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Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
Climate change impacts on biodiversity  Saadullah Ayaz
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Climate change impacts on biodiversity Saadullah Ayaz

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Saadullah Ayaz

Saadullah Ayaz

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  • 1. Impacts of Climate Change on BiodiversitySaadullah AyazIUCN- Pakistan IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 2. BIODIVERSITY AND IUCNIUCN believes that conserving biodiversity involves addressing(i) species and their sub-populations; (ii) genetic diversity; and (iii)ecosystems. Hundreds of projects are underway around the world aimedat saving species and ecosystems and providing the knowledge neededfor successful conservation action. IUCNs biodiversity conservation workis carried out by its various programmes including Water, Forests,Marine, Species, Ecosystem Management and Protected Areas. Thefollowing IUCN’s global programme cater for biodiversity concerns:IUCN Species ProgrammeIUCN Global Marine ProgrammeIUCN Water ProgrammeIUCN Forest Conservation ProgrammeIUCN Ecosystem Management ProgrammeIUCN Protected Areas Programme http://www.iucn.org/what/tpas/biodiversity/solutions/ IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND IUCNIUCN believes that conserving nature can help reduce greenhousegas emissions (mitigation) and help us adapt to the impacts of climatechangeIUCN’s work puts nature at the centre of climate change solutions inhundred of programmes and projects across the worldIUCN’s Climate Change Network coordinates and facilitates climatechange work across the Union’s programmes, commissions andmember organizations. IUCN’s UN Observer Status offers a uniqueposition at key international decision-making fora, including the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) http://www.iucn.org/what/tpas/climate/ IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 4. IUCN AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONThe Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) Thematic Group of IUCN’sCommission on Ecosystem Management (CEM), promotes the scienceand practice of Ecosystem-based Adaptation.Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is the use of biodiversity andecosystem services as part of an overall adaptation strategy to helppeople to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.EbA aims to maintain and increase the resilience and reduce thevulnerability of ecosystems and people in the face of the adverseeffects of climate change. IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 5. IUCN- PEOPLE AND LIVELIHOODSIUCN introduced “Community-based Risk Screening Tool - Adaptationand Livelihoods”(CRISTAL)CRISTAL can reduce impacts of climate change on communitylivelihoodsFirst tested in IUCN project in Mali(Inner Delta of the Niger River)Made available by IUCN for wider global use(Aliou.Faye@iucn.org) IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 6. IUCN’S GUIDELINES FOR PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLESIUCN developed “Guidelines for Applying the PrecautionaryPrinciple to Biodiversity Conservation and Natural ResourceManagement”Responding to uncertainty (also relevant to climate change)www.pprinciple.net IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 7. CC AS DRIVER OF BIODIVERSITY LOSSA comprehensive assessment of the links between ecosystem healthand human well-being, climate change is likely to become thedominant direct driver of biodiversity loss by the end of the century (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2007)Projected changes in climate, combined with land use change andthe spread of exotic or alien species, are likely to limit the capabilityof some species to migrate and therefore will accelerate species loss (CBD, 2009)The impacts of climate change on biodiversity are of major concernto the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The Conventionalso recognizes that there are significant opportunities for mitigatingclimate change and adapting to it, while enhancing the conservationof biodiversity IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 8. BIODIVERSITY AND CC NEXUSThe links between biodiversity and climate change run both ways:biodiversity is threatened by climate change, but propermanagement of biodiversity can reduce the impacts of climatechangeBiodiversity and Ecosystem (including; forests, wetlands andoceans) play a role in climate regulation and impacts regional andglobal climate changes)The changing climate has become a major driver of biodiversityloss and threatens its role as a source of essential ‘goods andservices’ IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 9. BIODIVERSITY AND CC NEXUSadaptation for biodiversity – Adaptation measures areneeded to protect biodiversity, to enable the widest range ofbiodiversity to survive and adapt, and to meet legal duties forbiodiversity protection.biodiversity for adaptation – Biodiversity can also playan integral part in adaptation measures for other sectors, such ascoastal protection by salt marshes. Source: UN Convention on Biological Diversity (2001) IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 10. IMPACTS OF CC ON BIODIVERSITY IMPACTS EXAMPLES Coral die-offs up to 50% in Die-offs Indian Ocean A Specie of Golden Toad inExtinctions Costa Rica Gothic Marmots emergeLife Cycles about One month earlier than 30 years ago Avg. weight of female polarPhysiology bears has decreased by 20% in last 25 Years IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 11. IMPACTS OF BIODIVERSITY ON CC IMPACTS EXAMPLES Forests account for moreReducing than half on the carbonEmissions stored in the world Land races of many cropsBiodiversity provide genetic material for Net development of drought resistant crop varieties The vale of mangroves for protection of coasts hasBio Sheilds been estimated $25-#50 per hectare IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 12. CC THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY• Impacts on production of ecosystems• Shrinking habitats (forests and wetlands)• Desertification• Damage to aquatic ecosystems (coral reefs, fisheries)• Shifts in the natural world (climate change impacts at least 420 physical and biological processes), - Upward migration of plant and animal species, - Disappearance of some plant and animal species in certain areas, - Impact on breeding behavior, - Change in growing season of plants and agriculture crops, - Species extinction (some 25% of mammals and 12% of birds are threatened). IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 13. GLOBAL EXAMPLES Frogs rely on water to breed, any reduction or change in rainfall could reduce frog reproduction. Moreover, rising temperatures are closely linked to outbreaks of a fungal disease that contributes to the decline of amphibian populations The projected rise in sea levels could cause the disappearance of the tigers habitat, threatening the survival of the species in coastal forests of AsiaIUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 14. GLOBAL EXAMPLES In Africa, pressures from longer dry periods and shrinking living spaces are making elephants highly vulnerable to climate change Australia’s Great Barrier Reef could lose up to 95% of its living coral by 2050 due to changes in ocean temperature and chemistryIUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 15. CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS- PAKISTAN1. 12th most vulnerable country (Maplecroft 2010)2. Losing at least 19% of GDP each year (Yale University 2005)3. Emission share= 0.8% of world’s total- 135th ranking (in 2008) Total emissions= 309 million tones CO2 eqv. - comprising of 54% CO2, - 36% Methane, - 9% Nitrous Oxide - 1% other gases The biggest contributor is the energy sector with 50% share, followed by the agriculture sector (39% share), industrial processes (6% share) and other activities (5% share). IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 16. CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)4. Temperature rise= 0.6 to 1.0°C, since early 1900s (IPCC- FAR 2007)5. Temperature may further increase by 1.1 to 6.4 °C (GCISC 2009) • 1.3- 1.5 °C by 2020s • 2.5- 2.8 °C by 2050s • 3.9- 4.4 °C by 2080s • 2.8- 3.4 °C by the turn of the 21st century6. Decrease in precipitation= 10 to 15% in last 40 years (IPCC 2007)7. Western Himalayan glaciers will retreat for the next 50 years, resulting in decrease of river flows by up to 30 to 40% (GCISC 2008) IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 17. BIODIVERSITY FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)1. Status of Species • Higher plants= 5700 • Lower plants (pteridophytes)= 189 • Lower plants (algae, fungi)= 5275 • Mammals= 195 • Breeding birds= 668 • Amphibian and Reptiles= 199 • Fish (fresh and marine)= 976 • Lower animals = 6182 (including; echinoderms, crustaceans, molluscs, annelids, and arthropods) • Threatened species= 73 Source: MoEnv., 2010 IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 18. BIODIVERSITY FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)1. Protected Areas (as of 2010) • Number of Protected Areas= 224 (including ; 23 National Parks, 97 Game Sanctuaries, 104 Game Reserves) • Total area under protection = 9,852,006 ha.2. Forest Biodiversity • Scrub and Trees on farmlands 4.73 million ha. (5.014 % of land) • Others (coniferous, scrub, riverine and mangrove 3.5 million ha. (2.7 %)3. Agricultural Biodiversity • Canal irrigated land= 55,982.39 ha. (19.15 % of land) • Rain- fed= 2,739.42 ha. (3.28 % of land) • Rain water harvested= 8,28.05 ha. (0.99 % of land) Source: MoEnv., 2010 IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 19. BIODIVERSITY FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)4. Livestock Diversity • Buffalo breeds= 2 • Cattle breeds = 8 • Yak breed= 1 • Goat and Sheep breeds = 53 • Horse breeds = 23 • Camel breeds = 4 • Indigenous poultry breeds = 3 Source: MoEnv., 2010 IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 20. CC AND BIODIVERSITY IN PAKISTANIMPACTS ON FOREST RESOURCES• Forest lands in northern mountain areas of Pakistan would shift from one biome to another (north-ward) which would decrease in the productivity of this precious resource• Change in specie distribution has been recorded, some plant species have gained elevation• Lower productivity from forest ecosystems is predicted due to change in temperature and water regimes• Spread of pathogens and diseases become frequent and wider• Incidences of fire (sub-tropical) have become common due to drought• Mangrove depletetion due to sea intrusion IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 21. CC AND BIODIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN (contd…)IMPACTS ON FAUNA• Shrinkage of habitat is intense• Some species of freshwater mollusks and amphibians have been found threatened• Higher elevation gained by insects (moths and butterflies)• Habitat of brown bear has warmed up, distribution has changed• Long-tailed Marmots are recorded to appear early from hibernation• Drastic decline in population of migratory birds, due to depletetion of water bodies and feeding habitatMany more we don’t know…..!! IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 22. CC- AS AN OPPORTUNITY• Population of large mammals (Markhor and Ibex) have reportedly been increased due to expansion of feeding grounds. Since they have gained elevation and hence are protected from human influence (conservation value of Markhor= US$ 80000)• Some project interventions have successfully introduced fish breeding (cold water) and hence helped in conservation of local fish population in natural water bodies• Agriculture practices (particularly wheat cultivation) in northern areas is reportedly increasing due to higher temperatures. This is transforming agriculture thus promoting livelihoods• Increased water flows (glacial melt) is encouraging for hydro- power generation. IN some areas, community based micro hydel system has been adopted IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 23. Transforming agriculture in High altitude areasIUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 24. Development of Micro Hydel in Dir- KohistanIUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 25. "Like water, air and soil, biological diversity is the hubof the wheel of life. Destroy it, and the wheel, however technologically sophisticated…, will no longer run" (Anonymous) IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN
  • 26. Thanks For more information” Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Environmental Fiscal Reforms/ Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN Pakistan Email: saad.ayaz@iucn.orgIUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE IUCN, INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE, PAKISTAN

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