What are Toxins
are defined as chemical compounds
that can cause some disorder in human
health and generations are known as
“Classes Of TOXINS”
There are various classes of Toxins with respect
to there nature occurrence and diseases or
disorders caused by them, including…..
Agricultural Chemicals (Pesticides) h
human exposure to metals have
made things a little complex
Usage of metals has increased and so is their
exposure to human beings
Despite the wide range of metal toxicity and toxic
properties, they have a property to penitrate the cell.
If the metal is in a lipid-soluble form such as
methylmercury, it readily penetrates the membrane;
Protien soluble metals such as cadmiummetallothionein, the metal is taken into the cell by
endocytosis; or by passive diffusion.
The toxic effects of metals usually involve interaction
between the free metal and the cellular entity.
Agricultural Chemicals (pesticides)
Chemicals used to kill un wanted living organisms
from crops and trees.
They kill the damaging entities and being sprayed on
crops and trees
Targeted element dies instead or escaping.
There they also affect the consumers afterwards
Pests got immune until we need a stronger pesticide
Food additives and contaminants
Those substances which are added to food to enhance its
life and form.
Includes “Colors” and “preservatives”
These substances were used since when toxicity checking
was not practiced.
And people keep on using them without even knowing its
A lot of them are toxins themselves
In addition to cutaneous effects, such as defatting and local
irritation, many have systemic toxic effects, including effects
on the nervous system or, as with benzene, on the bloodforming elements.
Commercial solvents are frequently complex mixtures and
may include nitrogen- or sulfur-containing organics— gasoline
and other oil-based products are examples of this.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons i.e hexane.
Aliphatic alcohols i.e. methanol ethanol.
All drugs have toxins in them up to some extent.
They are harmful and ultimately fatal.
Muscle relaxant. i.e. Marijuana
CNS depressant, i.e. Ethanol
CNS stimulant, i.e. Cocaine
And many other like caffeine, nicotine, heroin,diethylamide
(LSD), and “XTC”
Another reason for being unhygienic is that all of
these are illegal So they are prepared in a poor way
and with the material of bad quality
in which compounds are burned in
the presence of oxygen.
Release of gasses
CO and Co2 majorly
Infects lungs and blood.
most common effects of modern
cosmetics are occasional “allergic reactions”
The highly toxic or carcinogenic dyes are no
longer in use.
Bromates, used in some cold wave
neutralizers, may be acutely toxic if ingested
Sodium hydroxide used in hair straighteners
are also toxic on ingestion.
Used as directed, cosmetics appear to present
little risk because a little part is absorbed.
It is the acute or chronic problems caused by
different toxins in human body.
They can be avoided for the first place
But some of them are eliminated by
Different medications only.
Following are different problems caused by
Toxins in our body
Following are the Problems caused by different toxins in various
This is explained as the
damage caused to Liver.
This damage could be due
to over dose of numerous
Up to 900 medicines have
been extracted from
markets for causing
Drug-induced liver injury is
responsible for 5% of all
hospital admissions and
50% of all acute liver
Troglitazone, bromfenac, tro
vafloxacin are few
Poisonous effect of substances on
They could be both toxins and
Caused by substances called
Heavy metals interfere with enzymes of
energy metabolism are involved
It is usually diagnosed by changes in
excretory function, such as increases in
urinary glucose, amino acid, or protein
excretion, changes in urine
volume, osmolarity, or pH.
Toxicity of nervous system
stimulatory effect of a cup of
coffee relax our brain.many
Other effects can be much more
metabolic poisons (e.g., cyanide)
disrupt cellular respiration, which
ultimately prevents the brain
from getting sufficient oxygen
Nerve agents and metabolic
poisons also appear to have
serious long-term neurological
neurodegeneration e.g. poison of
Many toxins have a
strong effect on
E.g cigarette smoking
In humans along with
renal and heart diseases.
This is due to presence of
It also causes
abnormalities in embryo.
The respiratory system
represents a unique target for
the potential toxicity of toxi- cants
due to the fact that the lungs are
the primary portal of entry for
inhaled gases and particles.
In addition, the lungs receive the
entire cardiac output, and
therefore, toxicants that enter the
bloodstream also have the
potential to cause lung injury.
Different type of toxins produced
by burning e.g CO traces od lead
and different gasses can harm
respiratory track .
Immune system toxicology
toxins which are produced and
then get exposed to the “Environment”
The study of Environmental Toxins is known as
Environmental toxicology is defined as the study of the
fate and effects of chemicals in the environment.
Including toxic chemicals naturally found in the
environment (i.e., animal venom and microbial and plant
Environmental toxicology is typically associated with the
study of environ- mental toxins
Environmental toxicology can be divided
into two subcategories:
Environmental health toxicology
Environmental health toxicology is the study of the adverse
effects of environmental chemicals on human health, while
Ecotoxicology focuses upon the effects of environ- mental
contaminants upon ecosystems and constituents thereof
(i.e., fish and wild- life etc).
Many abiotic and biotic processes that function in order to eliminate
(i.e., degrade) toxic chemicals exist in nature.
Accordingly, many chemicals released into the environment having
less hazards because of their limited life span in the environment.
Chemicals that are difficult to degrade persist in environment for a
very long time.
Trace metals represent an extreme case of persistence because as
elements, metals cannot be broken down in the environment.
Continued disposal of persistent chemicals into the environment can
result in their accumulation to environment cause toxicity.
How To Degrade…??
Elements are being degraded by
following two processes
Degradation of Toxins with the help of Nonliving things
with the help of living things
This is the degradation of elements from complex to simple
By certain living organisms like
And other uni or multicellular organisms
What is Toxicity…?? :o
organisms are exposed to toxins the
effect of that toxin on that organism is known
Types of toxicity…..
Are Two Types Of Toxicity.
toxicity is defined as toxicity caused due
to short-term exposure to a toxicant.
Incidences of acute toxicity in the
environment are commonly associated with
accident (e.g., derailment of a train resulting in
leakage of a chemical into a river)
toxicity is defined as toxicity elicited
as a result of long-term exposure to a toxicant.
Sublethal end points are generally associated
with chronic toxicity.
reproductive, immune, endocrine, and
However, chronic exposure also can result in
direct mortality not observed during acute
Transport and Fate of
than 100,000 chemicals are released
into the global environment every year through
their normal production, use, and disposal.
Transport and Fate of Toxicants in the
are released into the environment in
many ways, and they can travel along many
pathways during their lifetime..
Transport and Fate of
contamination and exposure
resulting from the use of a chemical is
modified by the transport and transformation
of the chemical in the environment.
Dilution and degradation can decrease its
Categories of Environmental Sources
sources of toxicants can be
categorized as either
Point sources are discrete discharges of chemicals,
that are usually identifiable and measurable,
such as industrial or municipal effluent outfalls, chemical or
petroleum spills and dumps, smokestacks,
and other stationary atmospheric discharges.
Nonpoint sources are more diffuse inputs over large
areas with no identifiable single point of entry such as
agrochemical (pesticide and fertilizer) runoff, mobile
source emissions (automobiles), atmospheric
deposition, desorption or leaching from very large
areas (contaminated sediments or mine tailings), and
How To avoid Toxins
companies, Law making Institutes
and Governments are trying there best to
reduce toxins on national and international
steps should be made by each
common person to avoid toxins in our daily
Sodium nitrate makes them red and
appetizing, but this additive can also cause the
formation of nitrosamines in your system, which
can lead to cancer.
2. Stick to low-mercury fish like Trout
instead of swordfish or tuna.
Overexposure can cause memory
problems, fatigue, and other health issues.
Cans are commonly lined with bisphenol-A, an
organic compound that, according to the Lang
study, may be associated with diabetes and heart
These animal products may contain trace
amounts of harmful contaminants used as a food
supplement by them Although many of these
toxins have been banned, they are still present in
the soil. Reducing your intake of animal products
is also more friendly to the environment.
chemical additive in these products, can lead to
nerve cell damage, dizziness, and headaches.
Besides, anything that gives rats brain tumors is
worth avoiding in my book.
The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
discovered traces of arsenic in non-organic
chickens. Exposure to this dangerous chemical
can lead to cancer, diabetes and heart disease.
Another study also found numerous antibioticresistant bacteria in conventional poultry.
Only drink milk that says “no rBGH” on the carton
because recombinant bovine growth hormone
has been linked with breast cancer.
Hydrogenated oils are used to lengthen the shelf
life of products like crackers and
cookies, but they are also associated with
diabetes and heart disease. Another reason to
stay away from the middle aisles: snack foods
are generally loaded with salt, corn syrup and
other unhealthy ingredients.
Stay away from artificially-colored foods like
candy, maraschino cherries, and gelatin. Mice
and rats experimentally exposed to blue 1 and
2, red 3 and yellow 6 suffered from brain, adrenal
gland, thyroid, and kidney tumors.
Use stainless steel or cast iron cookware to
prepare your meals. The Teflon used to
create nonstick surfaces can release noxious
gases when exposed to high
temperatures, which puts you at risk for heart
Never microwave food in plastic
bowls, containers, or dishes. Exposure to heat
causes the bisphenol-A found in plastics to break
down and potentially contaminate your food.
Also, make sure to hand wash them.
agencies should enhance
efforts to incorporate toxicogenomic data
into risk assessment.
bioinformatic, statistical, and computation
al tools and approaches to analyze toxins.
should be taken to facilitate the
technical and regulatory validation of
to use toxicogenomics to study
differences in toxicant responses between
animal models and humans and continue
to use genotyped and genetically altered
animal model strains as experimental tools
to better extrapolate results from animal
tests to human health.
the ethical, legal, and social
issues that affect the use of toxicogenomic
data and the collection of data and
samples needed for toxicogenomic
education and training programs
relevant totoxicogenomic applications to
Introduction to Environmental Sciences
An apple a day keeps the doctor away
Saad Ali Mughal,