No
  26. 26. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 11 France Yes Yes Yes Yes Germany Yes Yes Yes Yes Greece No No No Yes Hungary No No No Yes Iceland No No No No Ireland No No No No Italy Yes Yes Yes Yes Japan Yes Yes Yes Yes Luxembourg No No No No The Netherlands No Yes No No New Zealand No No No No Norway No No No Yes Poland No No No No Portugal No No No Yes Russia Yes Yes Yes Yes South Africa Yes Yes Yes Yes South Korea No Yes Yes Yes Spain No No Yes Yes Sweden No Yes Yes Yes Switzerland Yes Yes Yes Yes Turkey Yes Yes Yes Yes Ukraine Yes Yes Yes Yes United Kingdom Yes Yes Yes Yes United States Yes Yes Yes Yes Table 2.2 : Current exporters, operators, manufacturers, and developers of UAVs 2.1.2 Definition An uninhabited aircraft is defined using the general terms UAV (uninhabited aerial vehicle or unmanned aerial vehicle), ROA (remotely operated aircraft), and RPV (remotely piloted vehicle) . A pilot is not carried by an uninhabited aerial vehicle, but the power source, which provides dynamic lift and thrust based on aerodynamics, is controlled by autonomous navigation or remote-control navigation. Therefore, neither a rocket, which flies in a ballistic orbit, nor a cruise missile, shell, etc. belong in this category. An unmanned airship that flies in the air with a help of gas is also not included in this category. On the other hand, the AIAA defines a UAV as “an aircraft which is designed or modified, not to carry a human pilot and is operated through electronic input initiated by the flight controller or by an onboard autonomous flight management control system that does not require flight controller intervention.” Although there is no strict definition of the difference between a UAV and MAV, according to a definition by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) of the U.S. Department of Defense, an MAV has dimensions (length, width, or height) of 15 cm or less.
  27. 27. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 12 2.1.3 Classification of UAV Platforms During recent decades, significant efforts have been devoted to increasing the flight endurance and payload of UAVs, resulting in various UAV configurations with different sizes, endurance levels, and capabilities. Here, we attempt to classify UAVs according to their characteristics (aerodynamic configuration, size, etc.). UAV plat-forms typically fall into one of the following four categories: • Fixed-wing UAVs, which refer to unmanned airplanes (with wings) that require a runway to take-off and land, or catapult launching. These generally have long endurance and can fly at high cruising speeds, (see Figure 2.7 for some examples). • Rotary-wing UAVs, also called rotorcraft UAVs or vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAVs, which have the advantages of hovering capability and high maneuverability. These capabilities are useful for many robotic missions, especially in civilian applications. A rotorcraft UAV may have different configurations, with main and tail rotors (conventional helicopter), coaxial rotors, tandem rotors, multi-rotors, etc. (see Figure 2.8 for some examples). • Blimps such as balloons and airships, which are lighter than air and have long endurance, fly at low speeds, and generally are large sized (see Figure 2.9 for some examples). Figure 2.7 : Some configurations of fixed-wing UAVs Figure 2.8 : Examples of rotary-wing UAVs
  28. 28. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 13 Figure 2.9 : Examples of airship-based UAVs Figure 2.10 : Micro flapping-wing UAVs • Flapping-wing UAVs, which have flexible and/or morphing small wings inspired by birds and flying insects, see Figure 2.10 . There are also some other hybrid configurations or convertible configurations, which can take-off vertically and tilt their rotors or body and fly like airplanes, such as the Bell Eagle Eye UAV. Another criterion used at present to differentiate between aircraft is size and endurance : • High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAVs, as for example, the Northrop Grumman Ryan’s Global Hawks(65,000 ft altitude, 35 h flight time, and 1,900 lb payload). • Medium Altitude Long Endurance(MALE) UAVs, as for example General Atomics’s Predator(27,000 ft altitude, 30/40 h flight time, and 450 lb payload). • Tactical UAVs such as the Hunter, Shadow 200,andPioneer(15,000 ft altitude, 5– 6 h flight time, and 25 kg payload). • Small and Mini man-portable UAVs such as the Pointer/Raven (AeroVironment), Javelin(BAI), or Black Pack Mini(Mission Technologies). • Micro aerial vehicles (MAV): In the last few years, micro aerial vehicles, with dimensions smaller than 15 cm, have gained a lot of attention. These include the Black Widow manufactured by AeroVironment, the MicroStar from BAE,and many new designs and concepts presented by several universities, such as the Entomopter(Georgia Institute of Technology),Micro Bat(California Institute of
  29. 29. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 14 Technology), and MFI(Berkeley University), along with other designs from European research centers (Figure 2.11) Currently, the main research and development for UAV platforms aims at pushing the limits/boundaries of the flight envelope and also the vehicle’s size. Indeed, most ongoing ambitious projects (or prototypes in development) are about 1. unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAV) with high speed and high maneuverability 2. micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) with insect-like size and performance. Figure 2.11 : Unmanned aerial vehicles, from big platforms to micro flying robots 2.1.4 Applications Currently, the main UAV applications are defense related and the main investments are driven by future military scenarios. Most military unmanned aircraft systems are primarily used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR), and strikes. The next generation of UAVs will execute more complex missions such as air combat ; target detection, recognition, and destruction; strike/suppression of an enemy’s air defense; electronic attack; network node/communications relay; aerial delivery/resupply; anti- surface ship warfare; anti-submarine warfare; mine warfare; ship to objective
  30. 30. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 15 maneuvers; offensive and defensive counter air; and airlift. Today, the civilian markets for UAVs are still emerging. However, the expectations for the market growth of civil and commercial UAVs are very high for the next decade (Figure 2.12). Potential civil applications of UAVs are • Inspection of terrain, pipelines, utilities, buildings, etc. • Law enforcement and security applications. • Surveillance of coastal borders, road traffic, etc. • Disaster and crisis management, search and rescue. • Environmental monitoring. • Agriculture and forestry. • Fire fighting. • Communications relay and remote sensing. • Aerial mapping and meteorology. • Research by university laboratories. • And many other applications. Figure 2.12 :(UCAV) and (MAVs) as trends in UAV platform research and development. 2.1.5 Future Research and Development of Autonomous UAVs and MAVs The present and future levels of autonomous control are shown in Figure 2.13. According to the U.S. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005–2030, there are various stages of autonomous control, from level 1, which refers to the remote control of
  31. 31. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 16 one vehicle, to level 10, which is perfect autonomous swarm control similar to the formation flight of insects or birds. The present level performs trajectory re-planning during a flight using the flight program, vision sensor, and embedded computer, and is reaching the stage where obstacle avoidance is possible. Moreover, although still at the research level, it is now possible to fly two or more vehicles in formation , which seems to be level 4 or 5. In the military field, the U.S. seems to have the goal of realizing perfect autonomous swarm control by 2015–2020. It is believed that civil use autonomous uninhabited aircraft will follow the same evolution. Although the key technology for realizing such technology is the CPU, as shown in Figure 2.14, exponential development is occurring, which follows Moore’s law. Against this background of CPU evolution, the autonomous control of a UAV also seems to be improving steadily. As shown in Figure 2.14 and 2.15, in 2005, the computing speed of the fastest mainframe (CRAY supercomputer) was nearly equal to the human brain. Furthermore, Moore’s law predicts that the performance of the microprocessor for a personal computer will be equal to that of the human brain by around 2015, and will be equal to the brain’s Figure 2.13 : Trend in UAV autonomy.
  32. 32. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 17 Figure 2.14 : Trend in processor speed. Figure 2.15 : Relationship between processor speed and memory. storage capacity by around 2030. However, if there is no evolution to this level, it will be difficult for autonomous uninhabited aircraft to carry out formation flight like birds. Moreover, this is also important from the viewpoint of body design, including the loading and reliability of a data link and advanced sensors, the design of a more lightweight body, high propulsion per unit of weight, body structure with high stability, and body specifically suitable for autonomous control. The following are important subjects for the sake of increasing the efficiency of inspection and surveillance work, data relay, refueling in the air, etc.
  33. 33. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 18 1. Formation-flight control: noncommercial use as a future research task, with an accuracy of several cm depending on the case. 2. Integrated hierarchical control of UAVs to MAVs: the ability to fly various classes simultaneously. 3. For example, high precise missions could be performed by controlling several vehicles simultaneously, from big UAVs to small MAVs. 4. Super-high-altitude flight: since a UAV does not carry people, flying into the stratosphere, etc. is also attainable. 5. Consequently, prolonged flights suitable for science observation missions can also be attained. 6. High precision orbital flight: this is a technology that will be needed in the future. 7. All weather flights. 8. Radar payloads for impact prevention, etc. 9. An intelligent flight system and operation management. 10. Advanced reliability, etc. There are an infinite number of public welfare applications for UAVs. They could be used for detailed perpendicular direction weather surveys, ozone layer observations, air pollution observations, coastline observations, fire detection activities, vegetation growth observations and chemical spraying, glacier and snow coverage investigations, three- dimensional mapping, gravity surveys, magnetic field measurements, polar zone observations, river surveillance, observations of typhoon and hurricane generation processes, tornado observations and predictions, forest surveillance, ecosystem surveillance, the inspection of large-scale national parks, traffic surveillance, disaster prevention and rescue operation support, power line surveillance, the surveillance of industrial complexes or pipelines, next-generation logistics distribution systems, etc. Their applications will be endless. Such research and development of a civil use UAV should place our country in a powerful position as a world leader. On the other hand, because this represents ultramodern technology, it will become very important who uses it, and for what purpose. Although human beings are capable of abusing technology, if it is used correctly, history will show its contribution to mankind’s happiness. In parallel with the development of such ultramodern technology, it is necessary to develop a mechanism to prevent its abuse. 2.2 Historical role of quadcopter This story begins in the 20th century, when Charles Richet, a French scientist and academician, built a small, un-piloted helicopter . Although his attempt was not a success, Louis Bréguet, one of Richet’s students, was inspired by his tutor’s example. Later in 1906, Louis and his brother, JacquesBréguet began the construction of the first Quadcopter. Louis executed many tests on airfoil shapes, proving that he had at least some basic understanding of the requirements necessary to achieve vertical flight.
  34. 34. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 19 In 1907 they had finished the construction of the aircraft which was named Bréguet- Richet Gyroplane No. 1 (Figures 2.16 and 2.17), a Quadcopter with propellers of 8.1 meters in diameter each, weighting 578 kg (2 pilots included) and with only one 50 hp (37.3 kW) internal combustion engine, which drove the rotors through a belt and pulley transmission. Of course at that time they had no idea how they would control it, the main concern was to ensure the aircraft would achieve vertical flight. The first attempt of flight was done in between August and September of 1907 with witnesses saying they saw the Quadcopter lift 1.5 m into the air for a few moments, landing immediately afterwards. Those same witnesses also mentioned the aircraft was stabilized, and perhaps even lifted by men assisting on the ground. Discouraged by the lack of success of the Gyroplane No. 1, Bréguet and his mentor continued their pursuit to build vertical flight machines and afterwards also temporarily dedicated themselves to the development of fixed-wing aircraft, area where they became very successful. Louis never abandoned his passion for vertical flight aircraft and in 1932 he became one of the pioneers of helicopter development . Etienne Oemichen, another engineer, also began experimenting with rotating-wing designs in 1920. He designed a grand total of six different vertical lift machines. The first model failed in lifting from the ground but Oemichen was a determined person, so he decided to add a hydrogen-filled balloon to provide both stability and lift. His second aircraft, the Oemichen No. 2 (Figure 2.18), had four rotors and eight propellers, supported by a cruciform steel-tube framework layout. Five of the propellers were meant to stabilize the machine laterally, another for steering and two for forward propulsion. Although rudimentary, this machine achieved a considerable degree of stability and controllability, having made more than a thousand test flights in the middle of that decade. It was even possible to maintain the aircraft several minutes in the air. In the 14th of May the machine was airborne for fourteen minutes and it flew more than a mile. Figure 2.16 : 3D model of the Gyroplane Figure 2.17 :Bréguet-Richet Gyroplane
  35. 35. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 20 But Oemichen was not satisfied with the poor heights he was able to fly, and the next machines had only a main rotor and two extra anti-torque rotors. Figure 2.18 : The Oemichen No.2 of 1922. The army also had an interest for vertical lift machines. In 1921, Dr. George de Bothezat and Ivan Jerome were hired to develop one for the US Army Air Corps. The result was a 1678 kg structure with 9 m arms and four 8.1 m six-blade rotors (Figure 2.19). The army contract required that the aircraft would hover at 100 m high, but the best they achieved was 5 m. At the end of the project Bothezad demonstrated the vehicle could be quite stable, however it was underpowered and unresponsive, among other technical problems. Figure 2.19 :Quadcopter designed by Dr. Bothezat an Ivan Jerome. Later in 1956, a Quadcopter helicopter prototype called “Convertawings Model A” (see Figure 2.20 ) was designed both for military and civilian use. It was controlled by varying the thrust between rotors, and its flights were a success, even in forward flight. The project ended mainly due to the lack of demand for the aircraft.
  36. 36. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 21 Figure 2.20 :Convertawings Model A helicopter Recently there has been an increasing interest in Quadcopter designs. Bell is working on a quad tiltrotor to overcome the V-22 Ospray (see Figure 2.21), capable of carrying a large payload, achieving high velocity and while using a short amount of space for Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL). Much of its systems come directly from the V-22 except for the number of engines. Also, the wing structure on the new design has some improvements, it has a wider wing span on the rear rotors. As a consequence, the Bell quad tiltrotor (Figure 2.22 ) aims for higher performance and fuel economy . Another recent and famous Quadcopter design is the Moller Skycar (Figure 2.23 ), a prototype for a personal VTOL “flying car”. The Skycar has four ducted fans allowing for a safer and efficient operation at low speeds. It was a target for much criticism because the only demonstrations of flight were hover tests with the Skycar tethered to a crane .It’s inventor, Paul Moller already tried to sell the Skycar by auction without success. Nowadays he focuses his work on the precursor of the Skycar, the “M200G Volantor”, a flying saucer-style hovercraft. This later model uses eight fans controlled by a computer and is capable of hovering up to 3 m above the ground. This limitation is imposed by the on-board computer due to regulations of the Federal Aviation Administrations, stating that any vehicle that flies above 3 m is regulated as an aircraft . Figure 2.21 : V-22 Ospray Figure 2.22 : Concept of Bell’s quad
  37. 37. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 22 Figure 2.23 :Skycar during a test flight. Quadcopters are also available to the public through radio controlled toys. Some enthusiasts as well as researches have been developing their own Quadcopter prototypes. This is possible due to the availability of cheap electronics and lightweight resistant materials available to the public. Be it for personal satisfaction, entertainment, military or civilian use, Quadcopters have played an important role in the evolution of aircrafts and may prove themselves as important means of transportation in a near future. 2.3 Basic concepts The quadcopters very well modeled with a four rotors in a cross configuration. This cross structure is quite thin and light, however it shows robustness by linking mechanically the motors (which are heavier than the structure). Each propeller is connected to the motor through the reduction gears. All the propellers axes of rotation are fixed and parallel. Furthermore, they have fixed-pitch blades and their air flows points downwards (to get an upward lift). These considerations point out that the structure is quite rigid and the only things that can vary are the propeller speeds. In this section, neither the motors nor the reduction gears are fundamental because the movements are directly related just to the propellers velocities. The others parts will be taken into account in the following sections. Another neglected component is the electronic box. As in the previous case, the electronic box is not essential to understand how the quadcopter flies. It follows that the basic model to evaluate the quadcopter movements it is composed just of a thin cross structure with four propellers on its ends. The front and the rear propellers rotate counter-clockwise, while the left and the right ones turn clockwise. This configuration of opposite pairs directions re-moves the need for a tail rotor (needed instead in the standard helicopter structure). Figure 2.24 shows the structure model in hovering condition, where all the propellers have the same speed.
  38. 38. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 23 Figure 2.24: Simplified quadcopter motor in hovering In figure 2.24 a sketch of the quadcopter structure is presented in black. The fixed-body B-frame is shown in green and in blue is represented the angular speed of the propellers. In addition to the name of the velocity variable, for each propeller, two arrows are drawn: the curved one represents the direction of rotation, the other one represents the velocity. This last vector always points upwards hence it doesn’t follow the right hand rule (for clockwise rotation) because it also models a vertical thrust and it would be confusing to have two speed vectors pointing upwards and the other two pointing downwards. In the model of figure 2.24 all the propellers rotate at the same (hovering) speed é {JIˤJ # { to counterbalance the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the quadcopter performs stationary flight and no forces or torques move it from its position. Even though the quadcopter has 6 DOF, it is equipped just with four propellers, hence it is not possible to reach a desired set-point for all the DOF, but at maximum four. However, thanks to its structure, it is quite easy to chose the four best controllable variables and to decouple them to make the controller easier. The four quadcopter targets are thus related to the four basic movements which allow the helicopter to reach a certain height and attitude. It follows the description of these basic movements: • Throttle (ˡ# , [N ]) This command is provided by increasing (or decreasing) all the propeller speeds by the same amount. It leads to a vertical force WRT body-fixed frame which raises or lowers the quadcopter. If the helicopter is in horizontal position, the vertical direction of the inertial frame and that one of the body-fixed frame coincide. Otherwise the provided thrust generates both vertical and horizontal accelerations in the inertial frame. Figure 2.25 shows the throttle command on a quadcopter sketch.
  39. 39. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 24 Figure 2.25 : Throttle movement In blue it is specified the speed of the propellers which, in this case, is equal to é - for each one. {JIˤJ # {is a positive variable which represents an increment respect of the constant é can’t be too large because the model would eventually be influenced by strong non linearities or saturations. • Roll (ˡ$ , [N m]) This command is provided by increasing (or decreasing) the left propeller speed and by decreasing (or increasing) the right one. It leads to a torque with respect to the ˲ axis which makes the Quadcopter turn. The overall vertical thrust is the same as in hovering, hence this command leads only to a roll angle acceleration (in first approximation). Figure 2.26 shows the roll command on a quadcopter sketch. Figure 2.26 : Roll movement The positive variables and {JIˤJ # { are chosen to maintain the vertical thrust unchanged. It can be demonstrated that for small values of and . As in the previous case, they can’t be too large be-cause the model would eventually be influenced by strong non linearities or saturations. • Pitch (ˡ% , [N m]) This command is very similar to the roll and is provided by increasing (or decreasing) the rear propeller speed and by decreasing (or increasing) the front one. It leads to a torque with respect to the ˳ axis which makes the Quadcopter turn. The overall vertical thrust is the same as in hovering, hence this command leads only to a pitch angle acceleration (in first approximation). Figure 2.27 shows the pitch command on a quadcopter sketch. As in
  40. 40. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 25 Figure 2.27: Pitch movement the previous case, the positive variables and are chosen to maintain the vertical thrust unchanged and they can’t be too large. Furthermore, for small values of , it occurs . • Yaw (ˡ& , [N m]) This command is provided by increasing (or decreasing) the front-rear propellers’ speed and by decreasing (or increasing) that of the left-right couple. It leads to a torque with respect to the ˴ axis which makes the Quadcopter turn. The yaw movement is generated thanks to the fact that the left-right propellers rotate clockwise while the front-rear ones rotate counterclockwise. Hence, when the overall torque is unbalanced, the helicopter turns on itself around ˴ . The total vertical thrust is the same as in hovering, hence this command leads only to a yaw angle acceleration (in first approximation). Figure 2.28 shows the yaw command on a quadcopter sketch. As in the previous two cases, Figure 2.28 : Yaw movement the positive variables and are chosen to maintain the vertical thrust unchanged and they can’t be too large. Furthermore it maintains the equivalence for small values of .
  41. 41. Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 26
  42. 42. 27 3 Mechanical & Electronic design In this chapter, the main quadcopters Mechanical & Electronic design are presented. They are fundamental to help the robot to be able to fly . Show the decisions that needed to be made in the process of choosing an individual component. These decisions were made to ensure compatibility with other component parts. This will be discussed in each of the sections. The first section (3.1: why quadcopter ) discusses why we used quadcopter platform The second section (3.2: Frame ) talks about the characteristics of the frame of the quadcopter The third section (3.3: Motors) talks about the types of motors we need The Fourth section (3.4: ESC ) talks about the characteristics of electronic speed controllers (ESCs) The fifth section (3.5: Battery ) talks the type of batteries needed in quadcopter. The sixth section (3.6: Propellers ) Describes Propellers specification we used in our quadcopter
  43. 43. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 28 3.1 Why Quadcopter? As widely known, when compared with other aerial vehicles, VTOL vehicle systems have specific characteristics like flying in very low altitudes and being able to hover that make them suitable for applications that may be impossible to complete using fixed-wing vehicles. Different configurations of MAVs commonly used both for research purposes and in industry are shown in Table 3.1 along with related advantages and drawbacks. This table offers a pictorial comparison that may be used when a new design is proposed. Further, table3.2 presents a short and not exhaustive comparison between different VTOL vehicle concepts. quadcopter offer VTOL capability and also the ability to fly along a designated path with any designated yaw angle attitude. This is a major advantage in surveillance missions because it allows for the cameras to look in a chosen direction during flight, almost independently from the trajectory. Quadcopter are also very agile while mechanically simple. Setbacks could be noise, high energy consumption and being naturally unstable, thus needing complex control. Configuration Picture Advantages Drawbacks Fixed-wing (AeroVironment) - Simple mechanics - Silent operation - No hovering Single (A.V de Rostyne) - Good controllability and maneuverability -Large rotor - Complex mechanics - Long tail boom Axial rotor (Maryland Univ.) - Compactness - Simple mechanics - Complex control - Weak maneuverability Coaxial rotors (ETHZ) - Compactness - Simple mechanics - Complex aerodynamics Tandem rotors (Heudiasyc) -Good controllability and maneuverability - No aerodynamics interference -Complex mechanics Large size
  44. 44. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 29 Quadcopters (ETHZ) -Good maneuverability - Increased payload -Simple mechanics -High energy consumption - Large size Blimp (EPFL) -Low power consumption -Auto-lift -Large size - Weak maneuverability Hybrid (MIT) -Good maneuverability - Good survivability - Large size - Complex design Bird-like (Caltech) -Good maneuverability - Low power consumption -Complex mechanics - Complex control Insect-like (UC Berkeley) -Good maneuverability - Compactness -Complex mechanics -Complex control Fish-like (US Naval Lab) - Multimode mobility - Efficient aerodynamics -Complex control - Weak maneuverability Table 3.1: Common UAV-MAV configurations. Singlerotor Axialrotor Coaxial rotors Tandem rotors Quadcopter s Blimp Bird-like Insect-like Power cost 2 2 2 2 1 4 3 3 Control cost 1 1 4 2 3 3 2 1 Payload 2 2 4 3 3 1 2 1 Maneuverability 4 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 Mechanical 1 3 3 1 4 4 1 1
  45. 45. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 30 simplicity Aerodynamic complexity 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 Low speed flight 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 2 High speed flight 2 4 1 2 3 1 3 3 Miniaturization 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 4 Survivability 1 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 Stationary flight 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 2 Total 24 28 32 24 33 28 22 24 Table 3.2 : VTOL concept comparison (1=Bad, 4=Very Good). 3.2 Frame Materials 3.2.1 Balsa Wood Balsa wood has been used in RC Aircraft forever, and for good reason. It is inexpensive, extremely light, and fairly stiff and strong. It is also very easily machined and readily available at most hobby shops. This means that replacement parts can be easily obtained without great expensive. However due to its low density it also requires a fairly large cross section to produce arms that are reasonably stiff. Similarly to Polycarbonate this will block some of the rotors downwash and reduce thrust. 3.2.2 Aluminum Aluminum has been used in aircraft since WW2, and is still being used today. Even the most advanced aircraft like the 787 and the V-22 still use a significant amount of aluminum. It's also a great material for quadcopters. It's readily available and fairly inexpensive. It's also easy to machine, as carbide and steel tools can machine it fairly easily. Because it is a homogeneous material three dimensional shapes can be machined from it as well, something that can't really be done with composites like carbon fiber or fiberglass. There are a fair range of different aluminum alloys available, and although they generally have similar densities and stiffness's, the strength can vary greatly. Aluminum is an excellent electrical conductor though, and therefore adequate care must be taken to not short out your electronics, or more importantly your Li-Po. 3.2.3 Fiberglass Fiberglass is like carbon fiber's little brother. It's produced in pretty much the same way, with long thing fibers of glass being held together by an epoxy matrix. However fiberglass is somewhat heavier, softer, and weaker than carbon fiber. It is however easier to machine, as less precautions need to be taken when cutting it, and it is much cheaper. Fiberglass has gotten a bad rap over the years, although a lot of that has to do
  46. 46. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 31 with its difficulty in being repaired. It is however an excellent material for constructing an quadcopter. 3.2.4 Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber is one of the ideal materials for making a Quad frame out of. It's very light, very stiff, and very strong, unfortunately it’s also very expensive and can be dangerous to machine as the fibers are toxic to breathe. Carbon fiber is a composite material consisting of long very thin carbon fibers and epoxy. The carbon fibers are extremely strong, and extremely stiff, however they only go one direction. The epoxy is an order of magnitude softer and weaker than the fibers, but is needed to bind the fibers together. This means that a part constructed of carbon fiber is very strong in the direction of the fibers, but in other directions can be relatively weak. Table 3.1 shows good comparison between materials material from 1-10 (with 10 being the best) on density, stiffness, strength, producibility, and cost. Material Density Stiffness Strength producibility Cost Carbon Fiber 8 8 9 3 1 Aluminum 7 6 6 7 7 Fiberglass 6 6 5 7 6 Balsa Wood 10 4 4 10 10 Table 3.3 : Material comparison After making the material comparison we choose the carbon fiber material. Figure 3.1 shows a picture for our Frame. Figure 3.1 : Frame
  47. 47. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 32 The Turnigy Talon quadcopter frame is a high quality carbon fiber frame that offers both great looks and performance. Built from light weight yet extremely rigid carbon fiber and aluminum alloy, the Talon offers a great combination of weight savings and strength. The Talon features a beautifully finished carbon fiber main frame and arms, all connected together with aluminum alloy parts. This frame really gives your quadcopter a high-tech and quality look. Feature : • Weight: 240g • Width: 498mm 3.3 Motors The motors usually implemented in this kind of application are electric Direct Current (DC) motors. They are lighter than combustion engines and do not need a combustible fuel, which, among other benefits, decreases the risk of explosion. DC motors available in the radio control hobby market are either brushed or brushless. Brushless motors are expensive but have higher efficiency, power, and do not need regular maintenance. Brushed motors are cheap but have a shorter lifetime and their brushes need regular replacements. For these reasons it is preferable to use brushless motors, because loss of structural integrity of the quadcopter due to motor failure should be avoided by using more reliable equipment. There are cases when a motor does not have the necessary torque to spin the propeller at the required speed, or even when there is the need to reduce the propeller speed to an optimum velocity inferior to that of the main drive shaft. These are situations where a PSRU (Propeller Speed Reduction Unit - a gearbox speed reduction system) is required. Although these units are available to use in RC (Radio Control) aircrafts, in the quadcopter we want to have a structure as light as possible. One way to have the benefits of high torque without using gearboxes is by using a design of brushless DC motor called “Outrunner”. The selected motor was the “2824 Brushless Outrunner 1300KV” (Figure 3.2). This motor is able to rotate at 15600 RPM when free of load, weights 52g and has a maximum efficiency of 81.4 % . Figure 3.2 : 2824 Brushless Outrunner 1300KV
  48. 48. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 33 3.4 ESC (Electronic Speed Control) The speed of a brushless motor is controlled by an Electronic Speed Controllers (or ESC). This hardware receives the power from the battery and drives it to the motor according to a PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) signal that is provided by the controller unit. The “thunderbird-9” ESC from Castle Creations is well suited for the job at hand (Figure 2.4.1). It has a mass of 9g and is capable of providing up to 9A of current (which is also the maximum allowable current of the BL-Outrunner 2824-34 motor). Figure 3.3 : ESC (Electronic Speed Control) Feature : • ContCurrent :25A • BurstCurrent :28A • BEC : 5v/2A • LipoCells :2-4 • Weight : 22g • Size : 45x24x11mm 3.5 Battery The Quadcopter needed a sustainable and portable power source to power the control unit and the motors. Different types of rechargeable batteries were researched and a number of chemical compositions were taken into consideration. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and Lithium Polymer (LiPo) cells are currently the most commonly used, but each needs to be charged, discharged, and stored differently. On top of that, each model may require a different cell count or battery configuration as well. Nickel Cadmium or NiCd batteries are less common now but they are cheap. These batteries have cons as well however. NiCd batteries need to be fully discharged after each use as failure to do so would mean that for future discharge cycles, they will not discharge to their full potential. NiCd batteries also have a low energy density the capacity per weight. Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries have numerous advantages
  49. 49. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 34 over the NiCd batteries. NiMH cells offer higher energy density and don’t have the same performance issues attributed to improper discharge practices as NiCd batteries do. The latest cells are the Lithium Polymer (LiPo) cells. LiPo cells offer higher better discharge performance as they provide better consistency compared to NiCd and NiMH cells. LiPo cells also offer a significantly higher capacity for their weight; a cell may have twice the capacity for half the weight of a similarly performing NiMH cell. Hence, LiPo cells can achieve higher voltage and energy density. LiPo cells need to be monitored when being charged however. This is the major deterrent when it comes to adopting this technology. Overcharging can cause the cells to be potential major fire hazards given the amount of energy packed into such a small space. After comparing all the types we used the LiPobattery.Figure 3.4 shows our battery. Figure 3.4 : 4500mah lipo battery Feature : • MinimumCapacity:4500mAh • Configuration:3S1P/11.1v/3Cell • ConstantDischarge:30C • Peak Discharge(10sec):40C • PackWeight:386g • PackSize:147x49x29mm • Charge Plug: JST-XH • Discharge plug: 4mm Bullet-connector We need battery charger for our battery and we choose the charger shown in figure 3.5
  50. 50. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 35 Figure 3.5:TurnigyBattery charger Feature : • InputVoltage:11~17v • Circuitpower:MaxCharge:50W/MaxDischarge:5W • ChargeCurrentRange:.1~6.0A • Ni-MH/NiCdcells:1~15 • Li-ion/Polycells:1~6 • Pbbatteryvoltage:2~20v • Weight: 355g 3.6 Propellers Props are usually sold with the following numbered description - for example, a 10x6 prop. The first number "10" refers to the length or diameter of the prop. The second number "6" refers to the pitch, or the amount of curvature in the prop blade. The more the curve or pitch, the more grabbing ability the blade has to pull through the air. Imagine a paddle on a canoe. If you have a very wide, fat paddle, it can grab more water and can propel you more quickly through the water. If the paddle is to skinny or small it doesn't grab much water and you have to paddle many times more quickly to generate the same "thrust" as the wide/fatter paddle. Again, this is the theory, but the size and type of material the prop is made of, in addition to the motor/esc/battery combination and the weight of the plane all factor into the equation as well. However, basically, the higher the number of the pitch, the faster the plane can go. Take a look at the following picture of 2 screws. The threads on the first are larger and more spaced out. The second are smaller and more of them. The larger/wider one in the equivalent prop "10x8" would propeller the plane faster through the air and provide more thrust. The "10x4" on the other hand is a smaller pitch and therefore has to turn more often to grab the same amount of air to provide the equivalent thrust. They are both the same diameter or length, but the pitch is more shallow on the second and thus provides less thrust. The higher pitch prop (10x8) takes only one and a half turns to cover the same distance that the lower pitch prop takes 3 turns to cover.
  51. 51. Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 36 Be sure you use two CW and two CCW propellers. It's very important to have properly balanced props. Figure 3.6 shows propeller. Figure 3.6:1047SF Combo3 Standard & 3 Counter Rotating .
  52. 52. 37 4 Electronic In this chapter, the Electronics we used will be described in details .This chapter will describe the requirements our team have set for the quadcopter. All the requirements the team have selected were tested diligently and made sure they worked properly to ensure that the quad-copter performed up to the standards. The first section (4.1:Main Controller) introduces the Microcontroller features. A lot of peripherals are integrated in the MCU through dedicated hardware to allow a wider range of interfaces and applications. The evaluation board Arduino helped to test them easily. The second section (4.2: IMU) gives an overview of the IMU. Particular attention is given to its inner sensors and its performance. Furthermore the interface with the microcontroller (through UART) and its communication frame are presented. The Third section (4.3 : Video streaming )talks about importance of video streaming . our chosen system and its Feature.
  53. 53. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 38 4.1 Main Controller The Arduino Mega was chosen because of its large memory, processing power and number of ports. It has 54 digital input/output pins, 14 of which offer Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) that is required to control the motors, 16 analog inputs that provide a 10bit resolution each, and 4 Serial UARTs. The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560 microprocessor. It has an operating voltage of 5V, input voltage range from 7V to 12V, 256KB of Flash Memory for storing code, 8KB of SRAM, 4KB of EEPROM and a clock speed of 16MHz. It was a cheaper alternative to the other options considered. The microcontroller is widely adopted and hence there is more support for it. There are numerous ‘shields’ that can be mounted on to it for added functionality. Figure 4.1 :Arduino Mega. The Arduino Mega can be programmed with the Arduino Software provided free by the developers. The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is written in Java and made for the Processing programming language. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and is also capable of compiling and uploading programs to the board with a single click. The IDE also comes with a C/C++ library that can be used to simplify I/O operations. Arduino programs are written in a language akin to C/C++ and hence it is something that we are familiar with (). The Arduino Mega contributes a weight of 1.5oz to the IMR.
  54. 54. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 39 Figure 4.2 : The Arduino Integrated Development Environment. Features • High Performance, Low Power Atmel® AVR ® 8-Bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture − 135 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution − 32 × 8 General Purpose Working Registers − Fully Static Operation − Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz − On-Chip 2-cycle Multiplier • High Endurance Non-volatile Memory Segments − 256KBytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash − 4Kbytes EEPROM
  55. 55. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 40 − 8Kbytes Internal SRAM − Write/Erase Cycles:10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM − Data retention: 20 years at 85 C/ 100 years at 25 C − Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits • In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program • True Read-While-Write Operation − Programming Lock for Software Security • Endurance: Up to 64Kbytes Optional External Memory Space • Atmel® QTouch ® library support − Capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels − QTouch and QMatrix® acquisition − Up to 64 sense channels • JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface − Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard − Extensive On-chip Debug Support − Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface • Peripheral Features − Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode − Four 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare- and Capture Mode − Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator − Four 8-bit PWM Channels − Twelve PWM Channels with Programmable Resolution from 2 to 16 Bits − Output Compare Modulator − 8/16-channel, 10-bit ADC − Four Programmable Serial USART − Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface − Byte Oriented 2-wire Serial Interface − Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator − On-chip Analog Comparator − Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change • Special Microcontroller Features − Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection − Internal Calibrated Oscillator − External and Internal Interrupt Sources − Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby, and Extended Standby • I/O and Packages − 54 Programmable I/O Lines − 100-lead TQFP, 100-ball CBGA − RoHS/Fully Green • Temperature Range: – -40 Ȑto 85Ȑ Industrial • Ultra-Low Power Consumption − Active Mode: 1MHz, 1.8V: 500µA − Power-down Mode: 0.1µA at 1.8V
  56. 56. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 41 • Speed Grade: – ATmega2560/ATmega2561: • 0 - 16MHz @ 4.5V - 5.5V 4.2 IMU The Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) must provide the means for measuring the orientation of the aircraft. The measurements gathered by the IMU will then be used by the control board to implement a stabilization algorithm, thus delivering optimal control of the aircraft by the operator. Because the device is a mobile device power must be derived from an onboard battery. This characteristic of the aircraft makes weight of the device a crucial component to the successful flight of the aircraft. For this reason the IMU will implement electronic sensor components that are mostly derived from low power chips. The IMU unit we are working with is Arduimu V3 Figure 4.3 :Arduimu V3 . Specifications: • Tri-Axis angular rate sensor (gyro) with a sensitivity up to 131 LSBs/dps and a full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000dps • Tri-Axis accelerometer with a programmable full scale range of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g and ±16g • Reduced settling effects and sensor drift by elimination of board-level cross-axis alignment errors between accelerometers and gyroscopes • Digital Motion Processing™ (DMP™) engine offloads complex Motion Fusion, sensor timing synchronization and gesture detection with supported software (not yet currently supported in DIY Drones code) • Full Chip Idle Mode Supply Current: 5µA • On-chip timing generator with ±1% frequency variation over full temperature range • User self test • 10,000g shock tolerant
  57. 57. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 42 • Smaller size (1.5" x 1.0"). • Atmega CPU has more % available for other tasks. • The 6 analog pins are now available! • Arduino compatible and open source. • 3 status LED's (RGB). • I2C port with 3.3V translation or UART communication. • GPS port with FTDI auto switch. • This device is suitable for ANY application from rockets to simple movement detection. IMU is the acronym of Inertial Measurement Unit, which identifies a sensor capable of measuring the orientation (attitude) of a body through inertial sensors. In this work the device Arduimu has been adopted. Figure 4.4 :Arduimu V3 structure. 4.2.1 HMC5883 Magnometer The Honeywell HMC5883 is a surface mount multi-chip module designed for low field magnetic sensing with a digital interface for applications such as low cost compassing and magnetometry. The HMC5883 includes our state of the art, high-resolution HMC118X series magneto-resistive sensors plus Honeywell developed ASIC containing amplification, automatic degaussing strap drivers, offset cancellation, 12-bit ADC that enables 1° to 2° compass heading accuracy. The H$ ˕serial bus allows for easy interface. The HMC5883 is a 3.0x3.0x0.9mm surface mount 16-pin leadless chip carrier (LCC). Applications for the HMC5883 include Mobile Phones, Netbooks, Consumer Electronics, Auto Navigation Systems, and Personal Navigation Devices.
  58. 58. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 43 FEATURES • 3-Axis Magneto resistive Sensors and ASIC in a 3.0x3.0x0.9mm LCC Surface Mount Package . • 12-Bit ADC Coupled with Low Noise AMR Sensors Achieves 5 mille-Gauss Resolution in ±8 Gauss Fields . • Built-In Self Test . • Low Voltage Operations (1.6 to 3.3V) . • Built-In Strap Drive Circuits . • H$ ˕ Digital Interface . • Lead Free Package Construction . • Wide Magnetic Field Range (+/-8 Oe) . • Software and Algorithm Support Available. • Fast 116 Hz Maximum Output Rate . 4.2.2 MPU-6000 Gyroscope & accelerometer The MPU-6000 Motion Processing Unit is the world’s first motion processing solution with integrated 9-Axis sensor fusion using its field-proven and proprietary Motion Fusion™ engine for handset and tablet applications, game controllers, motion pointer remote controls, and other consumer devices. The MPU-6000 has an embedded 3-axis MEMS gyroscope, a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer, and a Digital Motion Processor™ (DMP™) hardware accelerator engine with an auxiliary H$ ˕ port that interfaces to 3rd party digital sensors such as magnetometers. When connected to a 3-axis magnetometer, the MPU-6000 delivers a complete 9-axis Motion Fusion output to its primary SPI port. The MPU-6000 combines acceleration and rotational motion plus heading information into a single data stream for the application. This Motion Processing™ technology integration provides a smaller footprint and has inherent cost advantages compared to discrete gyroscope plus accelerometer solutions. The MPU-6000 features three 16-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for digitizing the gyroscope outputs and three 16-bit ADCs for digitizing the accelerometer outputs. For precision tracking of both fast and slow motions, the parts feature a user-programmable gyroscope full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000°/sec (dps) and a user- programmable accelerometer full-scale range of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g, and ±16g. An on-chip 1024 Byte FIFO buffer helps lower system power consumption by allowing the system processor to read the sensor data in bursts and then enter a low-power mode as the MPU collects more data. With all the necessary on-chip processing and sensor components required to support many motion-based use cases, the MPU-6000 uniquely supports a variety of advanced motion-based applications entirely on-chip. The MPU-6000 thus enables low-power Motion Processing in portable applications with reduced processing requirements for the system processor. By providing an integrated Motion Fusion output, the DMP in the MPU-60X0 offloads the intensive Motion Processing computation requirements from the system processor, minimizing the need for frequent polling of the motion sensor output.
  59. 59. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 44 Communication with all registers of the device is performed using SPI at 1MHz. For applications requiring faster communications, the sensor and interrupt registers may be read using SPI at 20MHz . Additional features include an embedded temperature sensor and an on-chip oscillator with ±1% variation over the operating temperature range. By leveraging its patented and volume-proven Nasiri-Fabrication platform, which integrates MEMS wafers with companion CMOS electronics through wafer-level bonding, InvenSense has driven the MPU-6000 package size down to a revolutionary footprint of4x4x0.9mm (QFN), while providing the highest performance, lowest noise, and the lowest cost semiconductor packaging required for handheld consumer electronic devices. The part features a robust 10,000gshock tolerance, and has programmable low-pass filters for the gyroscopes, accelerometers, and the on-chip temperature sensor. For power supply flexibility, the MPU-60X0 operates from VDD power supply voltage range of 2.375V-3.46V. Additionally. The MPU-6000 and MPU-6050 are identical, except that the MPU-6050 supports the I2C serial interface only, and has a separate VLOGIC reference pin. The MPU-6000 supports both I2C and SPI interfaces and has a single supply pin, VDD, which is both the device’s logic reference supply and the analog supply for the part. Features Gyroscope Features The triple-axis MEMS gyroscope in the MPU-60X0 includes a wide range of features: • Digital-output X-, Y-, and Z-Axis angular rate sensors (gyroscopes) with a user-programmable full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000°/sec . • External sync signal connected to the FSYNC pin supports image, video and GPS synchronization . • Integrated 16-bit ADCs enable simultaneous sampling of gyros . • Enhanced bias and sensitivity temperature stability reduces the need for user calibration . • Improved low-frequency noise performance . • Digitally-programmable low-pass filter . • Gyroscope operating current: 3.6mA . • Standby current: 5µA . • Factory calibrated sensitivity scale factor . • User self-test . Accelerometer Features The triple-axis MEMS accelerometer in MPU-60X0 includes a wide range of features:
  60. 60. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 45 • Digital-output triple-axis accelerometer with a programmable full scale range of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g and ±16g. • Integrated 16-bit ADCs enable simultaneous sampling of accelerometers while requiring no external multiplexer . • Accelerometer normal operating current: 500µA . • Low power accelerometer mode current: 10µA at 1.25Hz, 20µA at 5Hz, 60µA at 20Hz, 110µA at 40Hz . • Orientation detection and signaling . • Tap detection . • User-programmable interrupts . • Free-fall interrupt. • High-G interrupt . • Zero Motion/Motion interrupt . • User self-test . Additional Features The MPU-6000 includes the following additional features: • 9-Axis MotionFusion by the on-chip Digital Motion Processor (DMP) . • 3.9mA operating current when all 6 motion sensing axes and the DMP are enabled . • VDD supply voltage range of 2.375V-3.46V . • Smallest and thinnest QFN package for portable devices: 4x4x0.9mm . • Minimal cross-axis sensitivity between the accelerometer and gyroscope axes . • 1024 byte FIFO buffer reduces power consumption by allowing host processor to read the data in bursts and then go into a low-power mode as the MPU collects more data . • Digital-output temperature sensor . • User-programmable digital filters for gyroscope, accelerometer, and temp sensor . • 10,000gshock tolerant . • 1MHz SPI serial interface for communicating with all registers (MPU-6000 only) . • 20MHz SPI serial interface for reading sensor and interrupt registers . • MEMS structure hermetically sealed and bonded at wafer level . 4.3 GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. GPS is funded by and controlled by the US Department of Defense (DOD). While there are many thousands of civil users of GPS world-wide, the system was designed for and is operated by the U. S. military. it provides specially coded satellite signals that can be
  61. 61. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 46 processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity, and time. Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver clock . Consists of 24 operational satellites The module we are using is MEDIATEK-3329 The MEDIATEK-3329 is an ultra-compact POT (Patch On Top) GPS Module. This POT GPS receiver provides a solution that is high in position and speed accuracy performances, with high sensitivity and tracking capabilities in urban conditions. The GPS chipset inside the module is powered by MediaTek Inc., the world's leading digital media solution provider and the largest fab-less IC company in Taiwan. The module can support up to 66 channels, and is Figure 4.5 :MEDIATEK-3329 . designed for small-form-factor device. It is suitable for every GPS-related application, such as: • 9 Fleet Management/Asset Tracking • 9 LBS (location-base service) and AVL system • 9 Security system • 9 Hand-held device for personal positioning and travel navigation Features : • MediaTek MT3329 Single Chip • L1 Frequency, C/A code, 66 channels • Support up 210 PRN channels • Jammer detection and reduction
  62. 62. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 47 • Multi-path detection and compensation • Dimension: 16mm x 16mm x 6mm • Patch Antenna Size: 15mm x 15mm x 4mm • High Sensitivity: Up to -165 dBm tracking, superior urban performances • Position Accuracy: Without aid: 3m 2D-RMS DGPS (RTM,SBAS(WAAS,EGNOS,MASA)):2.5m 2D-RMS • Low Power Consumption: 48mA @ acquisition, 37mA @ tracking • Low Shut-Down Power Consumption: 15uA, typical • DGPS(WAAS/EGNOS/MSAS/GAGAN) support (Default: Enable) • Max. Update Rate: up to 10Hz (Configurable by firmware) • USB Interface support without extra bridge IC • FCC E911 compliance and AGPS support (Offline mode : EPO valid up to 14 days ) • RoHS Compliant 4.4 Video streaming A stable and controllable quadcopter is only the pre-requisite for performing a task. This task is determined and executed at a higher level, working with the attitude controller to move the quadcopter according to the desired goal. Such a higher level controller is often referred to as the navigation controller. Providing video streaming is essential in our applications (crisis analysis) , so we choose FPV "First person view" system to transmit and receive video streaming with CCD camera and LCD screen to display video . Figure 4.6 :FPV system . 4.4.1 Camera Feature
  63. 63. Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 48 • CCD sensor type:1/3 color SONY CCD • NTSC: 510(H)*492(V) (Included) • PAL: 500(H)*582(V) • Scanning system: Interlaced scanning • Synchronization: System:Inter • Horizontal resolution: 420TV line • Minimum Illumination 0.01LUX/F1.2 • DSP+CCD: CXD3142R+405AK • S/N Ratio: 48dB • Gamma Modification: 0.45 • White balance: Auto • Auto backlight compensation: Auto • Lens: 3.6MM • Audio: No • Input voltage: 9~12.6V • Electric current 80MA • Electronic Shutter: 1/50 (60) ~ 1/100,000s • Video output: 1.0VP-P composite video • Operation Temp.: -20~50 • Size: 38*38mm • Flight time: Approx 60min/100mah 3S 4.4.2 FPV Tx & Rx Feature • Channel: 12-Ch, AV synchronization • Power: 1000mW • Input voltage: 8~12V • Weight: 29.9g • Size: 41x28x16mm • Channels: 2.2G/2.3G/2.4G
  64. 64. 49 5 Base station In this chapter, we will describe our base station unit and its importance for flying with easy control , and acquiring Temperature, Pressure , attitude and battery level of voltage data . also we will show how connection between the base station and our quadcopter is established and describe the interface between them . The first section (5.1: Remote control ) gives an overview of the MCU we used ,Showing its specifications and features ,and showing the high level design of the remote controller. The second section (5.2: GLCD ) gives an overview of the Graphical LCD we used in the remote controller. and focus on its Features .and its connection with the Main controller . The Third section (5.3: RF-Module ) gives an overview of the wireless modules we used , showing its features and connections with the Main controller using UART data transfer Protocol .
  65. 65. Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt 50 Arduino Based 5.1 Remote controller We used Arduino UNO as the main MCU at our remote controller. The UNO is the most popular of the Arduino microcontrollers. These boards come pre-assembled and ready to use. The UNO is based around the ATMEGA328 chip. Figure 5.1 shows a picture of Arduino UNO . Figure 5.1 :Arduino UNO . Base Station Arduino Based PC Based
  66. 66. Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt 51 Feature Microcontroller ATmega168 Operating Voltage 5V Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) Analog Input Pins 6 DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA Flash Memory 32 KB of which 2 KB used by bootloader SRAM 2 KB EEPROM 1 KB Clock Speed 16 MHz Power The Arduino UNO can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts. The power pins are as follows: • VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. • 5V.The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply. • 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board FTDI chip. Maximum current draw is 50 mA. • GND. Ground pins.

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