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Climate change mitigation Saadullah Ayaz
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Climate change mitigation Saadullah Ayaz


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Saadullah Ayaz

Saadullah Ayaz

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  • 1. Climate Change Mitigation Saadullah Ayaz Climate Change Coordinator, IUCN- PakistanIUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 2. MITIGATIONDefinition:Mitigation of climate change refers to the actions taken byindividuals or corporations to reduce the greenhouse gasemissions in order to minimize their effects on global climatechange. This usually works in conjunction with national andinternational policies that minimize greenhouse gas production andrelease into the atmosphere. Instead of trying to adapt to globalwarming, mitigation of global warming refers more to the preventionand control of the products and actions that cause climate change. IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 3. MITIGATION OPTIONS1. Energy Efficiency and Management - urban planning and building design - changing attitudes and choices - transportation - technological measures - fuel switching2. Alternate energy sources - solar, hydel, wind and alternate options like biofuels etc.3. Reforestation and avoided defoforestation4. Geoengineersing - carbon capture and storage - solar radiation management (global dimming) - ocean storage (use of iron) IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 4. ECONOMICS CLIMATE CHANGE Sterns Review. Sir Nicholas Stern- 2006proposes stabilising the concentration of greenhouse-gasemissions in the atmosphere at a maximum of 550ppm CO2eby 2050. The Review estimates that this would mean cuttingtotal greenhouse-gas emissions to three quarters of 2007levels. The cost of these cuts would be in the range -1.0 to+3.5% of GDPThe costs of stabilizing the climate are significant butmanageable; delay would be dangerous and much morecostlyThe cost of in- action will be more that action IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 5. MITIGATION MECHANISMS- THE KYOTO PROTOCOLAdopted in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 under the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate ChangeThe Kyoto Protocol: Aims to reduce GHG emissions by 2012 anddistinguish two types of countries: - Annex-I countries: With binding emission targets (41 industrialised countries): - Non-Annex I countries: With voluntary participation (151 developing countries):The Kyoto Protocol legally binds the Annex- I countries to reducedthere greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2 % (in average) below the1992 levels, by Year 2012 IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 6. THE KYOTO PROTOCOL MITIGATION OPTIONS- Source oriented measures Energy conservation and efficiency improvement Fossils fuel switching Renewable energy- Sink enhancement measures Capture and disposal of CO2 (under discussion) Enhancement of forest sinks (limited options) IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 7. KYOTO PROTOCOL TARGETSDecrease avg. emissions 2008-2012 compared to 1990 USA -7% EU -8% Japan -6% Russian Federation 0% all developed countries -5.2%IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 8. MAJOR GREENHOUSE GASES ADDRESSED BY KYOTO PROTOCOL Name Formula GWP (CO2 eq.)1. Carbon- dioxide (CO2) 12. Methane (CH4) 213. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 3105. Per- fluorocarbons (PFCs) 92,004. Hydro- fluorocarbons (HFCs) 11,7006. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 23,900 IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 9. MECHANISMS UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOLThe Kyoto Protocol introduces three market based flexiblemechanisms for the emissions reduction: - Joint Implementation (JI), - Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ), and - Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 10. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM)CDM is a market based instrument under the Kyoto Protocol ofUNFCCC: Assists developing countries in sustainable development while at the same time contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention. Developed countries to support project activities that reduce GHG emissions in the developing countries in return for Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)/ Carbon Credits. The CERs generated by such project activities can be used by developed countries as credits to meet their emissions targets under the Protocol. IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 11. CONCEPT OF CER/ CARBON CREDITS Developing Country (host) reduction reduction GHG Sold to GHG Emission Projections CERs Developed country ($)Baseline Scenario CDM Project IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 12. AREAS ADDRESSED BY KYOTO PROTOCOL The KPs emissions targets cover the six main GHGs: Name Formula GWP (CO2 eq.) 1. Carbon- dioxide (CO2) 1 2. Methane (CH4) 21 3. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 310 5. Per- fluorocarbons (PFCs) 92,00 4. Hydro- fluorocarbons (HFCs) 11,700 6. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 23,900Sinks (carbon sequestration) IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 13. BENEFITS FROM CDM (CARBON FINANCE) (An Example) Benefits to Host country CDM Project Additional(e.g., alternate energy Energy production) Production Direct Foreign Investment & Revenue Certified Carbon Credits Emission (Developed Plus other Benefits country Buyer) Reductions (Jobs, Clean Env. Tech. Transfer) IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 14. CDM INCENTIVE FOR DEVELOPED COUNTRIESDeveloped countries have been subjected to legally bindingemission targets…..2008/12.Due to un-localized nature of CO2…it does not matter forenvironment where reduction occurs.Costs of abatement or reduction of emissions : Developed Countries : U$ 50-100/ton Developing Countries : U$ 1-10/tonReductions of GHG is much cheaper in developing countries. IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 15. CDM INCENTIVES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIESCapitalize an “unvalued” commodity…… CER“Additional” financing for local Sustainable Developmentpriorities and as such has potential of “Catalyzing” largeForeign Direct Investment (FDI) flowsInstrument for “appropriate” Tech. TransferLinkage with local environmental issues – (air pollutionetc.)Financial viability ~ Carbon financing can increaseproject Internal Rate Returns (IRRs) between 0.5 to 50%(WB) IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 16. TYPE OF CDM PROJECTSUnilateral, bilateral and multilateral CDM projects allowed in: Energy - renewable/alternate energy, - energy efficiency/conservation and cogeneration Waste Management - landfill gas capture - recycling Transportation - alternative fuel vehicles - mass transit systems, cleaner engines, CNG Industrial processes (sugar, cement, fertilizer, textile) Land, Land use and Forestry (A/F) Agricultural and livestock practices IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 17. CC MITIGATION IN PAKISTANPakistan adopted Kyoto Protocol in 1997 acceded to it in January2005.Pakistan established a Designated National Authority for CDM inPakistan in 2005.A Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Cell was established inAug. 2005.Pakistan National Operational Strategy for CDM has been approvedin February 2006.Pakistan granted Host Country Approval to Three (14) CDMProjects. Expected Emission reduction 3.33 million tonnes of CO2eqv. / yr IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 18. ONLINE RESOURCES Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Official CDM official Website: CDM Pakistan official Website: International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • 19. Thank You Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/Clean Air Initiate for Asian Cities IUCN Pakistan Email: saad.ayaz@iucn.orgIUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature