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Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control

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Graduation project 2012 ...

Graduation project 2012

M ansoura Unveristy

Faculty of engineer

Electronic and communication Departm
"Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control"

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
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  • yes you can Know about Quadcopter with me through this Website
    www.Egyptuino.Com
    and you can buy his book with 10 $
    Are you sure you want to
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  • i'm verry interest with UAV, but i don't now why i start to study...
    my background study are bachelor computer and master mechanical
    can i study about it with you and download your book...

    cemot_23@yahoo.com
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    Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control Document Transcript

    • Arduino based UAV Controlled By Dedicated RF Remote Control Graduation Project 2011-2012 I
    • Falcon Team 1. Ahmed Hussein AbdElaziz 2. Asem Mohamed Eissa 3. Saad Eied Zanfal 4. Mahmoud Wafik ElTokhey 5. Mostafa Mohamed Elsayed Supervised by Dr. SherifKishkII
    • Team words" Life is about decisions so think twice before you take anydecision " Ahmed" I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work " Asem" If your ship doesnt come in, swim out to it " Saad" good memories lasts forever " Mahmoud" too much ego will kill your talent " Mostafa III
    • IV
    • AcknowledgmentsSpecial thanks to everyone gave us support, help and care to reachthis stage.Dr. Sherif Kishk : Professor at Electronics and Communications Engineering Department - Mansoura UniversityEng. Salwa Abd elbaset : Telecom Engineer @ SIS Company . Coordinator Team l MIE OrganizerEng. Amir Ali Abo El-ftoh V
    • VI
    • Abstract We Face every year a lot of natural disasters Like Earthquakes, volcanoesand hurricanes like Egypt earthquake 1992 , Japan earthquake 2011, Tsunami2004 , Elsalam Ship 2006...etc. It would be difficult to move the rescue teams to help the affected people,With the help of our quadcopter{ a four rotor vertical-take-off-and-landingunmanned aerial vehicle} we can help in making a human life in safe. Our quadcopter can measure the Temperature, Sense gas leak and measurethe pressure in the damaged site To take the necessary precautions, it can alsoMeasure the height of the rubbles to help the rescue teams in choosing theequipments that can help them most , Sense the presence of humans underrubble , Provide a real time video stream for the damaged locations , Measurethe height of the floods, Determining suitable path for rescue teams to enter thedamaged locations using GPS Our quadcopter can provide the services mentioned above because it canpenetrate areas which may be too dangerous for human being to reach as it canfly and also because it has a small size. VII
    • VIII
    • Table of ContentsTEAM WORDS ......................................................................................................................................... IIIABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................. VIILIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................................................XILIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................................... XIV1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 MOTIVATION ..................................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ......................................................................................................................... 2 1.3 PROBLEM SOLUTION ........................................................................................................................... 2 1.4 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 OUR VISION....................................................................................................................................... 42 QUADCOPTER .................................................................................................................................. 5 2.1 UAV ................................................................................................................................................ 6 2.1.1 What are UAVs and MAVs ?...................................................................................................... 6 2.1.2 Definition ................................................................................................................................. 11 2.1.3 Classification of UAV Platforms............................................................................................... 12 2.1.4 Applications............................................................................................................................. 14 2.1.5 Future Research and Development of Autonomous UAVs and MAVs..................................... 15 2.2 HISTORICAL ROLE OF QUADCOPTER ...................................................................................................... 18 2.3 BASIC CONCEPTS .............................................................................................................................. 223 MECHANICAL & ELECTRONIC DESIGN ............................................................................................. 27 3.1 W HY QUADCOPTER? .................................................................................................................. 28 3.2 FRAME ........................................................................................................................................... 30 3.2.1 Balsa Wood ............................................................................................................................. 30 3.2.2 Aluminum ................................................................................................................................ 30 3.2.3 Fiberglass ................................................................................................................................ 30 3.2.4 Carbon Fiber ............................................................................................................................ 31 3.3 MOTORS ........................................................................................................................................ 32 3.4 ESC (ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL) .................................................................................................... 33 3.5 BATTERY ......................................................................................................................................... 33 3.6 PROPELLERS .................................................................................................................................... 354 ELECTRONIC ................................................................................................................................... 37 4.1 MAIN CONTROLLER .......................................................................................................................... 38 4.2 IMU .............................................................................................................................................. 41 4.2.1 HMC5883 Magnometer ................................................................................................... 42 4.2.2 MPU-6000 Gyroscope & accelerometer ....................................................................... 43 4.3 GPS ............................................................................................................................................ 45 4.4 VIDEO STREAMING............................................................................................................................ 47 4.4.1 Camera Feature ............................................................................................................... 47 4.4.2 FPV Tx & Rx Feature ...................................................................................................... 48 IX
    • 5 BASE STATION ................................................................................................................................ 49 5.1 REMOTE CONTROLLER ....................................................................................................................... 50 5.2 GLCD ............................................................................................................................................ 53 5.3 RF-MODULE ................................................................................................................................... 556 SENSORS ........................................................................................................................................ 63 6.1 SONAR MODULE ............................................................................................................................. 64 6.2 IR MODULE ..................................................................................................................................... 66 6.3 PIR SENSOR .................................................................................................................................... 69 6.4 HUMIDITY & TEMPERATURE ............................................................................................................... 717 MARKET RESEARCH REPORT .......................................................................................................... 77 7.1 PRODUCT PLANNING ......................................................................................................................... 78 7.1.1 Identifying opportunities ......................................................................................................... 80 7.1.2 Evaluating and Prioritizing Projects ........................................................................................ 80 7.1.3 Market Plan............................................................................................................................. 83 7.1.4 Allocate Pre-Project Resources and Time Planning ................................................................. 86 7.2 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS ........................................................................................................... 90 7.2.1 Choosing Customers ................................................................................................................ 90 7.2.2 Gathering and Interpreting Raw Data in terms of Customer Needs ....................................... 90 7.2.3 Organize the needs into a hierarchy ....................................................................................... 92 7.2.4 Establish the relative importance of needs ............................................................................. 938 FUTURE WORK ............................................................................................................................... 95 8.1 DISASTER MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................... 95 8.2 PREVENTION OF HOOLIGANS .............................................................................................................. 95 8.3 GPS WAYPOINT............................................................................................................................... 96 8.4 AERIAL SURVEY MONITORING ............................................................................................................. 97 8.5 HELP FROM THE AIR .......................................................................................................................... 97 8.6 AERIAL VIDEO DOCUMENTATION......................................................................................................... 98 8.7 SOLAR RESEARCH ............................................................................................................................. 98 8.8 SUPPORT IN EXCAVATION ................................................................................................................... 989 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 10010 COMPONENT ............................................................................................................................... 10111 ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 102REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 103X
    • List of Figures FIGURE 1.1 : REMOTE CONTROLLER BLOCK DIAGRAM ............................................................................. 3 FIGURE 1.2 :QUADCOPTER BLOCK DIAGRAM ........................................................................................... 4 FIGURE 2.1 : REGISTERED UAVS ................................................................................................................ 6 FIGURE 2.2 : COUNTRY-WISE R&D EXPENDITURE ON UAVS ..................................................................... 7 FIGURE 2.3 : APPLICATION OF UAVS FOR CIVIL AND FOR MILITARY USE IN 2002 ..................................... 7 FIGURE 2.4 : ANNUAL FUNDING PROFILE OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ................................... 9 FIGURE 2.5 : ANNUAL FUNDING PROFILE IN EUROPE ............................................................................... 9 FIGURE 2.7 : SOME CONFIGURATIONS OF FIXED-WING UAVS ................................................................ 12 FIGURE 2.8 : EXAMPLES OF ROTARY-WING UAVS ................................................................................... 12 FIGURE 2.9 : EXAMPLES OF AIRSHIP-BASED UAVS .................................................................................. 13 FIGURE 2.10 : MICRO FLAPPING-WING UAVS ......................................................................................... 13 FIGURE 2.11 : UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES, FROM BIG PLATFORMS TO MICRO FLYING ROBOTS ........ 14 FIGURE 2.12 :(UCAV) AND (MAVS) AS TRENDS IN UAV PLATFORM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. ..... 15 FIGURE 2.13 : TREND IN UAV AUTONOMY. ............................................................................................ 16 FIGURE 2.14 : TREND IN PROCESSOR SPEED. .......................................................................................... 17 FIGURE 2.15 : RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROCESSOR SPEED AND MEMORY. .......................................... 17 FIGURE 2.16 : 3D MODEL OF THE GYROPLANE........................................................................................ 19 FIGURE 2.17 :BRÉGUET-RICHET GYROPLANE .......................................................................................... 19 FIGURE 2.18 : THE OEMICHEN NO.2 OF 1922. ......................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 2.19 :QUADCOPTER DESIGNED BY DR. BOTHEZAT AN IVAN JEROME. ........................................ 20 FIGURE 2.20 :CONVERTAWINGS MODEL A HELICOPTER ......................................................................... 21 FIGURE 2.21 : V-22 OSPRAY .................................................................................................................... 21 FIGURE 2.22 : CONCEPT OF BELL’S QUAD ............................................................................................... 21 FIGURE 2.23 :SKYCAR DURING A TEST FLIGHT. ....................................................................................... 22 FIGURE 2.24: SIMPLIFIED QUADCOPTER MOTOR IN HOVERING ............................................................. 23 FIGURE 2.25 : THROTTLE MOVEMENT .................................................................................................... 24 FIGURE 2.26 : ROLL MOVEMENT............................................................................................................. 24 FIGURE 2.27: PITCH MOVEMENT ............................................................................................................ 25 FIGURE 2.28 : YAW MOVEMENT ............................................................................................................. 25 FIGURE 3.1 : FRAME ............................................................................................................................... 31 FIGURE 3.2 : 2824 BRUSHLESS OUTRUNNER 1300KV .............................................................................. 32 XI
    • FIGURE 3.3 : ESC (ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL) .................................................................................... 33FIGURE 3.4 : 4500MAH LIPO BATTERY .................................................................................................... 34FIGURE 3.5:TURNIGYBATTERY CHARGER ................................................................................................ 35FIGURE 3.6:1047SF COMBO3 STANDARD & 3 COUNTER ROTATING . ..................................................... 36FIGURE 4.1 :ARDUINO MEGA. ................................................................................................................ 38FIGURE 4.2 : THE ARDUINO INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT. ............................................ 39FIGURE 4.3 :ARDUIMU V3 . ..................................................................................................................... 41FIGURE 4.4 :ARDUIMU V3 STRUCTURE. .................................................................................................. 42FIGURE 4.5 :MEDIATEK-3329 . ................................................................................................................ 46FIGURE 4.6 :FPV SYSTEM . ...................................................................................................................... 47FIGURE 5.1 :ARDUINO UNO . .................................................................................................................. 50FIGURE 5.2 : GLCD 128 × 64 PIXELS . ....................................................................................................... 53FIGURE 5.3 : GLCD PAGES . ..................................................................................................................... 54FIGURE 5.5 : HAC-UM96 . ....................................................................................................................... 55FIGURE 5.5 : CONNECTION BETWEEN HAC- UM96 AND MICROCONTROLLER. ........................................ 58FIGURE 5.6 : OUR REMOTE . ................................................................................................................... 59FIGURE 5.7 : GUI . ................................................................................................................................... 60FIGURE 5.8 : EASYCAP . ........................................................................................................................... 61FIGURE 5.9 : VIDEO . ............................................................................................................................... 61FIGURE 6.1: PING))) ULTRASONIC SENSOR ............................................................................................. 64FIGURE 6.2: COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ........................................................................................... 66FIGURE 6.3:IR INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM ............................................................................................. 67FIGURE 6.4: TRIANGULATION STRATEGY ................................................................................................ 67FIGURE 6.5 : IR MODULE PHOTO ............................................................................................................ 68FIGURE 6.6:ANALOG OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS. DISTANCE TO REFLECTIVE OBJECT ...................................... 69FIGURE 6.7 :PIR SENSOR ......................................................................................................................... 70FIGURE 6.8 : EFFECT OF TEMP. ON PIR DISTANCE DETECTION ................................................................ 71FIGURE 6.9 : DHT11 TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY SENSOR ..................................................................... 72FIGURE 6.10 : OVERALL COMMUNICATION PROCESS ............................................................................. 74FIGURE 6.11 : MCU SENDS OUT START SIGNAL & DHT RESPONSES ......................................................... 74FIGURE 6.12 :DATA "0" INDICATION ....................................................................................................... 75FIGURE 6.13 : DATA "1" INDICATION ...................................................................................................... 75XII
    • FIGURE 7.1 :MARKET GROWTH RATE ..................................................................................................... 82FIGURE 7.2 :FIRST YEAR SALES PROPORTION FOR EACH SECTOR ............................................................ 82FIGURE 7.3 :CUSTOMERS BASED MARKET SEGMENTATION ................................................................... 84FIGURE 7.4 :PRODUCT PLATFORM PLANNING (OVER 3 PROTOTYPE)...................................................... 86FIGURE 7.5 :CAPACITY UTILIZATION ( 1-11 TO 31-1) ............................................................................... 87FIGURE 7.6 :CAPACITY UTILIZATION ( 1-2 TO 31-4) ................................................................................. 88FIGURE 7.7 :CAPACITY UTILIZATION ( 1-5 TO 31-6) ................................................................................. 89FIGURE 8.1 : DISASTER MANAGEMENT................................................................................................... 95FIGURE 8.2 : PREVENTION OF HOOLIGANS. ............................................................................................ 96FIGURE 8.3 : GPS WAYPOINT. ................................................................................................................. 96FIGURE 8.4 : AERIAL SURVEY MONITORING............................................................................................ 97FIGURE 8.5 : HELP FROM THE AIR. .......................................................................................................... 97FIGURE 8.6 : AERIAL VIDEO DOCUMENTATION....................................................................................... 98FIGURE 8.7 : SOLAR RESEARCH. .............................................................................................................. 98FIGURE 8.8 : SUPPORT IN EXCAVATION. ................................................................................................. 99 XIII
    • List of TablesTABLE 2.1 : NUMBER OF REGISTERED UAVS IN JAPAN .............................................................................. 7TABLE 2.2 : CURRENT EXPORTERS, OPERATORS, MANUFACTURERS, AND DEVELOPERS OF UAVS .......... 11TABLE 3.1: COMMON UAV-MAV CONFIGURATIONS............................................................................... 29TABLE 3.2 : VTOL CONCEPT COMPARISON (1=BAD, 4=VERY GOOD). ...................................................... 30TABLE 3.3 : MATERIAL COMPARISON ..................................................................................................... 31TABLE 5.1 : PIN DESCRIPTION. ................................................................................................................ 55TABLE 5.3 : RF-MODULE CHANNEL ......................................................................................................... 57TABLE 5.4 : RF-MODULE CONNECTING PINS . ......................................................................................... 58TABLE 6.1: DHT11 SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 73TABLE 6.2 : ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................................. 76TABLE 7.1 :EVALUATING AND PRIORITIZING PROJECTS .......................................................................... 81TABLE 7.2 :SIZE OF MARKET ................................................................................................................... 84TABLE 7.3 :RESOURCE ALLOCATION( 1-11 TO 31-1) ................................................................................ 86TABLE 7.4 :RESOURCE ALLOCATION( 1-2 TO 31-4) .................................................................................. 87TABLE 7.5 :RESOURCE ALLOCATION ( 1-5 TO 31-6) ................................................................................. 88TABLE 7.6 :CHOOSING CUSTOMERS........................................................................................................ 90TABLE 7.7 :CUSTOMER NEEDS ................................................................................................................ 91TABLE 7.8 : ORGANIZE THE NEEDS INTO A HIERARCHY ........................................................................... 93TABLE 7.9 :THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NEEDS ................................................................................. 94XIV
    • 1
    • 1 IntroductionIn this chapter, we will talk about what motivated us to make our project and we will alsodiscuss the problem statement and solution that lead us to choose the quadcopter insolving the Crisis analysis problem , and at last we will talk about our vision for ourproject in the future. The first section (1.1: Motivation) Will show What motivated us to choose ourproject. The second section (1.2 Problem statement ) Will discuss the problem that wedecided to solve . The third section (1.3 Problem solution ) Will discuss how we tried to solve theProblem The Fourth section (1.4 Technical Description ) Will show a technical description forthe solution The fifth section (1.5 our Vision ) Will talk about our future plans for our project 1
    • Ch1 : introduction UAV-Egypt 1.1 MotivationOur teams wanted to make a useful project so that we can provide help for the worldgenerally and for our country EGYPT specially .we discussed a lot of problems that wecan solve using Electronics and communications systems and at last we choose ourproject idea 1.2 Problem statement 1- The main problem that we tried to solve is that we face every year a lot of natural disasters Like Earthquakes, volcanoes and hurricanes like Egypt earthquake 1992 /Japan earthquake 2011/ Tsunami 2004 / Elsalam Ship 2006...etc. and some of the common problems in these disasters was that :- • Rescue Team faced a lot of risks due to of effects of destruction . • It would be difficult to move the rescue teams to rescue the injured and extracting people from the rubble, as there is no data about the under rubble people . 2- The problem of gas and petroleum spills in petroleum plants and the resulting fires and accidents, which risk the lives of workers in the oil companies 1.3 Problem solution In this section We will discuss how we tried to solve the problem with quadcopterplatform .using sensors we install on the quadcopter We can measure Temperature,Sense gas leak and measure pressure in damaged site To take the necessaryprecautions, Measuring the height of the rubble to allow rescue teams choose the rightequipments, also sense presence of human under rubble , Provide a real time videostream for the damaged locations , Measure the height of the floods, Determiningsuitable path for rescue teams to enter the damaged locations using GPS. Our quadcopter can provide the services mentioned above because it can penetrateareas which may be too dangerous for human being to reach as it can fly and alsobecause it has a small size.2
    • Ch1 : introduction UAV-EgyptFor providing all of the service we mentioned above using our quadcopter it needs to :- 1- Broadcast video in range of 2 KM away from the user with the main controller 2- Measure the degree of Temperature 3- Measure the degree of Humidity 4- Measure the height from the land 5- Detect people Motion 6- able to fly for more than 15 minutes without changing battery 7- able to make safe landing if battery reach a threshold level 8- able to make safe landing if its out of control 9- able to send its place accurately in the form of longitude and latitude 10- able to avoid obstacles during its flying time 1.4 Technical DescriptionOur project can be divided into 2 main blocks (Base station and Quadcopter)in Additionto Video streamingRemote Controller : we use Atmel controller "Atmega 328p" to encode Digital andAnalog switches values and send them to our quadcopter using RF – module "HAC-UM96" &also receive and decode from the quadcopter the sensor values and batterylevel and display them on GLCD screen , Figure 1.1 show block diagram of our remotecontroller Figure 1.1 : Remote Controller Block DiagramQuadcopter : we use Atmel controller "Atmega2560" as main controller at ourquadcopter , its inputs are 1- received serial data from RF-module , the controller it extracts from this data the directions which the user with the remote controller is choosing 2- received serial data from IMU unit which contains stability sensors , the controller extracts from this data the angle with which the quadcopter is moving in the directions of (ROLL , PITCH , YAW) and according to this angles the main controller takes suitable decision to move the quadcopter back to a stable position 3
    • Ch1 : introduction UAV-Egypt also the main controller is responsible for reading sensor values and sending them using the RF-Module to the remote controller , Figure 1.2 show block diagram of the whole process that takes place at the quadcopter. Figure 1.2 :Quadcopter Block DiagramWireless Video system : we use FPV system which is a system responsible for makinga real time video broadcasting . 1.5 Our visionOur vision is to establish the first company in Egypt that produce quadcopterparts and components and the market we will target is :-First : Civil Protection Units used by the Rescue teams.Second : a game for hobbiesThird : in petroleum plants to Monitor the gas linesFourth : Movies productionAlso our future steps contains :-1- increasing the flight time2- increasing the max height the quadcopter can reach3- adding GPRS to our quadcopter to connect directly to the internet4
    • 2 QuadcopterIn this chapter, Quadcopters presented. the derivation of the quadcopter model isprovided. This result is very important because it describes how the helicopter movesaccording to its inputs. What is quadcopter and its history and its classification and itsapplication in civilian , military ,Safety ,Infrastructure Inspection , Law Enforcement ,sports , Film Production Services,………….. The first section (2.1: UAV) contains non-technical general discussion aboutunmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). And presents somefundamental definitions related to UAVs and MAVs for clarification. The second section (2.2 : Historical role of quadcopter ) show the history ofquadcopter and show how it improved to be smaller , and have smaller weight and bemore easy to fly. The third section (2.3: Basic concepts) shows the main idea of the quadcopterdynamics and describes intuitively which movements are allowed and how it manages toperform stationary flight (hovering). 5
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 2.1 UAV 2.1.1 What are UAVs and MAVs ?In recent years, there has been rapid development of autonomous unmanned aircraftequipped with autonomous control devices called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) andmicro aerial vehicles (MAVs). These have become known as “robotic aircraft,” and theiruse has become wide spread. They can be classified according to their application formilitary or civil use. There has been remarkable development of UAVs and MAVs formilitary use. However, it can be said that the infinite possibilities of utilizing theiroutstanding characteristics for civil applications remain hidden. Figure2.1 shows thatthere was a large number of registered UAVs in Japan in 2002. This was because of themany unmanned helicopters used for agricultural–chemical spraying, as can be seen inTable 2.1. Figure 2.2 shows the country-wise R&D expenditure and Fig.2.3 indicates theapplication of UAVs for civil and military purposes. Figure 2.1 : Registered UAVs6
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Table 2.1 : Number of registered UAVs in Japan Figure 2.2 : Country-wise R&D expenditure on UAVs Figure 2.3 : Application of UAVs for civil and for military use in 2002 7
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-EgyptUAVs offer major advantages when used for aerial surveillance, reconnaissance, andinspection in complex and dangerous environments. Indeed, UAVs are better suited fordull, dirty, or dangerous missions than manned aircraft. The low downside risk andhigher confidence in mission success are two strong motivators for the continuedexpansion of the use of unmanned aircraft systems. Furthermore, many othertechnological, economic, and political factors have encouraged the development andoperation of UAVs. First technological advances provide significant leverage. The newest sensors,microprocessors, and propulsion systems are smaller, lighter, and more capable thanever before, leading to levels of endurance, efficiency, and autonomy that exceedhuman capabilities. Second UAVs have been used successfully in the battlefield, being deployedsuccessfully in many missions. These factors have resulted in more funding and a largenumber of production orders. Third UAVs can operate in dangerous and contaminated environments, and can alsooperate in other environments denied to manned systems, such as altitudes that areboth lower and higher than those typically traversed by manned aircraft. Several marketstudies [1–3] have predicted that the worldwide UAV market will expand significantly inthe next decade. These studies also estimated that UAV spending will more than tripleover the next decade, totaling close to $55 billion in the next 10 years . As stated in [2,4],over the next 5–7 years, the UAV market in the U.S. will reach $16 billion, followed byEurope, which is spending about $3 billion. In US for example, development budgetsincreased rapidly after 2001, as shown in Figure 2.4, and UAV research anddevelopment was given a powerful push . On the other hand, the R&D budgets inEurope have increased slowly, as seen in Figure 2.5. Today, there are severalcompanies developing and producing hundreds of UAV designs. Indeed, major defensecontractors are involved in developing and producing UAVs. At the same time, newer orsmaller companies have also emerged with innovative technologies that make themarket even more vibrant, as seen in Figure 2.6.U.S. companies currently hold about63–64% of the market share, while European companies account for less than 7%. Asshown in Table 2.2, in 2005, some 32 nations were developing or manufacturing morethan 250 models of UAVs, and about 41 countries were operating more than 80 types ofUAVs, primary for reconnaissance in military applications. Table 2.2 lists the results ofan investigation that tracked8
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.4 : Annual funding profile of the U.S. Department of Defense Figure 2.5 : Annual funding profile in Europe Figure 2.6 : The scale of the U.S. companies developing and manufacturing UAVs 9
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egyptand recorded the exporters, users, manufacturers, and developers of UAVs around theworld. In some countries, including the group of seven (G7) industrialized countries andRussia, every category has a “Yes.” Although their use varies, except for Japan andsome other countries, the majority of the research and development is supported bydefense expenditures. However, the civil UAV market is predicted to emerge over thenext decade, starting first with government organizations requiring surveillance systems,such as coast guards, border patrol organizations, rescue teams, police, etc. Althougharmed forces around the world continue to strongly in-vest in researching anddeveloping technologies with the potential to advance the capabilities of UAVs,commercial applications now drive many unmanned technologies. Among thesetechnologies, some apply equally to manned aircraft like platform technologies (airframe,materials, propulsion systems, aerodynamics, etc.) and payload technologies (missionsensors, weapons, etc.). Other technologies are specific to UAVs in the sense that theycompensate for the absence of an onboard pilot and thus enable unmanned flight andautonomous behavior. Indeed, UAVs rely predominantly on • Navigation sensors and microprocessors: Sensors now represent one of the single largest cost items in an unmanned aircraft and are necessary for navigation and mission achievement. Processors allow UAVs to fly entire missions autonomously with little or no human intervention. • Communication systems (data link): The principal issues for communication technologies are flexibility, adaptability, security, and cognitive controllability of the bandwidth, frequency, and information/data flows. • Ground Station Command, Control, and Communications (C3):There are several key aspects of the off-board C3 infrastructure that are being addressed, such as man–machine interfaces, multi-aircraft C3, target identification, downsizing ground equipment, voice control, etc. Advancing the state of the art in all of the areas discussed above will allow a single person to control multiple aircraft. • Aircraft onboard intelligence (guidance, navigation, and control): The intelligence that can be “packed” into a UAV is directly related to how complicated a task that it can handle, and inversely related to the amount of oversight required by human operators. More work needs to be done to mature these technologies in the near term to show their utility and reliability. The reader can refer to for more details on forecasting trends in these technologies over the coming decades. `MTCR member UAV exporter UAV operator UAV manufacturer UAV developerArgentina No Yes Yes YesAustralia Yes Yes Yes YesAustria Yes No Yes YesBelgium No Yes Yes YesBrazil No No No NoCanada Yes No Yes YesCzech Republic No Yes Yes YesDenmark No Yes No NoFinland No Yes No No10
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-EgyptFrance Yes Yes Yes YesGermany Yes Yes Yes YesGreece No No No YesHungary No No No YesIceland No No No NoIreland No No No NoItaly Yes Yes Yes YesJapan Yes Yes Yes YesLuxembourg No No No NoThe Netherlands No Yes No NoNew Zealand No No No NoNorway No No No YesPoland No No No NoPortugal No No No YesRussia Yes Yes Yes YesSouth Africa Yes Yes Yes YesSouth Korea No Yes Yes YesSpain No No Yes YesSweden No Yes Yes YesSwitzerland Yes Yes Yes YesTurkey Yes Yes Yes YesUkraine Yes Yes Yes YesUnited Kingdom Yes Yes Yes YesUnited States Yes Yes Yes Yes Table 2.2 : Current exporters, operators, manufacturers, and developers of UAVs 2.1.2 DefinitionAn uninhabited aircraft is defined using the general terms UAV (uninhabited aerialvehicle or unmanned aerial vehicle), ROA (remotely operated aircraft), and RPV(remotely piloted vehicle) . A pilot is not carried by an uninhabited aerial vehicle, but thepower source, which provides dynamic lift and thrust based on aerodynamics, iscontrolled by autonomous navigation or remote-control navigation. Therefore, neither arocket, which flies in a ballistic orbit, nor a cruise missile, shell, etc. belong in thiscategory. An unmanned airship that flies in the air with a help of gas is also not includedin this category. On the other hand, the AIAA defines a UAV as “an aircraft which is designed ormodified, not to carry a human pilot and is operated through electronic input initiated bythe flight controller or by an onboard autonomous flight management control system thatdoes not require flight controller intervention.” Although there is no strict definition of thedifference between a UAV and MAV, according to a definition by DARPA (DefenseAdvanced Research Projects Agency) of the U.S. Department of Defense, an MAV hasdimensions (length, width, or height) of 15 cm or less. 11
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 2.1.3 Classification of UAV PlatformsDuring recent decades, significant efforts have been devoted to increasing the flightendurance and payload of UAVs, resulting in various UAV configurations with differentsizes, endurance levels, and capabilities. Here, we attempt to classify UAVs according totheir characteristics (aerodynamic configuration, size, etc.). UAV plat-forms typically fallinto one of the following four categories: • Fixed-wing UAVs, which refer to unmanned airplanes (with wings) that require a runway to take-off and land, or catapult launching. These generally have long endurance and can fly at high cruising speeds, (see Figure 2.7 for some examples). • Rotary-wing UAVs, also called rotorcraft UAVs or vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAVs, which have the advantages of hovering capability and high maneuverability. These capabilities are useful for many robotic missions, especially in civilian applications. A rotorcraft UAV may have different configurations, with main and tail rotors (conventional helicopter), coaxial rotors, tandem rotors, multi-rotors, etc. (see Figure 2.8 for some examples). • Blimps such as balloons and airships, which are lighter than air and have long endurance, fly at low speeds, and generally are large sized (see Figure 2.9 for some examples). Figure 2.7 : Some configurations of fixed-wing UAVs Figure 2.8 : Examples of rotary-wing UAVs12
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.9 : Examples of airship-based UAVs Figure 2.10 : Micro flapping-wing UAVs • Flapping-wing UAVs, which have flexible and/or morphing small wings inspired by birds and flying insects, see Figure 2.10 .There are also some other hybrid configurations or convertible configurations, which cantake-off vertically and tilt their rotors or body and fly like airplanes, such as the Bell EagleEye UAV. Another criterion used at present to differentiate between aircraft is size andendurance : • High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAVs, as for example, the Northrop Grumman Ryan’s Global Hawks(65,000 ft altitude, 35 h flight time, and 1,900 lb payload). • Medium Altitude Long Endurance(MALE) UAVs, as for example General Atomics’s Predator(27,000 ft altitude, 30/40 h flight time, and 450 lb payload). • Tactical UAVs such as the Hunter, Shadow 200,andPioneer(15,000 ft altitude, 5– 6 h flight time, and 25 kg payload). • Small and Mini man-portable UAVs such as the Pointer/Raven (AeroVironment), Javelin(BAI), or Black Pack Mini(Mission Technologies). • Micro aerial vehicles (MAV): In the last few years, micro aerial vehicles, with dimensions smaller than 15 cm, have gained a lot of attention. These include the Black Widow manufactured by AeroVironment, the MicroStar from BAE,and many new designs and concepts presented by several universities, such as the Entomopter(Georgia Institute of Technology),Micro Bat(California Institute of 13
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Technology), and MFI(Berkeley University), along with other designs from European research centers (Figure 2.11)Currently, the main research and development for UAV platforms aims at pushing thelimits/boundaries of the flight envelope and also the vehicle’s size. Indeed, most ongoingambitious projects (or prototypes in development) are about 1. unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAV) with high speed and high maneuverability 2. micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) with insect-like size and performance. Figure 2.11 : Unmanned aerial vehicles, from big platforms to micro flying robots 2.1.4 ApplicationsCurrently, the main UAV applications are defense related and the main investments aredriven by future military scenarios. Most military unmanned aircraft systems are primarilyused for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR), and strikes. The nextgeneration of UAVs will execute more complex missions such as air combat ; targetdetection, recognition, and destruction; strike/suppression of an enemy’s air defense;electronic attack; network node/communications relay; aerial delivery/resupply; anti-surface ship warfare; anti-submarine warfare; mine warfare; ship to objective14
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egyptmaneuvers; offensive and defensive counter air; and airlift. Today, the civilian marketsfor UAVs are still emerging. However, the expectations for the market growth of civil andcommercial UAVs are very high for the next decade (Figure 2.12). Potential civilapplications of UAVs are • Inspection of terrain, pipelines, utilities, buildings, etc. • Law enforcement and security applications. • Surveillance of coastal borders, road traffic, etc. • Disaster and crisis management, search and rescue. • Environmental monitoring. • Agriculture and forestry. • Fire fighting. • Communications relay and remote sensing. • Aerial mapping and meteorology. • Research by university laboratories. • And many other applications.Figure 2.12 :(UCAV) and (MAVs) as trends in UAV platform research and development. 2.1.5 Future Research and Development of Autonomous UAVs and MAVsThe present and future levels of autonomous control are shown in Figure 2.13.According to the U.S. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005–2030, there arevarious stages of autonomous control, from level 1, which refers to the remote control of 15
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egyptone vehicle, to level 10, which is perfect autonomous swarm control similar to theformation flight of insects or birds.The present level performs trajectory re-planning during a flight using the flight program,vision sensor, and embedded computer, and is reaching the stage where obstacleavoidance is possible. Moreover, although still at the research level, it is now possible tofly two or more vehicles in formation , which seems to be level 4 or 5. In the military field,the U.S. seems to have the goal of realizing perfect autonomous swarm control by2015–2020. It is believed that civil use autonomous uninhabited aircraft will follow thesame evolution. Although the key technology for realizing such technology is the CPU,as shown in Figure 2.14, exponential development is occurring, which follows Moore’slaw. Against this background of CPU evolution, the autonomous control of a UAV alsoseems to be improving steadily. As shown in Figure 2.14 and 2.15, in 2005, thecomputing speed of the fastest mainframe (CRAY supercomputer) was nearly equal tothe human brain. Furthermore, Moore’s law predicts that the performance of themicroprocessor for a personal computer will be equal to that of the human brain byaround 2015, and will be equal to the brain’s Figure 2.13 : Trend in UAV autonomy.16
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.14 : Trend in processor speed. Figure 2.15 : Relationship between processor speed and memory.storage capacity by around 2030. However, if there is no evolution to this level, it will bedifficult for autonomous uninhabited aircraft to carry out formation flight like birds.Moreover, this is also important from the viewpoint of body design, including the loadingand reliability of a data link and advanced sensors, the design of a more lightweightbody, high propulsion per unit of weight, body structure with high stability, and bodyspecifically suitable for autonomous control.The following are important subjects for the sake of increasing the efficiency ofinspection and surveillance work, data relay, refueling in the air, etc. 17
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt 1. Formation-flight control: noncommercial use as a future research task, with an accuracy of several cm depending on the case. 2. Integrated hierarchical control of UAVs to MAVs: the ability to fly various classes simultaneously. 3. For example, high precise missions could be performed by controlling several vehicles simultaneously, from big UAVs to small MAVs. 4. Super-high-altitude flight: since a UAV does not carry people, flying into the stratosphere, etc. is also attainable. 5. Consequently, prolonged flights suitable for science observation missions can also be attained. 6. High precision orbital flight: this is a technology that will be needed in the future. 7. All weather flights. 8. Radar payloads for impact prevention, etc. 9. An intelligent flight system and operation management. 10. Advanced reliability, etc.There are an infinite number of public welfare applications for UAVs. They could be usedfor detailed perpendicular direction weather surveys, ozone layer observations, airpollution observations, coastline observations, fire detection activities, vegetation growthobservations and chemical spraying, glacier and snow coverage investigations, three-dimensional mapping, gravity surveys, magnetic field measurements, polar zoneobservations, river surveillance, observations of typhoon and hurricane generationprocesses, tornado observations and predictions, forest surveillance, ecosystemsurveillance, the inspection of large-scale national parks, traffic surveillance, disasterprevention and rescue operation support, power line surveillance, the surveillance ofindustrial complexes or pipelines, next-generation logistics distribution systems, etc.Their applications will be endless. Such research and development of a civil use UAVshould place our country in a powerful position as a world leader. On the other hand,because this represents ultramodern technology, it will become very important who usesit, and for what purpose. Although human beings are capable of abusing technology, if itis used correctly, history will show its contribution to mankind’s happiness. In parallelwith the development of such ultramodern technology, it is necessary to develop amechanism to prevent its abuse. 2.2 Historical role of quadcopterThis story begins in the 20th century, when Charles Richet, a French scientist andacademician, built a small, un-piloted helicopter . Although his attempt was not asuccess, Louis Bréguet, one of Richet’s students, was inspired by his tutor’s example.Later in 1906, Louis and his brother, JacquesBréguet began the construction of the firstQuadcopter. Louis executed many tests on airfoil shapes, proving that he had at leastsome basic understanding of the requirements necessary to achieve vertical flight.18
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-EgyptIn 1907 they had finished the construction of the aircraft which was named Bréguet-Richet Gyroplane No. 1 (Figures 2.16 and 2.17), a Quadcopter with propellers of 8.1meters in diameter each, weighting 578 kg (2 pilots included) and with only one 50 hp(37.3 kW) internal combustion engine, which drove the rotors through a belt and pulleytransmission. Of course at that time they had no idea how they would control it, the mainconcern was to ensure the aircraft would achieve vertical flight. The first attempt of flightwas done in between August and September of 1907 with witnesses saying they sawthe Quadcopter lift 1.5 m into the air for a few moments, landing immediately afterwards.Those same witnesses also mentioned the aircraft was stabilized, and perhaps evenlifted by men assisting on the ground.Discouraged by the lack of success of the Gyroplane No. 1, Bréguet and his mentorcontinued their pursuit to build vertical flight machines and afterwards also temporarilydedicated themselves to the development of fixed-wing aircraft, area where they becamevery successful. Louis never abandoned his passion for vertical flight aircraft and in 1932he became one of the pioneers of helicopter development . Figure 2.16 : 3D model of the Gyroplane Figure 2.17 :Bréguet-Richet GyroplaneEtienne Oemichen, another engineer, also began experimenting with rotating-wingdesigns in 1920. He designed a grand total of six different vertical lift machines. The firstmodel failed in lifting from the ground but Oemichen was a determined person, so hedecided to add a hydrogen-filled balloon to provide both stability and lift. His secondaircraft, the Oemichen No. 2 (Figure 2.18), had four rotors and eight propellers,supported by a cruciform steel-tube framework layout. Five of the propellers were meantto stabilize the machine laterally, another for steering and two for forward propulsion.Although rudimentary, this machine achieved a considerable degree of stability andcontrollability, having made more than a thousand test flights in the middle of thatdecade. It was even possible to maintain the aircraft several minutes in the air. In the14th of May the machine was airborne for fourteen minutes and it flew more than a mile. 19
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-EgyptBut Oemichen was not satisfied with the poor heights he was able to fly, and the nextmachines had only a main rotor and two extra anti-torque rotors. Figure 2.18 : The Oemichen No.2 of 1922.The army also had an interest for vertical lift machines. In 1921, Dr. George de Bothezatand Ivan Jerome were hired to develop one for the US Army Air Corps. The result was a1678 kg structure with 9 m arms and four 8.1 m six-blade rotors (Figure 2.19). The armycontract required that the aircraft would hover at 100 m high, but the best they achievedwas 5 m. At the end of the project Bothezad demonstrated the vehicle could be quitestable, however it was underpowered and unresponsive, among other technicalproblems. Figure 2.19 :Quadcopter designed by Dr. Bothezat an Ivan Jerome.Later in 1956, a Quadcopter helicopter prototype called “Convertawings Model A” (seeFigure 2.20 ) was designed both for military and civilian use. It was controlled by varyingthe thrust between rotors, and its flights were a success, even in forward flight. Theproject ended mainly due to the lack of demand for the aircraft.20
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.20 :Convertawings Model A helicopterRecently there has been an increasing interest in Quadcopter designs. Bell is working ona quad tiltrotor to overcome the V-22 Ospray (see Figure 2.21), capable of carrying alarge payload, achieving high velocity and while using a short amount of space forVertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL). Much of its systems come directly from the V-22except for the number of engines. Also, the wing structure on the new design has someimprovements, it has a wider wing span on the rear rotors. As a consequence, the Bellquad tiltrotor (Figure 2.22 ) aims for higher performance and fuel economy . Figure 2.21 : V-22 Ospray Figure 2.22 : Concept of Bell’s quadAnother recent and famous Quadcopter design is the Moller Skycar (Figure 2.23 ), aprototype for a personal VTOL “flying car”. The Skycar has four ducted fans allowing fora safer and efficient operation at low speeds. It was a target for much criticism becausethe only demonstrations of flight were hover tests with the Skycar tethered to a crane.It’s inventor, Paul Moller already tried to sell the Skycar by auction without success.Nowadays he focuses his work on the precursor of the Skycar, the “M200G Volantor”, aflying saucer-style hovercraft. This later model uses eight fans controlled by a computerand is capable of hovering up to 3 m above the ground. This limitation is imposed by theon-board computer due to regulations of the Federal Aviation Administrations, statingthat any vehicle that flies above 3 m is regulated as an aircraft . 21
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.23 :Skycar during a test flight.Quadcopters are also available to the public through radio controlled toys. Someenthusiasts as well as researches have been developing their own Quadcopterprototypes. This is possible due to the availability of cheap electronics and lightweightresistant materials available to the public. Be it for personal satisfaction, entertainment,military or civilian use, Quadcopters have played an important role in the evolution ofaircrafts and may prove themselves as important means of transportation in a nearfuture. 2.3 Basic conceptsThe quadcopters very well modeled with a four rotors in a cross configuration. This crossstructure is quite thin and light, however it shows robustness by linking mechanically themotors (which are heavier than the structure). Each propeller is connected to the motorthrough the reduction gears. All the propellers axes of rotation are fixed and parallel.Furthermore, they have fixed-pitch blades and their air flows points downwards (to getan upward lift). These considerations point out that the structure is quite rigid and theonly things that can vary are the propeller speeds.In this section, neither the motors nor the reduction gears are fundamental because themovements are directly related just to the propellers velocities. The others parts will betaken into account in the following sections. Another neglected component is theelectronic box. As in the previous case, the electronic box is not essential to understandhow the quadcopter flies. It follows that the basic model to evaluate the quadcoptermovements it is composed just of a thin cross structure with four propellers on its ends.The front and the rear propellers rotate counter-clockwise, while the left and the rightones turn clockwise. This configuration of opposite pairs directions re-moves the needfor a tail rotor (needed instead in the standard helicopter structure). Figure 2.24 showsthe structure model in hovering condition, where all the propellers have the same speed.22
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.24: Simplified quadcopter motor in hoveringIn figure 2.24 a sketch of the quadcopter structure is presented in black. The fixed-bodyB-frame is shown in green and in blue is represented the angular speed of thepropellers. In addition to the name of the velocity variable, for each propeller, two arrowsare drawn: the curved one represents the direction of rotation, the other one representsthe velocity. This last vector always points upwards hence it doesn’t follow the right handrule (for clockwise rotation) because it also models a vertical thrust and it would beconfusing to have two speed vectors pointing upwards and the other two pointingdownwards.In the model of figure 2.24 all the propellers rotate at the same (hovering) speedé {JIˤJ # { to counterbalance the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the quadcopterperforms stationary flight and no forces or torques move it from its position.Even though the quadcopter has 6 DOF, it is equipped just with four propellers, hence itis not possible to reach a desired set-point for all the DOF, but at maximum four.However, thanks to its structure, it is quite easy to chose the four best controllablevariables and to decouple them to make the controller easier. The four quadcoptertargets are thus related to the four basic movements which allow the helicopter to reacha certain height and attitude. It follows the description of these basic movements: • Throttle (ˡ# , [N ]) This command is provided by increasing (or decreasing) all the propeller speeds by the same amount. It leads to a vertical force WRT body-fixed frame which raises or lowers the quadcopter. If the helicopter is in horizontal position, the vertical direction of the inertial frame and that one of the body-fixed frame coincide. Otherwise the provided thrust generates both vertical and horizontal accelerations in the inertial frame. Figure 2.25 shows the throttle command on a quadcopter sketch. 23
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.25 : Throttle movement In blue it is specified the speed of the propellers which, in this case, is equal to é - for each one. {JIˤJ # {is a positive variable which represents an increment respect of the constant é can’t be too large because the model would eventually be influenced by strong non linearities or saturations. • Roll (ˡ$ , [N m]) This command is provided by increasing (or decreasing) the left propeller speed and by decreasing (or increasing) the right one. It leads to a torque with respect to the ˲ axis which makes the Quadcopter turn. The overall vertical thrust is the same as in hovering, hence this command leads only to a roll angle acceleration (in first approximation). Figure 2.26 shows the roll command on a quadcopter sketch. Figure 2.26 : Roll movement The positive variables and {JIˤJ # { are chosen to maintain the vertical thrust unchanged. It can be demonstrated that for small values of and . As in the previous case, they can’t be too large be-cause the model would eventually be influenced by strong non linearities or saturations. • Pitch (ˡ% , [N m]) This command is very similar to the roll and is provided by increasing (or decreasing) the rear propeller speed and by decreasing (or increasing) the front one. It leads to a torque with respect to the ˳ axis which makes the Quadcopter turn. The overall vertical thrust is the same as in hovering, hence this command leads only to a pitch angle acceleration (in first approximation). Figure 2.27 shows the pitch command on a quadcopter sketch. As in24
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt Figure 2.27: Pitch movement the previous case, the positive variables and are chosen to maintain the vertical thrust unchanged and they can’t be too large. Furthermore, for small values of , it occurs . • Yaw (ˡ& , [N m]) This command is provided by increasing (or decreasing) the front-rear propellers’ speed and by decreasing (or increasing) that of the left-right couple. It leads to a torque with respect to the ˴ axis which makes the Quadcopter turn. The yaw movement is generated thanks to the fact that the left-right propellers rotate clockwise while the front-rear ones rotate counterclockwise. Hence, when the overall torque is unbalanced, the helicopter turns on itself around ˴ . The total vertical thrust is the same as in hovering, hence this command leads only to a yaw angle acceleration (in first approximation). Figure 2.28 shows the yaw command on a quadcopter sketch. As in the previous two cases, Figure 2.28 : Yaw movement the positive variables and are chosen to maintain the vertical thrust unchanged and they can’t be too large. Furthermore it maintains the equivalence for small values of . 25
    • Ch. 2 : Quadcopter UAV-Egypt26
    • 3 Mechanical & Electronic design In this chapter, the main quadcopters Mechanical & Electronic design are presented.They are fundamental to help the robot to be able to fly . Show the decisions thatneeded to be made in the process of choosing an individual component. Thesedecisions were made to ensure compatibility with other component parts. This will bediscussed in each of the sections. The first section (3.1: why quadcopter ) discusses why we used quadcopter platform The second section (3.2: Frame ) talks about the characteristics of the frame of thequadcopter The third section (3.3: Motors) talks about the types of motors we need The Fourth section (3.4: ESC ) talks about the characteristics of electronic speedcontrollers (ESCs) The fifth section (3.5: Battery ) talks the type of batteries needed in quadcopter. The sixth section (3.6: Propellers ) Describes Propellers specification we used in ourquadcopter 27
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 3.1 Why Quadcopter? As widely known, when compared with other aerial vehicles, VTOL vehicle systemshave specific characteristics like flying in very low altitudes and being able to hover thatmake them suitable for applications that may be impossible to complete using fixed-wingvehicles. Different configurations of MAVs commonly used both for research purposes and inindustry are shown in Table 3.1 along with related advantages and drawbacks. Thistable offers a pictorial comparison that may be used when a new design is proposed. Further, table3.2 presents a short and not exhaustive comparison between differentVTOL vehicle concepts. quadcopter offer VTOL capability and also the ability to fly along a designated pathwith any designated yaw angle attitude. This is a major advantage in surveillancemissions because it allows for the cameras to look in a chosen direction during flight,almost independently from the trajectory. Quadcopter are also very agile whilemechanically simple. Setbacks could be noise, high energy consumption and beingnaturally unstable, thus needing complex control. Configuration Picture Advantages Drawbacks - Simple Fixed-wing mechanics - No hovering(AeroVironment) - Silent operation -Large rotor - Good Single - Complex controllability and(A.V de Rostyne) mechanics maneuverability - Long tail boom - Compactness - Complex control Axial rotor - Simple - Weak(Maryland Univ.) mechanics maneuverability - Compactness Coaxial rotors - Complex - Simple (ETHZ) aerodynamics mechanics -Good controllability and -Complex Tandem rotors maneuverability mechanics (Heudiasyc) - No Large size aerodynamics interference28
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt -Good maneuverability -High energy Quadcopters - Increased consumption (ETHZ) payload - Large size -Simple mechanics -Low power -Large size Blimp consumption - Weak (EPFL) -Auto-lift maneuverability -Good Hybrid maneuverability - Large size (MIT) - Good - Complex design survivability -Good -Complex Bird-like maneuverability mechanics (Caltech) - Low power - Complex control consumption -Good -Complex Insect-like maneuverability mechanics (UC Berkeley) - Compactness -Complex control - Multimode -Complex control Fish-like mobility - Weak (US Naval Lab) - Efficient maneuverability aerodynamics Table 3.1: Common UAV-MAV configurations. Single rotor Quadcopter Axial rotor Insect-like Bird-like Tandem Coaxial rotors rotors Blimp s Power cost 2 2 2 2 1 4 3 3 Control cost 1 1 4 2 3 3 2 1 Payload 2 2 4 3 3 1 2 1Maneuverability 4 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 Mechanical 1 3 3 1 4 4 1 1 29
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt simplicityAerodynamic 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 complexity Low speed 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 2 flight High speed 2 4 1 2 3 1 3 3 flightMiniaturization 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 4 Survivability 1 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 Stationary 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 2 flight Total 24 28 32 24 33 28 22 24 Table 3.2 : VTOL concept comparison (1=Bad, 4=Very Good). 3.2 FrameMaterials 3.2.1 Balsa WoodBalsa wood has been used in RC Aircraft forever, and for good reason. It is inexpensive,extremely light, and fairly stiff and strong. It is also very easily machined and readilyavailable at most hobby shops. This means that replacement parts can be easilyobtained without great expensive. However due to its low density it also requires a fairlylarge cross section to produce arms that are reasonably stiff. Similarly to Polycarbonatethis will block some of the rotors downwash and reduce thrust. 3.2.2 AluminumAluminum has been used in aircraft since WW2, and is still being used today. Even themost advanced aircraft like the 787 and the V-22 still use a significant amount ofaluminum. Its also a great material for quadcopters. Its readily available and fairlyinexpensive. Its also easy to machine, as carbide and steel tools can machine it fairlyeasily. Because it is a homogeneous material three dimensional shapes can bemachined from it as well, something that cant really be done with composites like carbonfiber or fiberglass. There are a fair range of different aluminum alloys available, andalthough they generally have similar densities and stiffnesss, the strength can varygreatly. Aluminum is an excellent electrical conductor though, and therefore adequatecare must be taken to not short out your electronics, or more importantly your Li-Po. 3.2.3 FiberglassFiberglass is like carbon fibers little brother. Its produced in pretty much the same way,with long thing fibers of glass being held together by an epoxy matrix. Howeverfiberglass is somewhat heavier, softer, and weaker than carbon fiber. It is howevereasier to machine, as less precautions need to be taken when cutting it, and it is muchcheaper. Fiberglass has gotten a bad rap over the years, although a lot of that has to do30
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egyptwith its difficulty in being repaired. It is however an excellent material for constructing anquadcopter. 3.2.4 Carbon FiberCarbon Fiber is one of the ideal materials for making a Quad frame out of. Its very light,very stiff, and very strong, unfortunately it’s also very expensive and can be dangerousto machine as the fibers are toxic to breathe. Carbon fiber is a composite materialconsisting of long very thin carbon fibers and epoxy. The carbon fibers are extremelystrong, and extremely stiff, however they only go one direction. The epoxy is an order ofmagnitude softer and weaker than the fibers, but is needed to bind the fibers together.This means that a part constructed of carbon fiber is very strong in the direction of thefibers, but in other directions can be relatively weak.Table 3.1 shows good comparison between materials material from 1-10 (with 10 beingthe best) on density, stiffness, strength, producibility, and cost. Material Density Stiffness Strength producibility Cost Carbon Fiber 8 8 9 3 1 Aluminum 7 6 6 7 7 Fiberglass 6 6 5 7 6 Balsa Wood 10 4 4 10 10 Table 3.3 : Material comparisonAfter making the material comparison we choose the carbon fiber material. Figure 3.1shows a picture for our Frame. Figure 3.1 : Frame 31
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-EgyptThe Turnigy Talon quadcopter frame is a high quality carbon fiber frame that offers bothgreat looks and performance. Built from light weight yet extremely rigid carbon fiber andaluminum alloy, the Talon offers a great combination of weight savings and strength.The Talon features a beautifully finished carbon fiber main frame and arms, allconnected together with aluminum alloy parts. This frame really gives your quadcopter ahigh-tech and quality look.Feature : • Weight: 240g • Width: 498mm 3.3 MotorsThe motors usually implemented in this kind of application are electric Direct Current(DC) motors. They are lighter than combustion engines and do not need a combustiblefuel, which, among other benefits, decreases the risk of explosion.DC motors available in the radio control hobby market are either brushed or brushless.Brushless motors are expensive but have higher efficiency, power, and do not needregular maintenance. Brushed motors are cheap but have a shorter lifetime and theirbrushes need regular replacements. For these reasons it is preferable to use brushlessmotors, because loss of structural integrity of the quadcopter due to motor failure shouldbe avoided by using more reliable equipment.There are cases when a motor does not have the necessary torque to spin the propellerat the required speed, or even when there is the need to reduce the propeller speed toan optimum velocity inferior to that of the main drive shaft. These are situations where aPSRU (Propeller Speed Reduction Unit - a gearbox speed reduction system) is required.Although these units are available to use in RC (Radio Control) aircrafts, in thequadcopter we want to have a structure as light as possible. One way to have thebenefits of high torque without using gearboxes is by using a design of brushless DCmotor called “Outrunner”. The selected motor was the “2824 Brushless Outrunner1300KV” (Figure 3.2). This motor is able to rotate at 15600 RPM when free of load,weights 52g and has a maximum efficiency of 81.4 % . Figure 3.2 : 2824 Brushless Outrunner 1300KV32
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt 3.4 ESC (Electronic Speed Control)The speed of a brushless motor is controlled by an Electronic Speed Controllers (orESC). This hardware receives the power from the battery and drives it to the motoraccording to a PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) signal that is provided by the controllerunit. The “thunderbird-9” ESC from Castle Creations is well suited for the job at hand(Figure 2.4.1). It has a mass of 9g and is capable of providing up to 9A of current (whichis also the maximum allowable current of the BL-Outrunner 2824-34 motor). Figure 3.3 : ESC (Electronic Speed Control)Feature : • ContCurrent :25A • BurstCurrent :28A • BEC : 5v/2A • LipoCells :2-4 • Weight : 22g • Size : 45x24x11mm 3.5 BatteryThe Quadcopter needed a sustainable and portable power source to power the controlunit and the motors. Different types of rechargeable batteries were researched and anumber of chemical compositions were taken into consideration. Nickel Cadmium(NiCd), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and Lithium Polymer (LiPo) cells are currently themost commonly used, but each needs to be charged, discharged, and stored differently.On top of that, each model may require a different cell count or battery configuration aswell. Nickel Cadmium or NiCd batteries are less common now but they are cheap.These batteries have cons as well however. NiCd batteries need to be fully dischargedafter each use as failure to do so would mean that for future discharge cycles, they willnot discharge to their full potential. NiCd batteries also have a low energy density thecapacity per weight. Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries have numerous advantages 33
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egyptover the NiCd batteries. NiMH cells offer higher energy density and don’t have the sameperformance issues attributed to improper discharge practices as NiCd batteries do.The latest cells are the Lithium Polymer (LiPo) cells. LiPo cells offer higher betterdischarge performance as they provide better consistency compared to NiCd and NiMHcells. LiPo cells also offer a significantly higher capacity for their weight; a cell may havetwice the capacity for half the weight of a similarly performing NiMH cell. Hence, LiPocells can achieve higher voltage and energy density. LiPo cells need to be monitoredwhen being charged however. This is the major deterrent when it comes to adopting thistechnology. Overcharging can cause the cells to be potential major fire hazards giventhe amount of energy packed into such a small space.After comparing all the types we used the LiPobattery.Figure 3.4 shows our battery. Figure 3.4 : 4500mah lipo batteryFeature : • MinimumCapacity:4500mAh • Configuration:3S1P/11.1v/3Cell • ConstantDischarge:30C • Peak Discharge(10sec):40C • PackWeight:386g • PackSize:147x49x29mm • Charge Plug: JST-XH • Discharge plug: 4mm Bullet-connectorWe need battery charger for our battery and we choose the charger shown in figure 3.534
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-Egypt Figure 3.5:TurnigyBattery chargerFeature : • InputVoltage:11~17v • Circuitpower:MaxCharge:50W/MaxDischarge:5W • ChargeCurrentRange:.1~6.0A • Ni-MH/NiCdcells:1~15 • Li-ion/Polycells:1~6 • Pbbatteryvoltage:2~20v • Weight: 355g 3.6 PropellersProps are usually sold with the following numbered description - for example, a 10x6prop. The first number "10" refers to the length or diameter of the prop. The secondnumber "6" refers to the pitch, or the amount of curvature in the prop blade. The morethe curve or pitch, the more grabbing ability the blade has to pull through the air. Imaginea paddle on a canoe. If you have a very wide, fat paddle, it can grab more water and canpropel you more quickly through the water. If the paddle is to skinny or small it doesntgrab much water and you have to paddle many times more quickly to generate the same"thrust" as the wide/fatter paddle. Again, this is the theory, but the size and type ofmaterial the prop is made of, in addition to the motor/esc/battery combination and theweight of the plane all factor into the equation as well. However, basically, the higher thenumber of the pitch, the faster the plane can go. Take a look at the following picture of 2screws. The threads on the first are larger and more spaced out. The second are smallerand more of them. The larger/wider one in the equivalent prop "10x8" would propellerthe plane faster through the air and provide more thrust. The "10x4" on the other hand isa smaller pitch and therefore has to turn more often to grab the same amount of air toprovide the equivalent thrust. They are both the same diameter or length, but the pitch ismore shallow on the second and thus provides less thrust. The higher pitch prop (10x8)takes only one and a half turns to cover the same distance that the lower pitch proptakes 3 turns to cover. 35
    • Ch3 : Mechanical & Electronic design UAV-EgyptBe sure you use two CW and two CCW propellers. Its very important to have properlybalanced props.Figure 3.6 shows propeller. Figure 3.6:1047SF Combo3 Standard & 3 Counter Rotating .36
    • 4 ElectronicIn this chapter, the Electronics we used will be described in details .This chapter willdescribe the requirements our team have set for the quadcopter. All the requirementsthe team have selected were tested diligently and made sure they worked properly toensure that the quad-copter performed up to the standards. The first section (4.1:Main Controller) introduces the Microcontroller features. A lot ofperipherals are integrated in the MCU through dedicated hardware to allow a widerrange of interfaces and applications. The evaluation board Arduino helped to test themeasily. The second section (4.2: IMU) gives an overview of the IMU. Particular attention isgiven to its inner sensors and its performance. Furthermore the interface with themicrocontroller (through UART) and its communication frame are presented. The Third section (4.3 : Video streaming )talks about importance of video streaming .our chosen system and its Feature. 37
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt 4.1 Main ControllerThe Arduino Mega was chosen because of its large memory, processing power andnumber of ports. It has 54 digital input/output pins, 14 of which offer Pulse WidthModulation (PWM) that is required to control the motors, 16 analog inputs that provide a10bit resolution each, and 4 Serial UARTs. The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller boardbased on the ATmega2560 microprocessor. It has an operating voltage of 5V, inputvoltage range from 7V to 12V, 256KB of Flash Memory for storing code, 8KB of SRAM,4KB of EEPROM and a clock speed of 16MHz. It was a cheaper alternative to the otheroptions considered. The microcontroller is widely adopted and hence there is moresupport for it. There are numerous ‘shields’ that can be mounted on to it for addedfunctionality. Figure 4.1 :Arduino Mega.The Arduino Mega can be programmed with the Arduino Software provided free by thedevelopers. The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is written in Javaand made for the Processing programming language. It includes a code editor withfeatures such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and isalso capable of compiling and uploading programs to the board with a single click. TheIDE also comes with a C/C++ library that can be used to simplify I/O operations. Arduinoprograms are written in a language akin to C/C++ and hence it is something that we arefamiliar with (). The Arduino Mega contributes a weight of 1.5oz to the IMR.38
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt Figure 4.2 : The Arduino Integrated Development Environment.Features• High Performance, Low Power Atmel® AVR ® 8-Bit Microcontroller• Advanced RISC Architecture − 135 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution − 32 × 8 General Purpose Working Registers − Fully Static Operation − Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz − On-Chip 2-cycle Multiplier• High Endurance Non-volatile Memory Segments − 256KBytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash − 4Kbytes EEPROM 39
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt − 8Kbytes Internal SRAM − Write/Erase Cycles:10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM − Data retention: 20 years at 85 C/ 100 years at 25 C − Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits • In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program • True Read-While-Write Operation − Programming Lock for Software Security • Endurance: Up to 64Kbytes Optional External Memory Space• Atmel® QTouch ® library support − Capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels − QTouch and QMatrix® acquisition − Up to 64 sense channels• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface − Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard − Extensive On-chip Debug Support − Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface• Peripheral Features − Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode − Four 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare- and Capture Mode − Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator − Four 8-bit PWM Channels − Twelve PWM Channels with Programmable Resolution from 2 to 16 Bits − Output Compare Modulator − 8/16-channel, 10-bit ADC − Four Programmable Serial USART − Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface − Byte Oriented 2-wire Serial Interface − Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator − On-chip Analog Comparator − Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change• Special Microcontroller Features − Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection − Internal Calibrated Oscillator − External and Internal Interrupt Sources − Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby, and Extended Standby• I/O and Packages − 54 Programmable I/O Lines − 100-lead TQFP, 100-ball CBGA − RoHS/Fully Green• Temperature Range: – -40 Ȑto 85Ȑ Industrial• Ultra-Low Power Consumption − Active Mode: 1MHz, 1.8V: 500µA − Power-down Mode: 0.1µA at 1.8V40
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt• Speed Grade: – ATmega2560/ATmega2561: • 0 - 16MHz @ 4.5V - 5.5V 4.2 IMUThe Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) must provide the means for measuring theorientation of the aircraft. The measurements gathered by the IMU will then be used bythe control board to implement a stabilization algorithm, thus delivering optimal control ofthe aircraft by the operator. Because the device is a mobile device power must bederived from an onboard battery. This characteristic of the aircraft makes weight of thedevice a crucial component to the successful flight of the aircraft. For this reason theIMU will implement electronic sensor components that are mostly derived from lowpower chips.The IMU unit we are working with is Arduimu V3 Figure 4.3 :Arduimu V3 .Specifications: • Tri-Axis angular rate sensor (gyro) with a sensitivity up to 131 LSBs/dps and a full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000dps • Tri-Axis accelerometer with a programmable full scale range of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g and ±16g • Reduced settling effects and sensor drift by elimination of board-level cross-axis alignment errors between accelerometers and gyroscopes • Digital Motion Processing™ (DMP™) engine offloads complex Motion Fusion, sensor timing synchronization and gesture detection with supported software (not yet currently supported in DIY Drones code) • Full Chip Idle Mode Supply Current: 5µA • On-chip timing generator with ±1% frequency variation over full temperature range • User self test • 10,000g shock tolerant 41
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt • Smaller size (1.5" x 1.0"). • Atmega CPU has more % available for other tasks. • The 6 analog pins are now available! • Arduino compatible and open source. • 3 status LEDs (RGB). • I2C port with 3.3V translation or UART communication. • GPS port with FTDI auto switch. • This device is suitable for ANY application from rockets to simple movement detection.IMU is the acronym of Inertial Measurement Unit, which identifies a sensor capable ofmeasuring the orientation (attitude) of a body through inertial sensors. In this work thedevice Arduimu has been adopted. Figure 4.4 :Arduimu V3 structure. 4.2.1 HMC5883 MagnometerThe Honeywell HMC5883 is a surface mount multi-chip module designed for low fieldmagnetic sensing with a digital interface for applications such as low cost compassingand magnetometry. The HMC5883 includes our state of the art, high-resolutionHMC118X series magneto-resistive sensors plus Honeywell developed ASICcontaining amplification, automatic degaussing strap drivers, offset cancellation, 12-bitADC that enables 1° to 2° compass heading accuracy. The H $ ˕serial bus allows foreasy interface. The HMC5883 is a 3.0x3.0x0.9mm surface mount 16-pin leadlesschip carrier (LCC). Applications for the HMC5883 include Mobile Phones, Netbooks,Consumer Electronics, Auto Navigation Systems, and Personal Navigation Devices.42
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-EgyptFEATURES • 3-Axis Magneto resistive Sensors and ASIC in a 3.0x3.0x0.9mm LCC Surface Mount Package . • 12-Bit ADC Coupled with Low Noise AMR Sensors Achieves 5 mille-Gauss Resolution in ±8 Gauss Fields . • Built-In Self Test . • Low Voltage Operations (1.6 to 3.3V) . • Built-In Strap Drive Circuits . • H $ ˕ Digital Interface . • Lead Free Package Construction . • Wide Magnetic Field Range (+/-8 Oe) . • Software and Algorithm Support Available. • Fast 116 Hz Maximum Output Rate . 4.2.2 MPU-6000 Gyroscope & accelerometerThe MPU-6000 Motion Processing Unit is the world’s first motion processing solutionwith integrated 9-Axis sensor fusion using its field-proven and proprietary MotionFusion™ engine for handset and tablet applications, game controllers, motion pointerremote controls, and other consumer devices. The MPU-6000 has an embedded 3-axisMEMS gyroscope, a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer, and a Digital Motion Processor™(DMP™) hardware accelerator engine with an auxiliary H $ ˕ port that interfaces to 3rdparty digital sensors such as magnetometers. When connected to a 3-axismagnetometer, the MPU-6000 delivers a complete 9-axis Motion Fusion output to itsprimary SPI port. The MPU-6000 combines acceleration and rotational motion plusheading information into a single data stream for the application. This MotionProcessing™ technology integration provides a smaller footprint and has inherent costadvantages compared to discrete gyroscope plus accelerometer solutions.The MPU-6000 features three 16-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for digitizing thegyroscope outputs and three 16-bit ADCs for digitizing the accelerometer outputs. Forprecision tracking of both fast and slow motions, the parts feature a user-programmablegyroscope full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000°/sec (dps) and a user-programmable accelerometer full-scale range of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g, and ±16g.An on-chip 1024 Byte FIFO buffer helps lower system power consumption by allowingthe system processor to read the sensor data in bursts and then enter a low-powermode as the MPU collects more data. With all the necessary on-chip processing andsensor components required to support many motion-based use cases, the MPU-6000uniquely supports a variety of advanced motion-based applications entirely on-chip. TheMPU-6000 thus enables low-power Motion Processing in portable applications withreduced processing requirements for the system processor. By providing an integratedMotion Fusion output, the DMP in the MPU-60X0 offloads the intensive MotionProcessing computation requirements from the system processor, minimizing the needfor frequent polling of the motion sensor output. 43
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-EgyptCommunication with all registers of the device is performed using SPI at 1MHz. Forapplications requiring faster communications, the sensor and interrupt registers may beread using SPI at 20MHz . Additional features include an embedded temperature sensorand an on-chip oscillator with ±1% variation over the operating temperature range.By leveraging its patented and volume-proven Nasiri-Fabrication platform, whichintegrates MEMS wafers with companion CMOS electronics through wafer-levelbonding, InvenSense has driven the MPU-6000 package size down to a revolutionaryfootprint of4x4x0.9mm (QFN), while providing the highest performance, lowest noise,and the lowest cost semiconductor packaging required for handheld consumer electronicdevices. The part features a robust 10,000gshock tolerance, and has programmablelow-pass filters for the gyroscopes, accelerometers, and the on-chip temperature sensor.For power supply flexibility, the MPU-60X0 operates from VDD power supply voltagerange of 2.375V-3.46V. Additionally. The MPU-6000 and MPU-6050 are identical, except that the MPU-6050 supports theI2C serial interface only, and has a separate VLOGIC reference pin. The MPU-6000supports both I2C and SPI interfaces and has a single supply pin, VDD, which is boththe device’s logic reference supply and the analog supply for the part.Features Gyroscope Features The triple-axis MEMS gyroscope in the MPU-60X0 includes a wide range of features: • Digital-output X-, Y-, and Z-Axis angular rate sensors (gyroscopes) with a user-programmable full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000°/sec . • External sync signal connected to the FSYNC pin supports image, video and GPS synchronization . • Integrated 16-bit ADCs enable simultaneous sampling of gyros . • Enhanced bias and sensitivity temperature stability reduces the need for user calibration . • Improved low-frequency noise performance . • Digitally-programmable low-pass filter . • Gyroscope operating current: 3.6mA . • Standby current: 5µA . • Factory calibrated sensitivity scale factor . • User self-test . Accelerometer Features The triple-axis MEMS accelerometer in MPU-60X0 includes a wide range of features:44
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt • Digital-output triple-axis accelerometer with a programmable full scale range of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g and ±16g. • Integrated 16-bit ADCs enable simultaneous sampling of accelerometers while requiring no external multiplexer . • Accelerometer normal operating current: 500µA . • Low power accelerometer mode current: 10µA at 1.25Hz, 20µA at 5Hz, 60µA at 20Hz, 110µA at 40Hz . • Orientation detection and signaling . • Tap detection . • User-programmable interrupts . • Free-fall interrupt. • High-G interrupt . • Zero Motion/Motion interrupt . • User self-test . Additional Features The MPU-6000 includes the following additional features: • 9-Axis MotionFusion by the on-chip Digital Motion Processor (DMP) . • 3.9mA operating current when all 6 motion sensing axes and the DMP are enabled . • VDD supply voltage range of 2.375V-3.46V . • Smallest and thinnest QFN package for portable devices: 4x4x0.9mm . • Minimal cross-axis sensitivity between the accelerometer and gyroscope axes . • 1024 byte FIFO buffer reduces power consumption by allowing host processor to read the data in bursts and then go into a low-power mode as the MPU collects more data . • Digital-output temperature sensor . • User-programmable digital filters for gyroscope, accelerometer, and temp sensor . • 10,000gshock tolerant . • 1MHz SPI serial interface for communicating with all registers (MPU-6000 only) . • 20MHz SPI serial interface for reading sensor and interrupt registers . • MEMS structure hermetically sealed and bonded at wafer level . 4.3 GPSThe Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation systemthat provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near theEarth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It ismaintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with aGPS receiver.GPS is funded by and controlled by the US Department of Defense (DOD). While thereare many thousands of civil users of GPS world-wide, the system was designed for andis operated by the U. S. military. it provides specially coded satellite signals that can be 45
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egyptprocessed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity, andtime. Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions andthe time offset in the receiver clock . Consists of 24 operational satellitesThe module we are using is MEDIATEK-3329The MEDIATEK-3329 is an ultra-compact POT (Patch On Top) GPS Module. This POTGPS receiver provides a solution that is high in position and speed accuracyperformances, with high sensitivity and tracking capabilities in urban conditions. TheGPS chipset inside the module is powered by MediaTek Inc., the worlds leading digitalmedia solution provider and the largest fab-less IC company in Taiwan. The module cansupport up to 66 channels, and is Figure 4.5 :MEDIATEK-3329 .designed for small-form-factor device. It is suitable for every GPS-related application,such as: • 9 Fleet Management/Asset Tracking • 9 LBS (location-base service) and AVL system • 9 Security system • 9 Hand-held device for personal positioning and travel navigationFeatures : • MediaTek MT3329 Single Chip • L1 Frequency, C/A code, 66 channels • Support up 210 PRN channels • Jammer detection and reduction46
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt • Multi-path detection and compensation • Dimension: 16mm x 16mm x 6mm • Patch Antenna Size: 15mm x 15mm x 4mm • High Sensitivity: Up to -165 dBm tracking, superior urban performances • Position Accuracy: Without aid: 3m 2D-RMS DGPS (RTM,SBAS(WAAS,EGNOS,MASA)):2.5m 2D-RMS • Low Power Consumption: 48mA @ acquisition, 37mA @ tracking • Low Shut-Down Power Consumption: 15uA, typical • DGPS(WAAS/EGNOS/MSAS/GAGAN) support (Default: Enable) • Max. Update Rate: up to 10Hz (Configurable by firmware) • USB Interface support without extra bridge IC • FCC E911 compliance and AGPS support (Offline mode : EPO valid up to 14 days ) • RoHS Compliant 4.4 Video streamingA stable and controllable quadcopter is only the pre-requisite for performing a task. Thistask is determined and executed at a higher level, working with the attitude controller tomove the quadcopter according to the desired goal. Such a higher level controller isoften referred to as the navigation controller.Providing video streaming is essential in our applications (crisis analysis) , so we chooseFPV "First person view" system to transmit and receive video streaming with CCDcamera and LCD screen to display video . Figure 4.6 :FPV system . 4.4.1 Camera Feature 47
    • Ch4: Electronic UAV-Egypt • CCD sensor type:1/3 color SONY CCD • NTSC: 510(H)*492(V) (Included) • PAL: 500(H)*582(V) • Scanning system: Interlaced scanning • Synchronization: System:Inter • Horizontal resolution: 420TV line • Minimum Illumination 0.01LUX/F1.2 • DSP+CCD: CXD3142R+405AK • S/N Ratio: 48dB • Gamma Modification: 0.45 • White balance: Auto • Auto backlight compensation: Auto • Lens: 3.6MM • Audio: No • Input voltage: 9~12.6V • Electric current 80MA • Electronic Shutter: 1/50 (60) ~ 1/100,000s • Video output: 1.0VP-P composite video • Operation Temp.: -20~50 • Size: 38*38mm • Flight time: Approx 60min/100mah 3S 4.4.2 FPV Tx & Rx Feature • Channel: 12-Ch, AV synchronization • Power: 1000mW • Input voltage: 8~12V • Weight: 29.9g • Size: 41x28x16mm • Channels: 2.2G/2.3G/2.4G48
    • 5 Base stationIn this chapter, we will describe our base station unit and its importance for flying witheasy control , and acquiring Temperature, Pressure , attitude and battery level of voltagedata . also we will show how connection between the base station and our quadcopter isestablished and describe the interface between them . The first section (5.1: Remote control ) gives an overview of the MCU we used,Showing its specifications and features ,and showing the high level design of the remotecontroller. The second section (5.2: GLCD ) gives an overview of the Graphical LCD we used inthe remote controller. and focus on its Features .and its connection with the Maincontroller . The Third section (5.3: RF-Module ) gives an overview of the wireless modules weused , showing its features and connections with the Main controller using UART datatransfer Protocol . 49
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt Base Station Arduino PC Based BasedArduino Based 5.1 Remote controllerWe used Arduino UNO as the main MCU at our remote controller. The UNO is the mostpopular of the Arduino microcontrollers. These boards come pre-assembled and readyto use. The UNO is based around the ATMEGA328 chip. Figure 5.1 shows a picture ofArduino UNO . Figure 5.1 :Arduino UNO .50
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-EgyptFeatureMicrocontroller ATmega168Operating Voltage 5V Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12VInput Voltage (limits) 6-20VDigital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWMoutput)Analog Input Pins 6DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mADC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mAFlash Memory 32 KB of which 2 KB used bybootloaderSRAM 2 KBEEPROM 1 KBClock Speed 16 MHzPowerThe Arduino UNO can be powered via the USB connection or with an external powersupply. The power source is selected automatically.External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) orbattery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into theboards power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headersof the POWER connector.The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable.If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. Therecommended range is 7 to 12 volts.The power pins are as follows: • VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when its using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. • 5V.The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply. • 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board FTDI chip. Maximum current draw is 50 mA. • GND. Ground pins. 51
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-EgyptInput and OutputEach of the 14 digital pins on the UNO can be used as an input or output. They operateat 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins havespecialized functions: • Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the FTDI USB-to- TTL Serial chip. • External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. • PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output. • SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication. • LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, its off.The UNO has 6 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible tochange the upper end of their range using the AREF pin. Additionally, some pins havespecialized functionality: • I2C: analog input pins A4 (SDA) and A5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication. • Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board.High level design of our remote control is shown in figure 5.2 that describe need : • Direction control 1. Tow Analog switches : one to control Roll and Pitch other to control Throttle and Yaw 2. 8 Digital switches : 4 to control Roll and Pitch And another 4 to control Throttle and Yaw • One selector switch : Select which use analog or digital .All of them connected with atmega328p as another controllerUNO connect this other component52
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt • Two digital switches to request sensor data from quadcopter or emergency landing it • GLCD to display sensor data • RF-module Witch responsible for wireless connection between Remote and QuadcopterAs a large number of pin which increases than we have on UNO we made anothercontroller that connect with it through UART protocol although there is no more than oneport that used with RF-Module we established one on pin 2-3 that can read and writeUART data through it beside 0-1 (port 0) UART . 5.2 GLCDOn our remote controller We needed to Display Sensor data like ( Temperature ,Pressure , Humidity , altitude and battery level values ).so We decided to use a GLCDon our remote controller to display this values , and it was 128 × 64 pixels dimensionGLCD . Figure 5.2 : GLCD 128 × 64 pixels . 53
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt1. 128x64 LCD implies 128 columns and 64 rows. In total there are (128x64 = 1024) pixels.2. 128x64 LCD is divided equally into two halves. Each half is controlled by a separate controller and consists of 8 pages. In above diagram, CS stands for Controller Select.3. Each page consists of 8 rows and 64 columns. So two horizontal pages make 28 (64x2) columns and 8 vertical pages make 64 rows (8x8).Showing in Figure 5.4. Figure 5.3 : GLCD Pages .Table 5.1 showing Pin Description: Pin no. Function Name 1 Ground ; 0V Vss 2 Supply voltage; 5V Vcc 3 Contrast adjustment Vo 4 High to display data; Low for instruction code Register select (RS) Low to write to the register; High to read from 5 Read/Write (R/W) the register54
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt Reads data when high; Writes data at high to 6 Enable (EN) low transition (falling edge) 7 DB0 8 DB1 9 DB2 10 DB3 8-bit data pins 11 DB4 12 DB5 13 DB6 14 DB7 15 Chip selection for IC1; Active high CS1 16 Chip selection for IC2; Active high CS2 17 Reset signal; Active low RST 18 Output voltage for LCD driving Vout 19 Backlight VCC (5V) LED A 20 Backlight Ground (0V) LED K Table 5.1 : Pin Description. 5.3 RF-ModuleWe needed the RF module to fulfill some requirements and they were :- • Half duplex or full duplex • Distance larger than 500 meter • small power consumption • Data rate larger than 1 K bit per second • Easy to interface with MCUAfter searching on the internet wefound thatHAC-UM96 is suitable for our needs . figure5.5 shows a picture of it Figure 5.5 : Hac-UM96 . 55
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-EgyptFeatures : 1- Ultra low power transmission with the transmission power of 10mW 2- ISM frequency band, Carrier frequency of 433MHz 3- High anti- interference and low BER( Bit error Rate) = ŵŴ ŋ ŵŴ . 4- Long transmission distance around 1 Km with data rate 9600 bps. 5- Transparent data transmission 6- Dual serial port, 3 interface modes 7- High reliability, small and lightTechnical specification of HAC-UM96Modulation mode: GFSKWorking frequency: 429.00~433.30MHz (customization for 450~470MHz)Transmission power : 10dBmInterface data format : 8E1/8N1  Receiving sensitivity -112dBm@ 9600bpsWorking temperature: - 10Ȑ~60Ȑ (customization for -30Ȑ~70Ȑ)Power supply : +3.3 ~ 5.5VDCDimension : 47×26×10mmTransmitting current : ≤40mAReceiving current: ≤30mAsleep current : <20µAInterface velocity: 9600b p sWorking humidity : 10%~90% relative humidity without condensationJP2 has 5 pins ABCDE with made it sort circuit or open circuit change channelfrequency , interface mode and parity check bit with data or not.Multi channelIt also has multi channel , as it provide 8 channel with changing ABC jumper in JP2With changing connection changing frequency according to Table 5.2 Channel No Frequency CBA=000(0) 430.2000 MHz CBA=001(1) 431.4288 MHz CBA=010(2) 431.7360 MHz CBA=011(3) 430.5072 MHz CBA=100(4) 434.6940 MHz56
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt CBA=101(5) 434.2332 MHz CBA=110(6) 433.1580 MHz CBA=111(7) 433.9260 MHz Table 5.3 : RF-module channelA=1, B=1, C=1 (without short circuit)A=0, B=0, C=0 (with short circuit)Parity mode selectionHAC- UM96 can support no - parity or even parity modes of t he serialcommunication UART, i.e.8N1/8E1. It can choose parity mode through E of JP2: E=1 (without short circuit) Parity: 8E1 ( even parity) E=0 (with short circuit ) Parity: 8N1 (no parity)Interface modes :HAC- UM96 provides 2 serial ports. COM1 (Pin3 and Pin4 of JP1) is fixed as UARTserial port of TTL level ; COM2 (Pin6 and Pin7 of JP1) can choose interface modethrough D of JP2: D=1 (without short circuit) COM2 = RS- 485 D=0 (with short circuit) COM2 = RS- 232JP1 is responsible for interface between module and controller and table 5.3 showDefinition of connecting pins and connection method ,and figure 5.6 show connectionbetween HAC- UM96 and microcontroller. Connected Pi n Pi n Description Level to Remarks No Name the terminal Grounding of Grounding of 1 GND power supply power supply 2 Vcc Power supply DC +3.3~5.5V Serial data 3 RxD/ TTL TTL TxD receiving end COM1 Serial data 4 TxD/ TTL TTL Rx d transmitting end Grounding of the 5 SGND signal A of RS- 485 or 6 A( TxD) A(RxD ) COM2 TxD of RS -232 57
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt B of RS- 485 or 7 B(RxD) B( TxD) RxD of RS-232 Low Sleep control 8 SLEEP TTL Sleep signal efficiency (input ) t >15ms Negative 9 RESET Reset ( input ) TTL Reset signal impulse reset Table 5.4 : RF-module connecting pins . Figure 5.5 : connection between HAC- UM96 and microcontroller.58
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt Figure 5.6 : Our Remote . 59
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-EgyptPC BasedIt depends mainly on developing GUI to control the quadcopter and to have datatransferred from the quadcopter to PC , also showing the present position of ourquadcopter with the help of Google maps Using GPS, And drawing the track thequadcopter is taking during its movement on the map . Figure 5.7 : GUI .60
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-EgyptAlso we are using EasyCAP software to provide a live video streaming from thequadcopter to the PC .Easycap is the device which links your PC up to any video device with RCA connector orS-Video connector, such as VHS, VCR, DVD, TV, DV, analog camcorder, camera. Figure 5.8 : EasyCap . Figure 5.9 : Video . 61
    • Ch5: Base station UAV-Egypt62
    • 6 Sensors In this chapter, the main quadcopter sensors are presented. They are fundamental toidentify the robot’s attitude and its height from the ground. Furthermore, thanks also to anetwork of distance sensors, it is possible to accomplish obstacle avoidance andtrajectory planning on a high level controller. The first section (6.1: SONAR module) gives an overview of the SONAR module.Particular attention is given to the performance, the interface with the microcontroller(through special protocol ) and the communication protocol. The second section (6.2: IR module) gives an overview of the IR module. It focuseson the performance, the hardware interface with the microcontroller (through ADC) andthe interpolation of the module characteristic for the distance estimation. The third section (6.3: PIR Sensor) gives an overview of the PIR Sensor . It focuseson the performance, the hardware interface with the microcontroller (through Digital pin). The Fourth section (6.4: Humidity &Temperature ) gives an overview of the Humidityand Temperature Module . It focuses on the performance, the hardware interface withthe microcontroller (through special protocol ) and its application 63
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egypt 6.1 SONAR module SONAR is the acronym of Sound Navigation And Ranging, which identifies a sensor capable of measuring a distance through ultrasound waves. There are a lot of different types of SONAR systems according to the desired characteristics. In this work the model PING (from Parallax) has been adopted. It is composed of two ultrasound capsules, a light sensor, a PIC microcontroller and other needed circuitry. The two capsules are transducers which convert ultrasonic waves into electrical signals and vice versa. One capsule is used for the wave transmission while the other one for the wave reception. An on-board light sensor is included in the device to get the additional light information. The microcontroller is the ”brain” of the module. It allows the communication with other digital devices (through special protocol ) and provides the right signal conditioning to and from the ultrasonic capsules and the light sensor. Furthermore there is other circuitry which is needed to correctly interface the microcontroller and the transducers. A picture of the Sonar module is shown in figure 6.1 Figure 6.1: PING))) Ultrasonic SensorThe SONAR is used in this project to estimate the height of the Quadcopter from theground. Therefore it is mounted on the bottom of the robot, pointing downwards (it hasthe same direction as theI axis in the body-fixed frame). Generally this direction is notthe same as I (measured in the earth inertial frame) because it depends on the64
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-EgyptQuadcopter attitude. To calculate the earth inertial frame distance (Z), the SONAR datamust be multiplied by the cosine of the roll angle (φ) and by the cosine of the pitch angle(θ) These two angles are measured with the IMU (presented in section 4.2 ).The features of the PING))) Ultrasonic Distance Sensor are [42] : • Range: 2 cm to 3 m (0.8 in to 3.3 yd) The range of this sensor is quite wide. This characteristic makes it suitable for Crisis analysis applications, where an indoor scenario with several obstacles is possible. • Burst indicator LED shows sensor activity You will definitely appreciate the activity status LED and the economic use of just one I/O pin. • Simple pulse in/pulse out communication The Ping sensor measures distance using sonar; an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted from the unit and distance-to-target is determined by measuring the time required for the echo return. Output from the PING))) sensor is a variable-width pulse that corresponds to the distance to the target. • 20 mA power consumption. The power consumption of the module is considerably low. Therefore it does not affect the design of the power supply source, which instead has to deliver a lot of energy to the motors. • Narrow acceptance angle . This value is typical for SONAR modules. It comes from the physics of ultrasonic capsules. With this (wide) angle it is easy to detect obstacles even if they don’t lie in the perfect direction of the sensor. On the contrary, it is not possible to estimate a certain straight distance if an obstacle lie in the proximity and reflects the wave as it was ”in-line” with the sensor direction. • Weight: 9 g (0.32 oz) The light weight makes this module suitable for unmanned aerial vehicle. • Bidirectional TTL pulse interface . on a single I/O pin can communicate with 5 V TTL or 3.3 V CMOS microcontrollers. • Interface 3-pin header makes it easy to connect using a servo extension cable, no soldering required Less number of connector that make it easy to assemble Quadcopter 65
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-EgyptCommunication ProtocolThe PING))) sensor detects objects by emitting a short ultrasonic burst and then"listening" for the echo. Under control of a host microcontroller (trigger pulse) , thesensor emits a short 40 kHz (ultrasonic) burst. This burst travels through the air, hits anobject and then bounces back to the sensor. The PING))) sensor provides an outputpulse to the host that will terminate when the echo is detected, hence the width of thispulse corresponds to the distance to the target. Figure 6.2: Communication Protocol 6.2 IR moduleIR is the acronym of Infrared , which identifies a light wave within a certain frequencyrange. These waves can’t be seen by people because human eyes are not sensible inthis interval (even though IR is quite close to the visible range). The IR module (orsystem) is a device capable of measuring a distance through IR waves. There are a lotof different types of these systems according to the desired characteristics and thetechnology used for the ranging (triangulation, phase shift, time of flight, ...). In this workthe model GP2Y0A21YK0F (from Sharp) has been adopted. It is composed of one light66
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egyptemitter, one light detector, a signal processing circuit and other needed circuitry asshown in figure 6.3 Figure 6.3:IR Internal Block DiagramThe IR Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a transducer which converts electrical signals intoIR waves. On the contrary the Position-Sensitive Device (PSD), composed of aphotodiodes array, applies a physic conversion in the opposite way: from IR waves toelectrical signals. The analyzed IR module adopts the triangulation strategy to computethe distance estimation. The IR LED sends a light beam. When it runs into an obstacle,most of the incident light is reflected according to the object reflectivity. Part of thesereflected beam will be collected from a lens and focused in a small area of the PSD.Thanks to geometric consideration it is possible to calculate the distance according tothe lighted photodiode (or photodiodes) in the PSD. Figure6.4shows the triangulationstrategy. Figure 6.4: triangulation strategyThe signal processing circuit is the ”brain” of the module. It creates the right signalconditioning to and from the optical devices and provides a certain analog output 67
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egyptaccording to the measured distance. The oscillation circuit modulates on-off the IRwaves. It is needed to reduce interferences between the ambient light and that one fromthe LED. Furthermore, modulated signals are much easier and more reliably detected bya demodulator. The voltage regulator is an additional circuit to stabilize the power supplyin the device. Likewise, the output circuit is needed to provide a signal directly readablefrom a microcontroller (range of a few volts and low output impedance). The LED drivecircuit is composed of other circuitry which is needed to correctly interface the signalprocessing circuit to the LED. A picture of the IR module is shown in figure 6.5. Figure 6.5 : IR module photoThe IR module (as well as the SONAR) is used in this project to estimate the height ofthe Quadcopter from the ground. Therefore it is mounted close to the SONAR on thebottom of the robot, pointing downwards. To calculate the earth inertial frame distance(Z), the IR data must be multiplied by the cosine of the roll angle (φ) and by the cosine ofthe pitch angle (θ). These two angles are measured with the IMU (presented in section4.2 ).The features of the GP2Y0A21YK0F IR module are [43]: • Analogue data output. The communication between the IR module and the MCU is analogue (typically 0.4 to 2.3 V range) , there-fore just an internal ADC block is used and no considerable delays are added in the process. The main drawback of this solution is that there is a measure error during the data conversion (this is not verified if the output is digital). Furthermore, as Sharp recommends, an RC low pass filter was added on the output to reduce the noise on the line. The values of the resistance and the capacitance are ŶŶ ŵŴ% Ωand ŵŹŴ ŵŴ respectively • Distance measuring range : 10 to 80 cm The range of this sensor is quite wide (even though the SONAR described before has a wider one). This characteristic makes it suitable for Crisis analysis applications, where an indoor scenario with several obstacles is possible. A drawback of this module is that the minimum range is 0.1 [m]. Furthermore the distance measure does not saturate for values less than the minimum, but it provides ambiguous data. Therefore the SONAR must be used to determine whether he IR data is valid or not, in low range distances. • Consumption current : Typ. 30 mA68
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egypt The power consumption of the IR module is considerably low (even if it is three times bigger than the SONAR one). Therefore it does not affect the design of the power supply source, which instead has to deliver a lot of energy to the motors.Since the output voltage to distance characteristic is not linear, a 34 point linearizationlook-up table has been taken into account to describe in detail the curve. Furthermore, alinear interpolation was added to calculate the distance value on the linearized segmentto achieve better accuracy. Figure 6.6 shows the IR module output characteristic. Figure 6.6:Analog output voltage vs. distance to reflective object 6.3 PIR SensorThe PIR (Passive Infra-Red) Sensor is a Pyroelectric device that detects motion bysensing changes in the infrared (radiant heat) levels emitted by surrounding objects.This motion can be detected by checking for a sudden change in the surrounding IRpattern. When motion is detected the PIR sensor outputs a high signal on its output pin.This logic signal can be read by a microcontroller or used to drive an external load. Dualoutput modes and a sensible design that performs within stated datasheet specificationsare a few reasons over 100,000 units are in use around the world. 69
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-EgyptPyroelectric devices, such as the PIR sensor, have elements made of a crystallinematerial that generates an electric charge when exposed to infrared energy. Thechanges in the amount of infrared energy striking the element change the voltagesgenerated, which are measured by an on-board amplifier. The device contains aFresnel lens, which focuses the infrared signals onto the element. As the ambientinfrared signals change rapidly, the on-board amplifier trips the output to indicate motion.The onboard jumper allows the user to select between normal operation and reducedsensitivity. The sensitivity of the PIR Sensor varies with temperature and otherenvironmental conditions. Generally, when in reduced sensitivity mode, the PIR sensorwill detect an object at up to half the distance it would in normal operating mode. Figure 6.7 :PIR SensorRangeThe PIR Sensor’s range is affected by: • The sensitivity jumper setting • The size and thermal properties of nearby objects • Environmental conditions including ambient temperature and light sourcesThe graph below depicts the approximate effects of known ambient temperatures on thePIR Sensor’s detection range of an average adult. The graph below depicts theapproximate effects of known temperatures on the PIR Sensor’s detection range of anadult. Note: This device is designed for indoor use. Operation outside or in extremetemperatures may negatively affect stability. Direct exposure to sunlight or other forms ofradiant heating may cause undesired operation.70
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egypt Figure 6.8 : Effect of Temp. on PIR distance detectionThe features of the PIR Sensor are : • Single bit high/low output Communication is very easy as if PIR signaling; HIGH = movement , LOW = no movement And make it Easy interface to any microcontroller • Small size&3-pin SIP header That make it easy to assemble and connect to Main board • power consumption The power consumption of the module is considerably low. Therefore it does not affect the design of the power supply source, which instead has to deliver a lot of energy to the motors. "12 mA @ 3 V, 23 mA @ 5 V" 6.4 Humidity & TemperatureAbsolute humidity is an amount of water vapor, usually discussed per unit volume. AndTemperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the commonnotions of hot and cold. we choose one sensor that can read Humidity and Temp.DHT11 Temperature & Humidity Sensor. 71
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egypt Figure 6.9 : DHT11 Temperature & Humidity SensorBy using the exclusive digital-signal-acquisition technique and temperature & humiditysensing technology, it ensures high reliability and excellent long-term stability. Thissensor includes a resistive-type humidity measurement component and an NTCtemperature measurement component, and connects to a high-performance 8-bitmicrocontroller, offering excellent quality, fast response, anti-interference ability andcost-effectiveness.Each DHT11 element is strictly calibrated in the laboratory that is extremelyaccurate on humidity calibration. The calibration coefficients are stored as programmesin the OTP memory, which are used by the sensor’s internal signal detecting process.The single-wire serial interface makes system integration quick and easy. Its smallsize, low power consumption and up-to 20 meter signal transmission making it thebest choice for various applications, including those most demanding ones. Thecomponent is 4-pin single row pin package. It is convenient to connect and specialpackages can be provided according to users’ request.The features of DHT11 Temperature & Humidity Sensor are : • Temperature Accuracy : It is more sensitive to temperature change as its accuracy is ±2Ȑ that is very good . • Humidity Accuracy It is more sensitive to amount of water vapor as its accuracy is ±2Ȑ that is very good . • Package : It has a 4 Pin Single Row that make it easy to assemble in our project. • Measurement Range: It has a very large range of temperature( 0 : 50 Ȑ ) , and large range in humidity ( 20-90%RH ).72
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-Egypt Parameters Conditions Minimum Typical Maximum Resolution 1%RH 1%RH 1%RH 8 Bit Repeatability ±1%RH Accuracy 25Ȑ ±4%RH 0-50Ȑ ±5%RH Interchangeability Fully InterchangeableHumidity Measurement 0Ȑ 30%RH 90%RH Range 25Ȑ 20%RH 90%RH 50Ȑ 20%RH 80%RH Response Time 1/e(63%)25Ȑ 6 S 10 S 15 S (Seconds) ¡ 1m/s Air Hysteresis ±1%RH Long-Term Typical ±1%RH/year Stability Resolution 1Ȑ 1Ȑ 1Ȑ 8 Bit 8 Bit 8 BitTemperature Repeatability ±1Ȑ Accuracy ±1Ȑ ±2Ȑ Measurement 0Ȑ 50Ȑ Range Response Time 1/e(63%) 6S 30 S (Seconds) Table 6.1: DHT11 SpecificationsCommunication ProcessSingle-bus data format is used for communication and synchronization betweenMCU and DHT11 sensor. One communication process is about 4ms.Data consists of decimal and integral parts. A complete data transmission is 40bit,and the sensor sends higher data bit first.Data format: 8bit integral RH data + 8bit decimal RH data + 8bit integral T data + 8bitdecimal T data + 8bit check sum. If the data transmission is right, the check-sum shouldbe the last 8bit of "8bit integral RH data + 8bit decimal RH data + 8bit integral T data +8bit decimal T data".Overall Communication ProcessWhen MCU sends a start signal, DHT11 changes from the low-power-consumptionmode to the running-mode, waiting for MCU completing the start signal. Once it iscompleted, DHT11 sends a response signal of 40-bit data that include the relativehumidity and temperature information to MCU. Users can choose to collect (read) somedata. Without the start signal from MCU, DHT11 will not give the response signal to 73
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-EgyptMCU. Once data is collected, DHT11 will change to the low power-consumption modeuntil it receives a start signal from MCU again. Figure 6.10 : Overall Communication ProcessMCU Sends out Start Signal to DHTData Single-bus free status is at high voltage level. When the communication betweenMCU and DHT11 begins, the program of MCU will set Data Single-bus voltage levelfrom high to low and this process must take at least 18ms to ensure DHT’s detection ofMCUs signal, then MCU will pull up voltage and wait 20-40us for DHT’s response. Figure 6.11 : MCU Sends out Start Signal & DHT ResponsesDHT Responses to MCUOnce DHT detects the start signal, it will send out a low-voltage-level response signal,which lasts 80us. Then the program of DHT sets Data Single-bus voltage level from lowto high and keeps it for 80us for DHT’s preparation for sending data.When DATA Single-Bus is at the low voltage level, this means that DHT is sending theresponse signal. Once DHT sent out the response signal, it pulls up voltage and keeps itfor 80us and prepares for data transmission.74
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-EgyptWhen DHT is sending data to MCU, every bit of data begins with the 50us low-voltage-level andthe length of the following high-voltage-level signal determines whether data bit is "0" or "1" Figure 6.12 :Data "0" Indication Figure 6.13 : Data "1" Indication 75
    • Ch6: Sensors UAV-EgyptIf the response signal from DHT is always at high-voltage-level, it suggests that DHT isnot responding properly and please check the connection. When the last bit data istransmitted, DHT11 pulls down the voltage level and keeps it for 50us. Then the Single-Bus voltage will be pulled up by the resistor to set it back to the free status.Electrical Characteristics Conditions Minimum Typical MaximumPower Supply DC 3V 5V 5.5VCurrent Supply Measuring 0.5mA 2.5mA Average 0.2mA 1mA Standby 0.1mA 0.15mASampling period Second 1 Table 6.2 : Electrical Characteristics76
    • 7 Market Research Report In this chapter, we will show our future planning for our project if its to continuesas a product in market. Market research is a key factor in getting advantages over competitors. Marketresearch provides important information to identify and analyze the market needs,market size and competition. Market research, includes social and opinion research,[and] is the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals ororganizations using statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the appliedsocial sciences to gain insight or support decision making The first section ( 7.1 Product planning )talks about identifying and articulatingmarket requirements that define a product’s feature set. Product planning serves as thebasis for decisions about price, distribution and promotion. The second section ( 7.2 Identifying customer needs ) as salesperson takes aqualified prospect through a series of question and answer sessions in order to identifythe requirements of the prospect. During this step, the salesperson will attempt to helpthe buyer identify and quantify a business need or a "gap" between where the client istoday and where they would like to be in the future. Based on that gap, needs can beclarified to determine if the solution will fill all, or part of the overall gap. 77
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 7.1 Product planningThe planning process considers project development opportunities, identified by manysources including: 1- research 2- customer needs 3- Suggestions from Experts 4- Current Worldwide Companies working in The Field of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles .At the time we were choosing a project idea to make as a graduation project ,we werelooking for an idea that is new , non-traditional and that helps in solving the problemsexisting in our lives and not such a group of electronic circuits connected together. we decided to make a small survey about problems people face in our country and wefound that if we make something that is capable of saving people life during crisis likeEarthquakes, volcanoes , the collapse of Buildings And also that can monitor pressureand gas lines this will be very important, and we decided to use Unmanned AerialVehicle to solve this problem and that our platform be a Quadcopterfor the market in Egypt, quadcopter is a new product and theres no factories orcompanies that adopted this idea before, there is a small number of attempts at previousprojects to make UAVs but there wasnt a particular purposeOur project has a great chance to find a market in Egypt for the following reasons 1- its a New product and there are no competitors 2- large number of applications 3- UAV contains new technologies that can invade the Egyptian market strongly 4- Positive reviews from people in the market about the project 5- can be made in a competitive price if compared to other manufacturers outside EgyptApplications of UAV :- Emergency Services & Safety Disaster Control Searching and Rescuing for affected Bushfire Management Fire Damage Assessment Hazardous Chemical & Gas Sensing (AirGuard payload)78
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-EgyptInfrastructure Inspection Construction Power lines Pipelines Bridges Oil rigsLaw Enforcement Suspect Surveillance Bomb Threat Investigation Police entry into clandestine drug manufacturing facilities (AirGuard payload) Conservation Enforcement Traffic Monitoring Crowd ControlMilitary Urban Surveillance Over the Hill Recognizance Communications Relay Node& Repeater Leading a Convoy Mine Detection Target DetectionEnvironmental Conservation Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions monitoring (AirGuard payload) Waterways monitoring Animal and migration trackingAgricultural Operations Animal & crop monitoringSport Action tracking Training assistanceReal Estate Advertising Assessment Prospective High Rise ViewsFilm Production Services Aerial Cinematography News coverageRecreational Hobby Aerial Photography First Person Flying 79
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 7.1.1 Identifying opportunitieswe employed to collect ideas for UAV from surveys we did to know the problems thatpeople face most and needs solutions and we choose the most 3 vital applications fromthe list and they are :- 1- Disasters and treat using UAV to aid Civil Protection Workers {Crisis Analysis Application} 2- Monitor the gas lines on petroleum plants 3- Film Production Services { Aerial Cinematography}The next step for us is related to the product itself? What the customer wants in it.First : if we are going to use the quadcopter for Rescuing affected people (during Disasters)the quadcopter should be able to provide using GPS a way for the rescue teams to enter the disaster location, it should also contain a camera to provide video streaming. it should also measure the temperature and pressure inside the location and send these values wirelessly to the base station ,Measuring the height of the floods and rubblesSecond : if we are going to use the quadcopter in petroleum plants to Monitor the gas lines, oil and valves ,the engineers working in that field told us that the quadcopter must take the necessary precautions on the plant, for example isolate cables well and put battery in safe isolated position .they suggested the using of some sensors like gas and temperature sensors to measure gas leaksThird : We asked Movies producers and directors about their needs , and they answered us by saying that they need to take special shots with high and difficult angles which are usually impossible to take with regular camera , so we put in our consideration placing a high resolution camera on our quadcopter .so we put in our considerations this Recommendations and opinions and starteddesigning our quadcopter to fit all requirements 7.1.2 Evaluating and Prioritizing Projectswe are tipping quadcopters to lead the market in Egypt , like all new products that cometo Egyptian market, but we need to success in marketing it in Egypt to show how it canbe used in a lot of applicationsthis is our prediction for our product life cycle in the first year and for market growth ratein the next years80
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt Civil Petroleum Children Directors and Protection Engineers photographers Workers Market Size 3000 Units per 1500 Units Per 6000 Units Per 300 Unit Per year (units / year year x 2500 LE year x 3000 year x 1000LE x 2000 LE average price) Market Growth 10 % 8% 15 % 5% rate competitive No company in No company in No company in No company in intensity Egyptian market Egyptian market Egyptian market Egyptian market working on this working on this working on this working on this field UAV field UAV field UAV field UAV (New Market) (New Market) (New Market) (New Market) depth of the Well Known of Well Known of Well Known of Well Known of firms existing the worldwide the worldwide the worldwide the worldwide knowledge of competitors (No competitors (No competitors (No competitors (No the technology Egyptian Firms) Egyptian Firms) Egyptian Firms) Egyptian Firms)Fit with firms Yes, Fit with Yes, Fit with Yes Fit with Yes, Fit with capabilities firms firms firms capabilities firms capabilities capabilities capabilities The proportion 30 % 50 % Avoid the 100 % 20 % special of the role problem before shots with special played by its wells angels UAV in each application Table 7.1 :Evaluating and Prioritizing Projects 1- Civil Protection Workers : Requires Special Sensors - Specials Precautions 2- Petroleum Engineers : Special sensors - GPS - special isolation for some parts 3- Children : to get lower price remove some parts that will not benefit them 4- Directors and photographers : Requires high resolution camera - high stabilityTotal number of items we expected to sell in first year depending on the table ( 3000 +1500 + 6000 + 300 = 10800 UAV expected to sell in first business year) 81
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-EgyptMarket Growth rate 10000 9000 8000 7000 Civil Protection Workers 6000 Petroleum Engineers 5000 4000 Children 3000 Directors and 2000 photographers 1000 0 2013 2014 2015 2016 Figure 7.1 :Market Growth rate 55.50% 60% 50% 40% 27% 30% 20% 13.80% 10% 2.77% 0% Civil Protection Petroleum Children Directors and Workers Engineers photographers The proportion of sales in the first year for each sector Figure 7.2 : :First year sales proportion for each sector82
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 7.1.3 Market Plan A Competitive strategyWe believe that the future in Egypt will not be waiting for solutions on ground becauseof overcrowding, so our strategy is to make solutions in air using quadcopter for manyapplications and as theres no competitors in Egypt we will lead the technology ofUnmanned Aerial Vehicles ,and in order to keep up with that we plan to implementsome strategies:1 - Competitive Price Leadership We plan to capture 50% of low price UAV or QUAD COPTER market after 4 years of starting in Egypt .2- Technology Leadership We Plane to Lead new technology brand And Lead New Market for a New Product here in Egypt3- Customer requirements We have divided the customers who will benefit from the project into segments because each application required adding and changing the shape of the plane and the segments of our market are :- Civil protection Workers to aid in collapse of Buildings Engineers in petroleum plant for monitoring pressure and gas lines Children as entertainment game Directors and photographers for Action tracking, Training assistance, special shots , more complicated angles in photography B Market segmentation 1- Targeted Market: We will target the Egyptian market as theres no competitor firms exist so we expectrapid growth in the market 2- Size of Market: In this field the market size can’t be determined accurately, however If we canestimate the Egyptian market as the product can be used as game for kids , in petroleumplants , And civil protection units 83
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt Civil Petroleum Children Directors and Protection Engineers photographers Workers Market Size (units / 3000 Units per 1500 Units Per 6000 Units Per 300 Unit Per year xyear * average price) year x 2500 LE year x 3000 year x 1000LE 2000 LE Table 7.2 :Size of Market 3- Annual Growth: Probably it will be 5-20% according to how good marketing techniques we will usealso the annual growth isnot constant for all market segments , it varies depending on each segment 4- Market Share: We plan to capture 50% of low price UAV or QUAD COPTER market after 4 years ofoperation. Film Production Traffic Monitoring Services Agricultural Operations Military Childrens or kids Petroleum engineers Civil Protection Workers Figure 7.3 :Customers Based Market Segmentation84
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt Product platform planningWe plan to make a product platform that consists of : 1- Dedicated Remote Control 2- Suitable quadcopter (Main Part) 3- Graphical User Interface. 4- Wireless Camera Module 5- Some Additional H/W to suit the users application Technologies Functional Second First Prototype Third Prototype Elements Prototype Aluminum Frame Wood Frame Handmade Carbon Fiber Frame Frame Digital Remote Analog / Digital Remote Analog Remote With 700 M Remote With 1 Km Control with 300 M range range range LCD-016M002B LCD Color LCD Color LCD Black and white 924 Kv Motors 1100 Kv Motors 1350 Kv Motors Motors 18A Max - 150 w 11A Max –130 w 10 A Max - 100 w Thrust 400 gm Thrust 745 gm Thrust 900 gm 85
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt Arduino Mega Controller PIC 16F877A Egyptian Arduino 2560 Low resolution High resolution HD Camera High Video Link camera 100 M camera 300 M resolution 3 Km range range range Time (Prototype are series in time) Figure 7.4 :Product platform planning (over 3 prototype) 7.1.4 Allocate Pre-Project Resources and Time PlanningFor allocating pre-project resources and time planning we put in consideration the limitedhuman resources and the unlimited desirable goals. A Resource AllocationIn the current state most of the resources allocation is affected by the limited humanresources because of college attendance. For 1 / 11 to 31 / 1Project Resourcesblocks Colleg Research Software Human Components Mechanical Electrical e for Project Developing resources Search Design DesignFrame 5 140 0 15 130 150 0Motors 15 80 20 50 100 95 135ControlVideo 25 80 25 40 110 20 10LinkGPS 35 20 0 20 20 0 0IMU 45 20 0 20 20 0 0GLCD 55 20 0 20 50 0 0Remote 55 150 180 60 50 40 110ControlArduino 65 180 200 60 5 0 20Sensors 75 130 160 60 70 0 30Resource 375 820 585 345 555 305 305DemandResource 300 750 510 360 495 270 275CapacityCapacity 125 % 109 % 115 % 95 % 112 % 112 % 111 %Utilization Table 7.3 :Resource Allocation( 1-11 to 31-1)86
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 140% 120% Utilization 100% Capacity 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Figure 7.5 :Capacity Utilization ( 1-11 to 31-1) Project Resources blocks College Research Software Human Components Mechanical Electrical for Project Developing resources Search Design Design 0 20 0 10 30 30 0 Frame GPS 10 120 100 40 50 0 60 IMU 20 200 150 50 120 10 40 GLCD 25 40 50 50 90 0 20 Remote 30 20 120 60 100 30 90 Control For 1 / 2 to 31 / 4 Arduino 40 180 150 70 110 0 40 Sensors 50 130 120 40 80 0 10Resource 175 710 690 370 500 70 260 DemandResource 155 700 650 315 450 73 240 CapacityCapacityU 112 % 101 % 106 % 85 % 111 % 95 % 108 % tilization Table 7.4 :Resource Allocation( 1-2 to 31-4) 87
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 120% 100% Utilization 80% Capacity 60% 40% 20% 0% Figure 7.6 : :Capacity Utilization ( 1-2 to 31-4) For 1 / 2 to 31 / 4 Project Resources blocks College Developing Software Human Testing Mechanical Electrical Developing resources Design Design 0 50 0 20 30 0 0 Frame GPS 10 50 70 30 70 0 30 IMU 20 200 160 50 140 20 20 GLCD 25 40 70 50 100 0 20 Remote 30 30 80 60 20 10 70 Control Arduino 40 50 110 70 10 0 40Sensors 50 90 80 40 50 0 10Resource 175 510 570 320 420 30 190DemandResource 155 500 570 315 440 40 175CapacityCapacity 112 % 101 % 100 % 98 % 95 % 75 % 108 %Utilization Table 7.5 :Resource Allocation ( 1-5 to 31-6)88
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 120% 100% Utilization 80% Capacity 60% 40% 20% 0% Figure 7.7 :Capacity Utilization ( 1-5 to 31-6) B Time PlanningWe must consider number of factors: 1- timing of product introduction:the product will be brought to the market after doing business plan within nearby 1 yearwe will prepare suitable fund to have the ability to manufacture our product and study themarket well. 2- Technology readiness: • the wireless technique used in sending and receiving can be developed by using another technique such as Wi-Fi instead of RF because the transceivers are continuously developing and the wireless communication plays critical role in our project. • We can develop the flying technique • The battery life is playing critical role ,the increase of battery life increase the strength of the product and this is a challenging point. 3- Market readiness:because our product is considered as new idea so we intend to produce high qualityproduct by earning 30% of total cost then after the number of competitors increased weplanned to reduce the percentage of profit and develop it by adding more accessories. 89
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt 4- competition:No competitors here in Egypt and we will seek to compete with ourselves by addingmore sensors and increase battery life to make it more suitable to large range ofcustomers. 7.2 Identifying customer needsWe will show that how we choose our project to bebased on people needs, so in thissection we discussed the various customer needs and how we gathered raw data fromthem. 7.2.1 Choosing Customers Lead Users Users Retailer or Service Content Sales Outlet Homeowner 1 4 6 9 ( occasional )Handy person 5 7 6 9(Frequent use) Professional 7 9 6 9 (heavy-duty use) Table 7.6 :Choosing Customers. 7.2.2 Gathering and Interpreting Raw Data in terms of Customer NeedsWe communicate with some people who are supposed to benefit from the project andasked them about their requirements .we gathered the following information. Question/prompt Customer Statement Interpreted need Kids - Children I need the control of plane to be Implement simple remote simple control in range of 1 KM and take all precautions to be safe with the kids I need it with low price We removed some sensors which the children will not use or benefit from it also used cheap motors and cheap battery to make it suitable in use and suitable in price I want the see myself with the Small camera is installed on plane the plane to transport live90
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt broadcasting Petroleum We need a repeated Measure for Gas and pressure sensors Engineers carbonated leaks , pressure are put on plane for wireless transmitting the value of leakage to the control unit power source to motors must be We have developed a well- well-isolated isolated carbon fiber box and put the battery inside it We have some Analog meters High resolution camera is with indicator and read to see the placed on the quadcopter to reading clearly record anything Some meters are in high altitude The quadcopter can reach and must be reached high altitude and can take accurate readings. Plane must have fire alarm We developed a wireless fire alarm sensor to send reading and alarms to control unit Civil Protection Be able to detect people under We put Human detection Workers the rubble in disaster locations sensor to detect the presence of people Able to resist fire and high implementing the frame from temperature carbon fiber which it non- combustible ,heat-resistant make the propeller of motors from non-combustible ,heat- resistant material also the other parts are all isolated Be able to track the path in which A GPS Module have been plane get to enter the disaster added to provide a way for locations rescue teams for entering disaster locations Directors& I need to take overhead camera The quadcopter can Reach photographers shots with special angels high altitude and take nice shots I need to focus on some things U can control the camera during shot time zoom from the remote controller I need high resolution shots with The camera base is very no vibrations in shot stable and is isolated by a material to absorb vibrations Table 7.7 :Customer Needs • We met with some kids to know the specifications they need . • We met Eng / Mostafa who works as a Petroleum Engineer in EMC www.emceg.com - for Petroleum(Managerial sponsor to our project ) . • We met civil protection workers in Mansoura and asked them about their needs in the quadcopter . 91
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt • We met Ahmed Abo Elnaga (photographer) and asked him about his needs in the quadcopter. 7.2.3 Organize the needs into a hierarchyUAV has a smooth take off and land UAV has a long flight time • The main controller is responsible • Battery maintains a constant level of for smooth take off and landing high power for a long time • wood base is for smooth landing • Battery Can be rechargedquickly • the main controller will take action • Battery is easy to recharge of smooth landing if quadcopter is • Back up Battery is available out of control range • Wireless charger for batteries • the main controller will take action • Solar cell used as power source of smooth landing if battery level is lower than threshold valueUAV Have Camera for video imaging UAV is easy to change damaged parts • There are Varity in models of • UAV frame is available in suitable price camera can be used on UAV • UAV batteries is available in suitable • UAV must has stable flight for price stable overhead shots • Precautions must be taken before • Can control camera from Remote flying Control for example focusing on • Changing damaged parts take small object - changing mood from time images to video and vice versa • I can found the replaced parts in local • The wireless range of sending video stores of camera is more than 1 KM • I can Receive high resolution video and images from cameraNew feeling to drive real plane How much will it cost? • Feeling cannot be described while • Will it be expensive?? Using the plane to protect the lives • Will it be cheap ?? of people • What will be its price?? • Protecting the lives of people using • I can’t pay more than 1000 L.E. small aircraft size object is • I will buy 3 pieces if it costs 700 L.E something that deserves • Will it be affordable for kids? appreciation • We can make a big deal between our • I need to know how to control it firm and your firm to be authorized • I can use it in closed places ? distributer for quadcopter with special prices for us92
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-EgyptCan I control it using PC Will it be easy to use?? • What about the difference between • OK, but you must make it easy to use pc control and remote control and mount. • Can a GUI developed on pc have Will it be portable? good performance like HW remote • I want to integrate it with my laptop.Can I play with it?? how it will save people life • Can i zoom on the objects on the • how will the sensors on the quadcopter ground while flying be used • WOW, I will be able to play more if it • maximum range of control has along battery life. • increasing the range of transferring • Of course I will need it to take shots wireless video with the camera • extending battery life • Can I control it with my Xbox? • double the speed of the quadcopter • It’ll be good for strategic games if other friends join the game with their quadcopter .Can I used indoor ? Does It need Engineer to run it ? • I need to be able to use it indoor • I need it to be easy to use and outdoor • I need to fly it without engineers help • I dont need the UAV to be affected • Able to discover the internal problem by bad weather • Able to solve any problems found • I dont prefer large size • I need the quadcopter to have a small volume • I want to be able to store the quadcopter easily Table 7.8 : Organize the needs into a hierarchy 7.2.4 Establish the relative importance of needs Arduino Based UAV SurveyFor each of the following Arduino Based UAV features please indicate on a scale of 1 to 5 how important the feature is to you. Please use the following scale: 5- Feature is undesirable; I wouldn’t consider a product with this feature. 6- Feature is not important; but I wouldn’t mind having it. 7- Feature would be nice to have; but is not necessary. 8- Feature is highly desirable, but I would consider a product without this feature. 9- Feature is critical; I would not consider a product without this feature. Also indicate by checking the box to the right if you feel that the feature is unique, exciting and/or unexpected.Importance of Features Check box if feature 93
    • Ch7: Market Research Report UAV-Egypt feature on is unique, exciting, scale1 to 5 and/or unexpected • Support a Payload Up To 2 Kg • Sensitive to barriers and can be avoided • Safe landing when battery reach a certain level • Stable during flight time • Live video broadcasting from camera on plane • can reach specific altitude • Replacement of damaged parts easily • Price no more than 1000 LE • Price is more than 1000 LE • Can Follow a specific path • Can be controlled in range more than 500 M • The range of control is less than 500 M • Plane have Long flying time • Can measure the temperature and send wireless • Can measure the Altitude from ground • Can detect human in any place • Varity in camera model that used in UAV • High resolution camera • GPS for tracking UAV on Google Maps • Battery has a constant level of high power • Battery Can be recharged quickly • Battery is easy to recharge • Back up Battery is available • Wireless charger for batteries • Solar cell as power source Table 7.9 :the relative importance of needs94
    • 8 Future WorkThank GodWe have designed first model of Egyptian Quadcopter for the first time her in Egyptbut our goal is not only reach prototype of Quadcopter we intend to make it FunctionalQuadcopter with many applications and many uses .Our prototype are capable of doing some functions like using it in crisis analysisapplications , in petroleum plants , Film directingIn above applications it can measure temperature , pressure , gas leaks , broadcastinglive video , tracking using GPS , take special shots , read metersBut in this chapter we will talk about future uses of Quadcopter in Egypt and its future bigand complex applications 8.1 disaster managementDoctors can use Quadcopter platform in areas such as disaster risk reduction, disasterpreparedness, emergency response, environmental assessments ,digital elevationmodel baseline data creation and more. This capacity will also benefit UN agencies inthe field and other partners. Figure 8.1 : disaster management. 8.2 Prevention of HooligansThe range of applications extends from the surveillance at events or reconnaissance at crime scenes. More police related tasks are such as the support of search activities,the observation, the documentation of traffic measures up to crime scene photography. 95
    • Figure 8.2 : Prevention of Hooligans. 8.3 GPS WaypointThe GPS and is used as a very powerful software tool to manage all down-link flightinformation, flight recorder data, configurations (e.g. Waypoint) and service works (likesoftware updates) on Quadcopter platform devices. Figure 8.3 : GPS Waypoint.96
    • Ch8: Future Work UAV-Egypt 8.4 Aerial Survey MonitoringQuadcopter can be used with the goal of monitoring the high pressure gas pipelines withlow weight, autonomous flying platforms over the air. This technique can either replaceor complete the existing air monitoring by helicopter. These independently operatingaerial platforms are equipped with optical devices. Using these optics, a dangerousinterference to the gas pipe will be quickly detected. Figure 8.4 : Aerial Survey Monitoring. 8.5 Help from the airWest Midlands Fire Service is on the way up. The highly specialized Quadcopter systemof one of the most advanced fire stations helps in firefighting operations (Detection /Monitoring / Support), fire scene inspection (Pre / During / Post), detection of toxicparticles in smoke clouds, radiation measurement and gas detection. Figure 8.5 : Help from the air. 97
    • 8.6 Aerial Video DocumentationAerial Videos of any place using Quadcopter we can make a tour in Forest and non-Populated areas And relatively remote areas Figure 8.6 : Aerial Video Documentation. 8.7 Solar ResearchQuadcopter provides the basis for the latest DLR measurement techniques for theevaluation of parabolic trough power plants. The Institute of Solar Research is one of theworld’s leading research facilities in the field of concentrated solar power. The DLRproject named „QFly“ (synonym for airborne qualification) applies microdronestechnology to inspect CSP power plants. Figure 8.7 : Solar Research. 8.8 Support in excavation The machine tested in a remote area in Russia called Tuekta was a "quadcopter": thebattery-powered Quadcopter. The fact it is small - the axis of its rotors is about 27 inches (70 cm) - and weighs about 35 ounces (1,000 grams) made it easy to transport, and researchers said it was very easy to fly, stabilizing itself constantly and keeping at a given height and position unless ordered to do otherwise. The engine also generated98
    • Ch8: Future Work UAV-Egypt almost no vibrations, they added, so that photographs taken from the camera mounted under it were sharp. Figure 8.8 : Support in excavation. 99
    • 9 ConclusionWhen we started our project , every member of the team was possessing skills differentfrom what other members in the team possess, but at the end of the project, all the teammembers gained and learned some common skills and knowledge in different fields , wewill mention some of them :- • The most important thing we learned , was learning how to work as a team , this is one of the skills that you can learn only when you work in a team • If we switch to technical skills , we learned a lot of programming skills • We learned how to make and develop GUI , as we needed it to control our quadcopter using PC as an alternative to using remote controller • We also learned about a lot of techniques for controlling DC Motors • We learned how to make packets and frames of data and to send them wirelessly , we needed this in sending sensors data and control data from and to the quadcopter • We Learned how to make a stable design for a hardware unit , and we needed this during designing our Remote ControllerAt the end of the project , we can say that All of the Social , technical and marketingskills (we gained marketing skills thanks to working in reports in preparation for secondfiltration point for MIE competition) provides us with enough experience to make firststeps in establishing a company that is specialized in making quadcopters for differentapplications 100
    • 10 ComponentComponent Quantity From where ?Carbon fiber 1 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__22397__Turnigy_Talon_Carbon_ Frame Fiber_Quadcopter_Frame.html Motor 4 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/uh_viewItem.asp?idProduct=1758 7 ESC 4 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__9108__TURNIGY_Basic_25A_v3 _1_Speed_Controller_DE_Warehouse_.html Battery 2 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__14663__Turnigy_4500mAh_3S_ 30C_Lipo_Pack_AUS_Warehouse_.html Battery 1 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__7028__Turnigy_Accucel_6_50W charger _6A_Balancer_Charger_w_accessories.html Propellers 2 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/uh_viewItem.asp?idProduct=2086 4 Arduino 1 http://store.fut-electronics.com/11Ard-+Mega+2560-r3.html 1 http://store.fut-electronics.com/11Ard-Uno+r3.html IMU 1 https://store.diydrones.com/ArduIMU_V3_p/kt-arduimu-30.htm GPS 1 https://store.diydrones.com/MediaTek_MT3329_GPS_10Hz_Adapter_Basic_p/m t3329-02.htm GLCD http://ram-e- shop.com/oscmax/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=22_42&products_id=72FPV system 1 http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__13437__2_4GHZ_1000mW_Tx_ Rx_1_3_inch_CCD_Camera_PAL.htmlRF-Module 2 http://www.rf-module-china.com/products/RF_Modules/17.html Sensor Ping 1 http://egyrobots.com/ IR 4 Temp 1 101
    • 11 AbbreviationsUAV : Unmanned aerial VehicleMAV : Micro Aerial VehicleROA : Remotely Operated AircraftRPV : Remotely Piloted VehicleVTOL : Vertical Take-Off and LandingESC : Electronic Speed ControlIMU : Inertia Measurement UnitMCU : Main controller UnitGPS : Global Positioning SystemFPV : First Person View102
    • References[1] http://www.mediafire.com/?nxiyyqdjibgiq[2] http://fpv-community.com/[3] http://www.rcgroups.com/forums[4] http://www.microdrones.com/index.php[5] http://aeroquad.com/content.php[6] http://ardrone.parrot.com/parrot-ar-drone/usa/[7] http://www.arduino.cc/[8] http://diydrones.com/[9] http://www.parallax.com/[10] http://www.scratchrc.com/RC-Electronics-Explained.html[11] http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/index.rc 103
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