Role of Protected Areas in meeting Climate Challenge and IUCN- Saadullah Ayaz


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Role of Protected Areas in meeting Climate Challenge and IUCN- Saadullah Ayaz

  1. 1. IUCN and Role of Protected Areas in meeting climate challenges Saadullah Ayaz IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  2. 2. Definitions of Protected AreasIUCN’s definition‘A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated andmanaged, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-Term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services andcultural values’Dudley, N.(2008); Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories, IUCNCBD’s definition‘A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated andmanaged to achieve specific conservation objectives’ IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  3. 3. Protected areas helping people cope with climate changeProtected areas already cover over 13.9 percent of the world’s land surface and growingProtected areas are are proven “green”and cost-effective natural solutions tohelp address the climate change. They;• reduce greenhouse gas emissions through carbon storage and sequestration• maintaining the essential ecosystem services upon which people depend. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  4. 4. Dual role of Protected AreasMitigationCapture: At least 15% of the world’s terrestrial carbon stock is stored in PA globally.Storage: Natural ecosystems capture more than 4.7 gigatonnes of carbon annuallyAdaptationProtected areas maintain ecosystem integrity,buffer local climate, and reduce risks and impactsfrom extreme eventsMaintain essential ecosystem services that helppeople cope with changes in water supplies,fisheries, disease and agricultural productivitycaused by climate change. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  5. 5. CC- Role of Protected AreasProtected areas are proven tools for maintaining essential natural resources andservices, which in turn can help increase the resilience and reduce the vulnerability oflivelihoods in the face of climate change:Water: both purer water and (especially in tropical montane cloud forests) increased water flowFisheries: Marine and freshwater protected areas conserve and rebuild fish stocksFood: Protecting crop wild relatives to facilitate crop breeding and pollination services; providing sustainable food for communitiesHealth: Ranging from habitat protection to slow the expansion of vector-borne diseases that thrive in degraded ecosystems to access to traditional medicines IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  6. 6. CC-PA in UNFCCC• Recognises the role of protected areas as tools for permanent carbon storage and sequestration and call for the implementation of robust protected areas systems as a core component of national strategies to achieve land-based emissions reductions• Emphasises the role of ecosystems in climate change adaptation and incorporate protection of natural ecosystems within national adaptation strategies and action plans (including National Adaptation Programmes of Action – NAPA) for protection of natural ecosystems as a cost- effective alternative to technology- and infrastructure based adaptation measures and to avoid mal-adaptation• Permit nationally appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions that involve the enhancement of protected areas or national protected area networks to receive financial and technical assistance through climate- related financial mechanisms IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  7. 7. CC-PA in CBDConvention on Biological Diversity has recognized the role of PAs in addressing climatechange in Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA):“1.4.5 Integrate climate change adaptation measures in protectedArea planning, management• Encourages development of tools and methods to support countries to evaluate climate impacts and increase resilience of their protected areas systems, and ensure that their role in mitigation and adaptation is fully explored• Emphasizes the importance of increasing connectivity among national protected areas and trans-boundary protected areas• Cultivate political urgency for the development of marine protected areas and protected areas in underrepresented biomes• The Convention also recognizes that there are significant opportunities for mitigating climate change and adapting to it, while enhancing the conservation of biodiversity IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  8. 8. PACT 2020: Protected Areas and Climate TurnaroundPACT was formally launched at the IUCN World ConservationCongress in 2008 and supported by IUCN’s Innovation Fund.Under PACT 2020- Climate change was acknowledged to be’the greatest threat to biodiversity and the global system ofprotected areas was noted as one of the most powerful solutions.PACT 2020 aims to“Ensure that protected areas and protected area systems are recognisedas an important contribution to climate change adaptation/mitigationstrategies for biodiversity and human livelihoods”. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  9. 9. The Issue60% of global ecosystem services are degraded, reducingtheir ability to mitigate the impact of natural disastersEconomic losses from climate disasters have increasedtenfold in 50 years, and “natural” disasters continue toincrease in frequency and intensityWarmer regional temperatures, have already hadsignificant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystemsMillennium Ecosystem Assessment IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  10. 10. CC as driver of Biodiversity LossA comprehensive assessment of the linksbetween ecosystem health and human well-being, climate change is likely to become thedominant direct driver of biodiversity loss by theend of the century(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2007)Projected changes in climate, combined withland use change and the spread of exotic oralien species, are likely to limit the capability ofsome species to migrate and therefore willaccelerate species loss(CBD, 2009) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  11. 11. IPCC’s Analysis“Observational evidence from all continentsand most oceans shows that many naturalsystems are being affected by regionalclimate changes, particularly Temperatureincreases.”IPCC Fourth Assessment Report IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  12. 12. Summary of IPCC-AR IV Conclusions (contd…)There is also high confidence of the effects on hydrological systems including:• Increased runoff and earlier spring peak discharge in many glacier- and snow-fed rivers• Warming of lakes and rivers in many regions, with effects on thermal structure and water qualityThere is high confidence that changes in marine and freshwater biological systemsare associated with rising water temperatures and related changes in ice cover,salinity, oxygen levels and circulation including:• Shifts in ranges and changes in algal, plankton and fish abundance in high-latitude oceans• Increases in algal and zooplankton abundance in high-latitude and high-altitude lakes• Range changes and earlier fish migrations in rivers IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  13. 13. Summary of IPCC-AR IV Conclusions (contd…)there is very high (i.e. 90 percent) confidence that recent warming is stronglyaffecting terrestrial biological systems, including: • Earlier timing of spring events, such as leaf-unfolding,egg-laying and bird migration • Plants and animals shift ranges pole-wards and upwardsThere is high (80 per cent) confidence that natural systems related to snow, ice andfrozen ground (including permafrost) are affected, including the: • Enlargement and increased numbers of glacial lakes • Increasing ground instability in permafrost regions and rock avalanches in mountain • Changes in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems, including those in sea-ice biomes, and affecting top predators IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  14. 14. Summary of IPCC-AR IV Conclusions (contd…)There is increasing evidence of climate change impacts on coral reefs. Sea-levelrise and human development are also contributing to losses of coastal wetlandsand mangroves and increasing damage from coastal floodingIn the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere agricultural and forestmanagement impacts include earlier spring planting of crops, and alterations indisturbances of forests due to fires and pestsSome impacts on human health, such as excess heat-related mortality in Europe,changes in infectious disease vectors in parts of Europe, and earlier onset of andincreases in seasonal production of allergenic pollen in the high and mid-latitudesof the Northern HemisphereImpacts on human activities in the Arctic, in relation to hunting activities and shortertravel seasons over snow and ice, and in lower-elevation alpine areas, such aschanges in mountain sports activities IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  15. 15. IUCN’s SolutionsIUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  16. 16. IUCN- at the Core of SolutionIUCN believes that conserving nature can help reduce greenhousegas emissions (mitigation) and help us adapt to the impacts of climatechangeIUCN’s work puts nature at the centre of climate change solutions inhundred of programmes and projects across the worldIUCN’s Climate Change Network coordinates and facilitates climatechange work across the Union’s programmes, commissions andmember organizations. IUCN’s UN Observer Status offers a uniqueposition at key international decision-making fora, including the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  17. 17. IUCN’s ViewpointWise conservation and management ofbiodiversity, protected areas, World Heritageand natural resources must be an importantcomponent of any climate change adaptationIUCN is uniquely positioned to supportclimate change adaptation actions at alllevels from local to regional to global IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  18. 18. Granada Summit on Protected Areas and Climate Change November, 2009Reaffirmed that protected area systems can providecost‐effective means to combat climate changeRecognised that increasing ecosystem resiliencethrough effective protection will enhance thepersistence and functions of protected areas inreducing climate change risks to society andbiodiversity. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  19. 19. IUCN and Climate Change AdaptationThe Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) ThematicGroup of IUCN’s Commission on EcosystemManagement (CEM), promotes the science andpractice of Ecosystem-based Adaptation.Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is the use ofbiodiversity and ecosystem services as part of anoverall adaptation strategy to help people to adapt to Ecosystem-based Adaptationthe adverse effects of climate change. A nature’s solution to climate changeEbA aims to maintain and increase the resilience andreduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and people inthe face of the adverse effects of climate change. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  20. 20. IUCN- People and LivelihoodsIUCN introduced “Community-based Risk ScreeningTool - Adaptation and Livelihoods”(CRISTAL)CRISTAL can reduce impacts of climate change oncommunity livelihoodsFirst tested in IUCN project in Mali(Inner Delta of the Niger River)Made available by IUCN for wider global use( IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  21. 21. IUCN’s Guidelines for Precautionary PrinciplesIUCN developed “Guidelines for Applying thePrecautionary Principle to BiodiversityConservation and Natural ResourceManagement”Responding to uncertainty(also relevant to climate change) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  22. 22. CC-PA- Suggested Policy ResponseWell managed protected areas can provide a cost effective option forimplementing climate change response strategies because start-up costs havealready been met and socio-economic costs are offset by other services thatprotected areas supplyProtected Areas: helping cope people with climate change develop policies for “climate sensitive public goods including naturalresource protection, coastal protection and emergency preparednessStern’s Review on Economics of Climate Change IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature
  23. 23. Thank you Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Country Network Coordinator Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN Pakistan saad.ayaz@iucn.orgIUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature