Skin & Skin Infections

Uploaded on

My First Presentation .... Hope you all like it ...

My First Presentation .... Hope you all like it ...

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


    • The skin covers the whole of the external surface of the body.It forms the largest and heaviest organ in the body. The skin consists of three main layers.
    • Epidermis (an upper protective layer)
    • Dermis (a lower supporting layer)
    • Hypodermis
  • 3. Epidermis
    • The epidermis is thick, hard and horny in regions, such as on the palms of the hand and soles of the feet.
    • Properties
    • Primary barrier to microbial invasion
    • Impermeability to water and chemicals
    • High capacity of regeneration after damage
  • 4. Dermis
    • The dermis is soft and elastic in all parts but may be very thick.
    • Properties
    • The dermis gives strength to the skin
    • Act as reservoir of elements capable of fighting infections and repairing deep wounds
  • 5. Hypodermis
    • The skin is supported by a layer of fatty subcutaneous tissue sometimes known as the hypodermis.
    • The most obvious function of the skin is to provide the body with physical protection.
    • It forms an outer covering, which defends the body against injury from mechanical, thermal, chemical sources and microorganisms
    • The skin also acts as an organ of sensation to make the body aware of its environment.
  • 7. FUNCTION OF SKIN (Contd…)
    • Another important function of the skin is regulation of body temperature (37-38C).
    • It plays a minor role in excretion of the body’s waste products
  • 8. Bacterial Structure
      • Protects cell’s internal structures from its external environment.
      • It comprises cell wall, cell membrane
      • Watery gelatinous substance
      • Contains ribosomes, nucleoids & plasmids
      • Keeps the cell alive
  • 9. Bacterial Structure (Contd…)
      • Produces enzymes and proteins
      • Helps the cell to live and grow
      • Contains cell’s genetic material.
      • Also called bacterial chromosome
      • Single circular molecule of double stranded DNA
      • DNA fragments carrying genetic information
  • 10. MYCOLOGY
    • The study of fungi is called Mycology.
    • There are several widespread human and animal diseases that are due to fungi.
    • There are many beneficial fungi, some used to make antibiotics, bread and foods or used as insecticides.
    • The fungi (sing., fungus) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, with over 80,000 identifiable species.
    • Fungi were classified as plants, but laboratory studies have revealed a set of four properties that distinguish fungi from plants.
  • 12. Differentiation from Plants
    • Fungi lack chlorophyll, while plants have this pigment.
    • The cell walls of fungal cells contain a carbohydrate called chitin not found in plant cell walls.
    • Fungi are not truly multi-cellular like plants.
    • Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotes, while plants are autotrophic eukaryotes.
    • Fungi are aerobic organism, with the notable exception of the yeasts that multiply in the presence or absence of oxygen.
    • High concentration of sugar is favorable for the growth
    • Most fungi grow best at approximately 25 C
    • fungi grow under acidic conditions at a pH from 5 to 6
    • Superficial Skin Infection
    • Deep Fungal Infection
  • 15. Superficial Skin Infection
    • The superficial fungi live on the dead horny layer of the skin
    • Secrete an enzyme that enables them to digest keratin causing the superficial skin to scale and disintegrate the nails, and the hairs to break off.
    • Fungi are also capable of causing an allergic reaction.
    • Tinea of the feet (tinea pedis) - T. mentagrophytes
    • Tinea of the hands (tinea manus) - T. mentagrophytes
    • Tinea of the nails (onychomycosis) T.rubrum, T. mentagrophytes
    • Tinea of the groin (tinea cruris) - E.Floccosum
    • Tinea of the smooth skin (tinea corporis) - T. mentagrophytes
    • Tinea of the scalp (tinea capitis) - T.tonurans, T.verucosum
    • Tinea of the beard (tinea barbae)
    • Dermatophytid (Acute Eruption of Fungal Infection) Pityrosporum
    • Tinea of Chest and Back (Tinea versicolor) Pityrosporum
    • Fungi that invade the skin deeply and go into living tissue
    • Also capable of involving other organs.
  • 18. Types of Deep Fungal Infection
    • Candidiasis
    • Sporotrichosis
  • 19. Deep Fungal Infection
    • Candidiasis :
    • Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans that produces lesions in the mouth, the vagina, the nails, the lungs, or the gastrointestinal tract or occasionally a septicemia.
  • 20. Deep Fungal Infection
    • Sporotrichosis :
    • Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissues that forms a chain of tumors that develop into ulcers
  • 21. Dermatomycosis
    • Fungal infection of the skin ,especially of moist parts covered by clothing.
  • 22. Eczema
    • Eczema is pruritic condition associated with erythema and edema in acute phase
    • It is dominated by thickening and scaling when it becomes chronic
    • The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of skin conditions.
    • Eczema is defined as allergic, pruritic dermatitis
  • 23. Inflammation
    • A protective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, or infection.
    • Two types of Inflammation:
    • Localized Inflammation
    • Systemic Inflammation
    • Symptoms includes pain, redness, swelling and heat.
  • 24. Localized Inflammation
    • Inflammation is a process in which the body's white blood cells and chemicals can protect us from infection and foreign substances (bacteria and viruses)
    • Symptoms includes pain, redness, swelling and heat.
  • 25. Systemic Inflammation
    • Inflammation may also be associated with general "flu"-like symptoms including:
      • Fever
      • Chills
      • Fatigue/loss of energy
      • Headaches
      • Muscle stiffness & myalgia
      • A norexia (Loss of appetite)
    • Clotrimazole is an imidazole antifungal agent.
    • Clotrimazole is applied topically two or three times daily for 2 to 4 weeks as a 1% cream.
    • Local reactions including irritation and burning may occur in patients treated topically; contact allergic dermatitis has been reported.
  • 27.
    • Ketoconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, which interferes with ergosterol synthesis and therefore alters the permeability of the cell membrane of sensitive fungi. It is reported to be fungistatic.
    • After topical administration of Ketoconazole, irritation, dermatitis or a burning sensation has occurred
  • 28.
    • Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent with similar antimicrobial activity to Ketoconazole.
    • Local irritation and sensitivity reaction may occur with Miconazole nitrate
  • 29. Corticosteroids
    • Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex.
    • Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation
  • 30. Effects of Corticosteroids
    • Corticosteroids exerts their effects by suppressing:
    • The inflammatory response
    • The immune response
  • 31. Mechanism of Corticosteroids
    • Corticosteroids suppress inflammation by a number of mechanisms:
    • Inhibition of production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and other inflammatory mediators
    • Inhibition of migration of neutrophils to areas of inflammation
    • Inhibition of accumulation of macrophages in areas of inflammation
  • 32.
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Hydrocortisone is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland.
    • It is usually referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in response to stress.
    • It increases blood pressure and blood sugar, and reduces immune responses.
    • When first introduced as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, hydrocortisone was referred to as Compound E
  • 33.
    • Diflucortolone
    • Diflucortolone is a synthetic corticosteroid and is used to decrease inflammation in skin.
    • It works by preventing the release of certain chemicals from the cells. These chemicals are important in the immune system, and are released as a result of allergy or irritation.
    • By decreasing the release of these chemicals in the skin, diflucortolone reduces inflammation and relieves itch.
    • Diflucortolone is classed as a very potent corticosteroid.
  • 34.
    • Betamethasone
    • Betamethasone is a moderately potent corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties.