Body measurement techniques  a comparison of  three-dimensional body scanning and  physical anthropometric methods
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  • 1. BODY MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES: A COMPARISON OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BODY SCANNING AND PHYSICAL ANTHROPOMETRIC METHODS By Karla Peavy Simmons Submitted to the TTM Graduate Faculty College of Textiles North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the A1 requirement for the Ph.D. degree in Textile Technology and Management Raleigh, North Carolina January 12, 2001
  • 2. Table of Contents Page #LIST OF TABLES viLIST OF FIGURES viii1. INTRODUCTION 12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL BODY SCANNING TECHNOLOGY 2 2.1 Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation/ImageTwin 4 2.1.1 History 4 2.1.2 ImageTwin systems 5 2.1.3 System design 6 2.2 Cyberware 9 2.2.1 History 9 2.2.2 Cyberware systems 9 2.2.3 Cyberware system design 11 2.3 SYMCAD 13 2.3.1 History 13 2.3.2 SYMCAD system models 13 2.3.3 SYMCAD system design 143. TRADITIONAL ANTHROPOMETRY 14 3.1 Historical Practice 14 3.2 Methodology and Instrumentation 16 3.2.1 Methodology 16 3.2.2 Instrumentation 17 3.3 Landmarks 204. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL ANTHROPOMETRICAL 27 METHOD WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL BODY SCANNING METHODS 4.1 Neck-Midneck 29 4.1.1 Traditional measurement method 29 4.1.2 ImageTwin method 29 4.1.3 Cyberware method 29 4.1.4 SYMCAD method 29 4.1.5 Discussion 29 4.2 Neck-Neckbase 30 4.2.1 Traditional measurement method 30 4.2.2 ImageTwin method 30 4.2.3 Cyberware method 30Karla P. Simmons ii A-1 Paper
  • 3. Page # 4.2.4 SYMCAD method 30 4.2.5 Discussion 30 4.3 Chest Circumference 31 4.3.1 Traditional measurement method 31 4.3.2 ImageTwin method 31 4.3.3 Cyberware method 31 4.3.4 SYMCAD method 31 4.3.5 Discussion 31 4.4 Bust Circumference 32 4.4.1 Traditional measurement method 32 4.4.2 ImageTwin method 32 4.4.3 Cyberware method 32 4.4.4 SYMCAD method 32 4.4.5 Discussion 32 4.5 Waist-Natural Indentation 33 4.5.1 Traditional measurement method 33 4.5.2 ImageTwin method 33 4.5.3 Cyberware method 34 4.5.4 SYMCAD method 34 4.5.5 Discussion 34 4.6 Waist-Navel (Omphalion) 34 4.6.1 Traditional measurement method 34 4.6.2 ImageTwin method 34 4.6.3 Cyberware method 34 4.6.4 SYMCAD method 35 4.6.5 Discussion 35 4.7 Hip Circumference 35 4.7.1 Traditional measurement method 36 4.7.2 ImageTwin method 36 4.7.3 Cyberware method 36 4.7.4 SYMCAD method 36 4.8 Seat 36 4.8.1 Traditional measurement method 36 4.8.2 ImageTwin method 36 4.8.3 Cyberware method 37 4.8.4 SYMCAD method 37 4.8.5 Discussion 37 4.9 Sleeve Length 37 4.9.1 Traditional measurement method 38 4.9.2 ImageTwin method 38 4.9.3 Cyberware method 38 4.9.4 SYMCAD method 38 4.9.5 Discussion 38Karla P. Simmons iii A-1 Paper
  • 4. Page # 4.10 Arm Length 38 4.10.1 Traditional measurement method 38 4.10.2 ImageTwin method 39 4.10.3 Cyberware method 39 4.10.4 SYMCAD method 39 4.10.5 Discussion 39 4.11 Inseam 40 4.11.1 Traditional measurement method 40 4.11.2 ImageTwin method 40 4.11.3 Cyberware method 40 4.11.4 SYMCAD method 40 4.11.5 Discussion 40 4.12 Outseam 41 4.12.1 Traditional measurement method 41 4.12.2 ImageTwin method 41 4.12.3 Cyberware method 41 4.12.4 SYMCAD method 42 4.12.5 Discussion 42 4.13 Shoulder Length 42 4.13.1 Traditional measurement method 42 4.13.2 ImageTwin method 42 4.13.3 Cyberware method 42 4.13.4 SYMCAD method 42 4.13.5 Discussion 42 4.14 Across Chest 43 4.14.1 Traditional measurement method 43 4.14.2 ImageTwin method 43 4.14.3 Cyberware method 43 4.14.4 SYMCAD method 43 4.14.5 Discussion 43 4.15 Across Back 44 4.15.1 Traditional measurement method 44 4.15.2 ImageTwin method 44 4.15.3 Cyberware method 44 4.15.4 SYMCAD method 44 4.15.5 Discussion 44 4.16 Back of Neck to Waist Length 45 4.16.1 Traditional measurement method 45 4.16.2 ImageTwin method 45 4.16.3 Cyberware method 45 4.16.4 SYMCAD method 45 4.16.5 Discussion 45Karla P. Simmons iv A-1 Paper
  • 5. Page # 4.17 Rise 46 4.17.1 Traditional measurement method 46 4.17.2 ImageTwin method 46 4.17.3 Cyberware method 46 4.17.4 SYMCAD method 46 4.17.5 Discussion 46 4.18 Crotch Length 46 4.18.1 Traditional measurement method 47 4.18.2 ImageTwin method 47 4.18.3 Cyberware method 47 4.18.4 SYMCAD method 47 4.18.5 Discussion 47 4.19 Thigh Circumference 47 4.19.1 Traditional measurement method 48 4.19.2 Traditional measurement method for mid-thigh circumference 48 4.19.3 ImageTwin method 48 4.19.4 Cyberware method 48 4.19.5 SYMCAD method 48 4.19.6 Discussion 48 4.20 Bicep Circumference 49 4.20.1 Traditional measurement method 49 4.20.2 ImageTwin method 49 4.20.3 Cyberware method 49 4.20.4 SYMCAD method 49 4.20.5 Discussion 50 4.21 Wrist Circumference 50 4.21.1 Traditional measurement method 50 4.21.2 ImageTwin method 50 4.21.3 Cyberware method 50 4.21.4 SYMCAD method 50 4.21.5 Discussion 505. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 51 5.1 Conclusions 51 5.2 Recommendations 546. REFERENCES 557. APPENDIX 63 7.1 Appendix A 7.2 Appendix BKarla P. Simmons v A-1 Paper
  • 6. List of Tables Page #1. Current major scanning systems 42. Comparison of ImageTwin scanner models: 2T4 and 2T4s 63. Comparison of Cyberware scanner models: WB4 and WBX 114. Summary of anthropometric tools and usages 195. Landmarks terms and definitions 216. Mid-neck and neckbase terms used in selected scanner models 317. Chest and bust terms used in selected scanner models 338. Waist-natural indentation and waist-navel terms used in selected 35 scanner models9. Hip circumference and seat terms used in selected scanner 37 models10. Sleeve length and arm length terms used in selected scanner 39 models11. Inseam terms used in selected scanner models 4112. Outseam terms used in selected scanner models 4213. Shoulder length terms used in selected scanner models 4314. Across chest terms used in selected scanner models 4315. Across back terms used in selected scanner models 4416. Back of neck to waist length terms used in selected scanner 45 models17. Rise terms used in selected scanner models 4618. Crotch length terms used in selected scanner models 4719. Thigh circumference terms used in selected scanner models 49Karla P. Simmons vi A-1 Paper
  • 7. Page #20. Bicep circumference terms used in selected scanner models 5021. Wrist circumference terms used in selected scanner models 5122. Summary of traditional measurement terms compared to 53 selected scanner model termsKarla P. Simmons vii A-1 Paper
  • 8. List of Figures Page #1. Patterned grating in the ImageTwin scanner 72. Booth layout of the ImageTwin scanner 73. 3D point cloud 84. Segmentation of the body 85. Printout available to subject 86. Cyberware 3D whole body scanner: Model WB4 107. Cyberware 3D whole body scanner: Model WBX 108. Cyberware scanning positions 129. Scanning booth of the SYMCAD TurboFlash/3D 1310. Standard anthropometric tools: (a) anthropometer, (b) calipers, 18 (c) sliding compass, (d) tape measure11. Diagram of principle planes used in anthropometry and terms 19 of orientation12. Anatomical points used in locating body landmarks on the front 24 of the body13. Anatomical points used in locating body landmarks on the back 25 of the body14. Anatomical points used in locating body landmarks on the side 26 of the bodyKarla P. Simmons viii A-1 Paper
  • 9. BODY MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES: A COMPARISON OF THREE- DIMENSIONAL BODY SCANNING AND PHYSICAL ANTHROPOMETRIC METHODS Introduction “No one – not even the most brilliant scientist alive today – really knows where science is taking us. We are aboard a train which is gathering speed, racing down a track on which there are an unknown number of switches leading to unknown destinations. No single scientist is in the engine cab and there may be demons at the switch. Most of society is in the caboose looking backward.” (Lapp, Ralph E., The New Priesthood. New York: Harper & Row, 1961, p.29) In 1961, Ralph Lapp, a scientist turned writer, made these commentsabout the unknown directions where science would lead us. Little did he knowthat just a few years later, a new technology would be developed that wouldrevolutionize many industries by the end of the 21st century. This newtechnology is three-dimensional (3D) non-contact body scanning. Although body scanning applications have been used in many areas ofstudy, the apparel industry is anxiously researching its usage for apparel designand the mass customization of garments. A major frustration for consumershopping of apparel is finding garments that are comfortable and fit properly(Goldsberry & Reich, 1989). This frustration is caused by the current sizingsystem, which was taken from an anthropometric study conducted in 1941.Women are shaped differently today than six decades ago. New studies areneeded to record anthropometric data of today’s culture.Karla P. Simmons 1 A-1 Paper
  • 10. Three-dimensional body scanning is capable of extracting an infinitenumber of types of data. However, a problem exists in the consistency ofmeasuring techniques between scanners. Among the several scanners that arecurrently available, significant variance exists in how each captures specific bodymeasurements. Until the data capture process of specific body measurementscan be standardized or communicated among scanning systems, this island oftechnology cannot be utilized for its maximum benefit within the apparel industry.This paper will to a) give a brief description of several major body scanners, b)discuss traditional anthropometry with regards to landmarks and body dimensiondata, and c) present a comparison of traditional anthropometry with themeasurement techniques for each scanner. Three-Dimensional Body Scanning Technology When measuring a large number of locations on the human body, themost desirable method would be one of non-contact. Before the turn of thecentury, surveyors were using non-contact measurement from a distance todetermine the shape of the earth’s surface (West, 1993). Their system oftriangulation would become the basis of modern methods whereas a lightsensing device would replace the theodolite1. In 1964, a full-scale male dummywas designed with anthropometric measuring that utilized a simple three-dimensional technique (Lovesey). Also in 1964, Vietorisz used a light source andan arrangement of photo detectors to measure a person’s silhouette.1 A theodolite is a surveyor’s instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles (Webster’s,1987).Karla P. Simmons 2 A-1 Paper
  • 11. In 1979, Ito used an arrangement of lights with a collection of photodetectors, which were rotated around the body being measured. A similarsystem in principle was developed by Takada and Escki (1981), but with adifferent setup of lights and photo detectors. In 1984, Halioua, Krishnamurphy,Liu, and Chiang improved upon a method by Meadows, Johnson, and Allen(1970), known today as the Moire` fringe method. They were able to determinethe body contour height of single points using two small independent gratings ofa light source and camera. All of these systems were only capable of measuring one side of the bodyat a time. It wasn’t until 1985 that Magnant produced a system which used ahorizontal sheet of light to completely surround the body. Framework for thesystem carried the projectors and cameras needed that would scan the bodyfrom head to toe. Systems utilizing lasers were also being developed during this sameperiod of the late 1970s and early 1980s. In 1977, Clerget, Germain, and Kryzeilluminated their measured object with a scanning laser beam. Arridge, Moss,Linney, and James (1985) used 2 vertical slices of laser along with a televisioncamera to measure the shapes of faces for orthodontic and maxillo-facial2surgery. At this same time, Addleman and Addleman (1985) developed ascanning laser beam system which is marketed today as Cyberware. Otherscanning systems have also been developed in the last fifteen years. Alist of the current major scanning systems can be found in Table 1.2 Maxillo-facial is the upper jaw area of the face (Webster’s, 1987).Karla P. Simmons 3 A-1 Paper
  • 12. Table I. Current Major Scanning Systems Scanning System System Type Hamamatsu Light Loughborough Light ImageTwin Light Wicks and Wilson Light TELMAT Light Turing Light PulsScanning Light Cognitens Light Cyberware Laser TECMATH Laser Victronic Laser Hamano Laser Polhemus Laser 3DScanner LaserTextile/Clothing Technology Corporation (TC2)/ImageTwin History. In 1981, a concept generated from the National ScienceFoundation was formed into Tailored Clothing Technology Corporation. Theirmission was to conduct Research and Development activities, demonstratetechnology and provide education programs for the apparel industry. In 1985,they became Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation [(TC2)]. (TC2) is locatedin Cary, North Carolina where their teaching factory is visited by thousands ofindustry representatives each year. One of the research and development products invented by (TC2) hasbeen a 3-Dimensional whole body scanner and body measurement systemKarla P. Simmons 4 A-1 Paper
  • 13. (BMS). Work on the system began back in 1991. In 1998, the first 3D scannermodel, the 3T6, was made available to the public. The first four systems to bedelivered were to Levi Strauss & Company, San Francisco, the U.S. Navy, NorthCarolina State University College of Textiles, and Clarity Fit Technology ofMinneapolis. The (TC2) scanner was the first scanner to be developed with the initialfocus for the clothing industry. In order for the American apparel industry to bemore competitive, (TC2) saw the need for the drive toward mass customization. 3A move toward made-to-measure clothing necessitated fundamental technologythat would make the acquisition of essential body measurements quick, private,and accurate for the customer. ImageTwin systems. In July of 2000, (TC2) and Truefinds.com, Inc.announced the joint venture formation of ImageTwin . The (TC2) scanner willnow be known as the ImageTwin Digital Body Measurement System ([TC2],2000). The model 3T6 is named by the number of towers (3) and the number ofsensors (6) that are used for the scanning process. New models have beendesigned that have the same basic function but a smaller footprint: the 2T4 and2T4s. The 2T4 and 2T4s have 2 towers with 4 sensors. The “s” in 2T4s standsfor short which denotes a smaller layout than the 2T4 (David Bruner, personalcommunication, 2000). A comparison of the 2T4 and 2T4s scanner models isshown in Table 2.3 Mass Customization is a term that was coined by Stan Davis in 1987 in Future Perfect. Ingeneral , it is the delivery of custom made goods and services to a mass market.Karla P. Simmons 5 A-1 Paper
  • 14. Table 2. Comparison of ImageTwin Scanner Models, 2T4 and 2T4s Hardware 2T4 2T4s System Dimensions Height 7.9 ft. 7.9 ft. Width 5 ft. 5 ft. Length 20.5 ft. 13.5 ft. Weight 600 lbs. 600 lbs. Field of view Height 7.2 ft. 7.2 ft. Width 3.9 ft. 3.9 ft. Depth 2.6 ft. 3.6 ft. Setup time 4 hrs. 4 hrs. Calibration time 15 mins. 15 mins. Portability Yes Yes Cost $65,000 $65,000 System design. The ImageTwin BMS utilizes phase measurementprofilometry (PMP) where structured white light is employed. The concept wasfirst introduced by M. Halioua in 1986 (Halioua & Hsin-Chu, 1989). The PMPmethod employs white light to impel a curved, 2-dimenional patterned grating onthe surface of the body. An example of this grating can be found in Figure 1.The pattern that is projected is captured by an area array charge-coupled device(CCD) camera.Karla P. Simmons 6 A-1 Paper
  • 15. Figure 1. Patterned grating in the ImageTwin scanner. The design of this system allows for extensive coverage of the entirehuman body. After experimentation, it was determined that more detail andcoverage is required for the front surface of the body than on the back surface(Hurley, Demers, Wulpurn, & Grindon 1997). The 3T6 has 2 front views thathave a 60 degree angle and a straight on back view (see Figure 2).Figure 2. Booth layout of the ImageTwin scanner. With these angles, overlap between the views is imparted where a highdegree of detail is needed for high slope regions. Minimal overlap is needed onKarla P. Simmons 7 A-1 Paper
  • 16. smooth surfaces. Therefore, for height coverage, six views are utilized: threeupper and three lower. Each system utilizes six stationary surface sensors. A single sensorcaptures an area segment of the surface. When all sensors are combined, anincorporated surface with critical area coverage of the body is formed for the usein the production of apparel. Four images per sensor per grating are attained.This information is used to calculate the 3D data points. The transitional yield ofthe PMP method is a data cloud for all six views. Once the image is obtained, over 400,000 processed data points aredetermined (Figure 3). Then segmentation of the body occurs and themeasurement extraction transpires (Figure 4). The specific measurement outputis predetermined by the user. A printout is available with a body image and themeasurements (Figure 5).Figure 3. 3D point Figure 4. Segmentation Figure 5. Printoutcloud of the body available to subjectKarla P. Simmons 8 A-1 Paper
  • 17. Cyberware History. Another leading three-dimensional body scanner manufacturer isCyberware. Incorporated in December 1982, the company’s early workconsisted of digitizing and model shop services. More than two years was spentdeveloping the rapid 3D digitizing that they are now known for today. Currently,Cyberware centers on manufacturing various 3D scanners with continuingresearch and development in custom digitizing. They are one of the leaders inresearch concerning 3D scanning for garment design and fitting,anthropometrics, and ergonomics. Cyberware is privately funded (Cyberware,2000a). The idea for whole body scanning started at Cyberware whenanthropologists at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base began deliberations onimaging in 1991. Two years later, a formal proposal was published with an orderfor a system in March of 1994. Delivery of the system was in August 1995(Addleman, 1997). Since then, Cyberware has sold scanners all over the world(Cyberware, 2000a). Cyberware systems. Although Cyberware has several different types ofscanners, they currently have only two models in the whole-body scanner line,the WB4 and WBX. The WB4 is a color whole-body 3D scanner, the goal ofwhich is to obtain an accurate computer model in one pass of the scanner(Cyberware, 2000b). The subject stands on the scanner platform while thescanner pans down the length of the entire body (see Figure 6). The WBX is anenclosed whole body 3D scanner (Cyberware, 2000c). It was custom designedfor use in scanning military recruits for uniform issue (ARN, 2000)(Figure 7.) TheKarla P. Simmons 9 A-1 Paper
  • 18. systems do have similarities. Table 3 best illustrates the features of both theWB4 and the WBX scanners.Figure 6. Cyberware 3D whole body scanner: Model WB4.Figure 7. Cyberware 3D whole body scanner: Model WBX.Karla P. Simmons 10 A-1 Paper
  • 19. Table 3. Comparison of WB4 and WBX Scanners WB4 WBX Field of view Diameter 120cm (47”) Height 200cm (79”) Scan heads 4 4 Cameras 4 4 Mirrors 4 0 Scan cycle time 40 secs 25 secs Cost $350K $150K Booth size Width 360cm (144”) 244cm (96”) Height 292cm (117”) 244cm (96”) Diameter 300cm (120”) 244cm (96”) Weight 450Kg (992lbs) Sources: Cyberware, 2000b; Cyberware, 2000c; ARN, 2000. Cyberware system design. Since the WBX is still in the prototype stage ofdevelopment and is currently customized for military function, the discussion willfocus on the WB4 system in this paper. The scanner consists of two towers witha round platform in between them. Each tower has a rail with a motor attachedto move the two scanning heads. The four heads on the WB4 are separated by75 and 105 degree angles. This layout of the heads gives the appropriateoverlap for maximum coverage (Addleman, 1997). Previous tests concluded thatthe highest surface area is derived from the subject facing in the middle of theHead 2 and Head 3 position which is separated by 75 degrees (Brunsman,Daanen, and Robinette, 1997) (see Figure 8). With the subject standing on theKarla P. Simmons 11 A-1 Paper
  • 20. platform, the scanning heads start at the subject’s head, and move down to scanthe entire body. A typical scan is less than 30 seconds and is often completed inas little as 17 seconds (Cyberware, 2000a). He 2 ad d ea 1 H 105 75 75 105 0 H ad ea d He 3 Source: Brunsman, Daanen, & Robinette, 1997, p.268.Figure 8. Cyberware scanning positions. Each one of the scanning heads consists of a light source and a detector.Laser diodes4 are the source of light, which project a level surface of light onto asubject. This laser line is created by tubular lenses and focusing optics. A CCD,coupled charge device, sees the line created by the laser crossing the subject.The image is reflected using mirrors to reduce the camera size. Electroniccircuitry distributes the raw data to the workstation for the scanned points(Addleman, 1997). The WB4 can produce a cloud of over 100,000 3D data points from thehuman body surface (Daanen, Taylor, Brunsman, & Nurre, 1997). These points4 According to Webster’s Dictionary (1987), a diode is a 2-electrode electron tube having anegative terminal (cathode) and a positive terminal (anode) of an electrolytic cell.Karla P. Simmons 12 A-1 Paper
  • 21. are available within seconds for use. The four separate camera views areillustrated and combined into one data set where redundant and overlapping dataare removed. For subjects larger than the maximum allowable dimensions forthe scanner (79” x 49”), two or more scans can be combined for a complete 3Dmodel (Cyberware, 2000b).SYMCAD History. In 1992, a French based company, TELMAT Industrie, developeda computerized 3D body measuring system called SYMCAD. The System forMeasuring and Creating Anthropometric Database (SYMCAD) was first used inJanuary 1995 by the French Navy for uniform issue (Financial Times, 1998). SYMCAD systems. The range of TELMAT products fall into severalcategories. In the textile area, the only product they offer is the SYMCAD. Theyrefer to this system as “The Electronic Master Tailor”, “the SYMCAD TurboFlash/3D”, and “a Computerized 3D Body Measuring System” (TELMAT 2000;L’LALSACE, 1999; Financial Times, 1998). See Figure 9 for a representation ofthe SYMCAD scanner.Figure 9. Scanning booth of the SYMCAD Turbo Flash/3D.Karla P. Simmons 13 A-1 Paper
  • 22. SYMCAD system design. The scanning system consists of a smallenclosed room with an illuminated wall, a camera, and a computer. The subjectenters the booth, removes their clothing, and stands in their undergarments infront of the illuminated wall. Three different poses of the subject arephotographed: facing the camera with arms slightly apart from the body, from theside straight on5, and facing the wall (Financial Times, 1998). These 3D imagesare processed and appear on the computer screen. Over 70 measurementcalculations are made from these computerized images. Traditional AnthropometryHistorical Practice No two people are ever alike in all of their measurable characteristics.This uniqueness has been the object of curiosity and research for over 200years. In the past, different individuals have set out to express quantitatively theform of the body. This technique was termed anthropometry. The definitionused by Kroemer, Kroemer, & Kroemer-Elbert (1986) is: Anthropometry describes the dimensions of the human body (p.1). The name is derived from anthropos, meaning human, and metrikos,meaning of or pertaining to measuring (Roebuck, Jr., 1995). The first individualto mark the beginning of anthropometry was Quelet in 1870, with his desire to5 Both the front and side views adopt anthropometric poses (World Clothing Manufacturer, 1996).The anthropometric position assumes the body is standing upright, and at “attention” with thearms hanging by the sides slightly apart from the body, palms of the hands facing the front, andthe feet facing directly forward (Croney, 1971).Karla P. Simmons 14 A-1 Paper
  • 23. obtain measurements of the average man according to Gauss’ Law6(Anthropometry, 2000). It wasn’t until the 1950s that anthropometrics became arecognized discipline. Settings for usage of anthropometry include vehicles, worksites, equipment, airplane cockpits, and clothing (CAD Modelling, 1992; Czaja,1984; Hertzberg, 1955; Roe, 1993; Roebuck, Kroemer, & Thomson, 1975;Sanders & Shaw, 1985). For years, anthropometry has been used in national sizing surveys as anindicator of health status (Marks, Habicht, & Mueller, 1989). Assessment of thereliability of the measures has been the topic of research for just as long (Bray,Greenway, & Molitch, 1978; Cameron, 1986; Foster, Webber, & Sathanur, 1980;Johnston, Hamill, & Lemshow, 1972; Malina, Hamill, & Lemshow, 1972; Malina,Hamill, & Lemshow, 1974; Marshall, 1937; Martroll, Habicht, & Yarbrough, 1975;Meredith, 1936). Reliability is defined operationally as the extent to which a measure is reproducible over time (Cook & Campbell, 1979; Snedecor & Cochran, 1980). The reliability of a measurement has components of precision anddependability (Mueller & Martorell, 1988). Of the two components, precision isthe most important determinate of reliability (Marks, Habicht, & Mueller, 1989;Mueller & Martrell, 1988). However, reliability matters are often overlooked in6 Kal Friedrich Guass (1777-1855) was a German scientist and mathematician known for arelation known as Gausss Law (Hyperphysics, 2000).Karla P. Simmons 15 A-1 Paper
  • 24. problem oriented research (Gordon & Bradtmiller, 1992) because of the impact ofmeasurement error. Observer error is the most troublesome source of anthropometric error. Itincludes imprecision in landmark location, subject positioning, and instrumentapplications. This error can even be accentuated by the use of multipleobservers even when they are trained by the same individual and work closelytogether (Bennett & Osbourne, 1986; Jamison & Zegura, 1974; Utermohle &Zegura, 1982; Utermohle, Zegura, & Heathcote, 1983;). Error limits are usuallyset in advance of data collection while measurer performance is monitoredthroughout the process against the pre-set standards (Cameron, 1984; Gordon,Bradtmiller, Churchill, Clauser, McConville, Tebbetts, & Walker, 1989; Himes,1989; Johnston & Martorell, 1988; Malina, Hamill, & Lemshow, 1973). Observererrors in anthropometry are not random and are not unusual (Bennett & Osborne,1986; Gordan & Bradtmiller, 1992; Jamison & Zegura, 1974). Therefore,traditional methods of measuring bodies need a great deal of improvement.Methodology & Instrumentation Methodology. Classical anthropometric data provides information onstatic dimensions of the human body in standard postures (Kroemer, Kroemer, &Kroemer-Elbert, 1986). The science of anthropometry is one of great precision.Experienced workers in the field are the best to utilize this technique (Montagu,1960). Most measurements taken of the subject are taken in the most desirableposition of standing. However, there are a few measures which warrantKarla P. Simmons 16 A-1 Paper
  • 25. exception. Measurements are taken, whenever possible in the morning. Thehuman body tends to decrease in height during the day and is often more relaxedin the morning (Montagu, 1960). It is preferable to have the subject completelyunclothed or with as little clothing as possible. Kromer, Kroemer, & Kroemer-Elbert (1986) explain in detail the standardmethod of measuring a subject: For most measurements, the subject’s body is placed in a defined upright straight posture, with the body segments at either 180, 0, or 90 degrees to each other. For example, the subject may be required to “stand erect; heels together; buttocks, shoulder blades, and back of head touching the wall; arms vertical, fingers straight…”: This is close to the so-called “anatomical position” used in anatomy. The head is positioned in the “Frankfurt Plane”; With the pupils on the same horizontal level, the right tragion (approximated by the ear hole), and the lowest point of the right orbit (eye socket) are also placed on the same horizontal plane. When measures are taken on a seated subject, the (flat and horizontal) surfaces of seat and foot support are so arranged that the thighs are horizontal, the lower legs vertical and the feet flat on their horizontal support. The subject is nude, or nearly so, and unshod (p.6).A diagram of the principle planes used in anthropometry and the termsof orientation are given in Figure 11. Instrumentation. The same anthropometric instruments have been usedsince Richer first used calipers in 1890 (Anthropometry, 2000). Simple,quick, non-invasive tools include a weight scale, camera, measuring tape,anthropometer, spreading caliper, sliding compass, and head spanner. Table 4summarizes the tools and their uses. Figure 10 shows the tools.Karla P. Simmons 17 A-1 Paper
  • 26. Table 4. Summary of Anthropometric Tools and Usages Anthropometric Tool Usage Weight Scale For determining weight Camera For photographing subjects Measuring Tape For measuring circumferences and curvatures Anthropometer For measuring height and various traverse diameters of the body Spreading Caliper For measuring diameters Sliding Compass For measuring short diameters such as those of the nose, ears, hand, etc. Head Spanner For determining the height of the head b d c aFigure 10. Standard anthropometric tools: (a) anthropometer, (b) calipers,(c) sliding compass, (d) tape measure.Karla P. Simmons 18 A-1 Paper
  • 27. Lateral Medial (Away from (Middle of the body) the body) Lateral (Away from the body) YZ Posterior (Back of the body) Proximal (nearer to XZ Superior the torso YZ (Toward the skeleton) head) Anterior (Front of the body) XY Transverse plane Distal Distal (further from the torso skeleton) XY Sagittal plane Coronal plane Inferior (Away from the head)Figure 11. Diagram of principle planes used in anthropometry andthe terms of orientation.77 Medial suggests near the midline. Lateral suggests farther away from the midline. Posteriorsuggests at the back of the body. Anterior suggests at the front of the body. Superior suggeststoward the head. Inferior suggests away from the head. The Median plane passes through thecenter of the body dividing it into a right and left half. The Sagittal plane passes through the bodyparallel with the median plane. The Coronal plane passes through the body from side to side atright angles to the sagittal plane. The Traverse plane is any plane at right angles to the long axisof the body (Bryan, Davies, & Middlemiss, 1996; Tortora, 1986).Karla P. Simmons 19 A-1 Paper
  • 28. Landmarks As stated earlier, the correct identification of body landmarks is one of thekey elements in observer error in the collection of anthropometric data. In orderto have agreement as to the body measurements recorded in an anthropometricbased study, uniformity must be achieved as to what common points on the bodymust be identified. These points are referred to as landmarks. A landmark is an anatomical structure used as a point of orientation in locating other structures (Websters, 1987). Most people have never had a formal education in anatomy to be able toidentify specific landmarks. Even though measurers are usually trained in how tomeasure subjects for a study, the process is still very difficult and timeconsuming. In a 1988 anthropometric survey of US Army personnel, four hourswere required to physically landmark, measure, and record the data of onesubject (Paquette, 1996). The first step in traditional landmarking is to mark certain places on thebody with a non-smearing, skin pencil (O’Brien & Sheldon, 1941) or skin-safe,washable ink (Roebuck, 1995). A small cross verses a dot is usually used as themarking symbol because the intersection of the lines is easier to read. Thetraditional methods in determining and placing landmarks are given below.Diagrams of the landmarks are given in Figures 12, 13, and 14.Karla P. Simmons 20 A-1 Paper
  • 29. Table 5. Landmark Terms and DefinitionsLandmark Symbol DefinitionAbdominal A Viewed from the side, it is the measure of theExtension greatest protrusion from one imaginary side seam to(Front High-Hip) the other imaginary side seam usually taken at the high hip level (ASTM, 1999); taken approximately 3 inches below the waist, parallel to the floor (ASTM, Figure 14 1995)Acromion B The most prominent point on the upper edge of the(Shoulder Point) acromial process of the shoulder blade (scapula)[T] as determined by palpatation (feeling) (Jones, 1929; Figure 12 McConville, 1979).Ankle C The joint between the foot and lower leg; the(Malleolus) projection of the end of the major bones of the lower leg, fibula and tibia, that is prominent, taken at the minimum circumference (McConville, 1979; O’Brien & Figures 12, Sheldon, 1941; ASTM, 1999). 13, 14Armpit D Points at the lower (inferior) edge determined by(Axilla) placing a straight edge horizontally and as high as possible into the armpit without compressing the skin and marking the front and rear points or the hollow Figures 12, part under the arm at the shoulder (McConville, 1979; 13 ASTM, 1999). *See Scye.Bicep Point E Point of maximum protrusion of the bicep muscle, the brachii, as viewed when elbow is flexed 90 degrees, fist clenched and bicep strongly contracted (Gordon, Churchhill, Clauser, Bradtmiller, McConville, Figure 12 Tebbetts, & Walker, 1989; ASTM, 1999).Bust Point F Most prominent protrusion of the bra cup (Gordon, et.al, 1989, McConville, 1979; O’Brien & Sheldon, Figure 14 1941); apex of the breast (ASTM, 1999).Buttock G Level of maximum protrusion as determined by visual(Seat) Figure 14 inspection (McConville, 1979; Gordon, et.al, 1989)Calf H Part of the leg between the knee and ankle at(Gastrocnemius) Figures 12, maximum circumference (McConville, 1979; ASTM, 13, 14 1999).Cervicale I At the base of the neck [R] portion of the spine and(Vertebra located at the tip of the spinous process of the 7thProminous) cervical vertebra determined by palpatation, often found by bending the neck or head forward (McConville, 1979; Jones, 1929; Gordon, et.al, 1989; Figures 13, O’Brien & Sheldon, 1941; ASTM, 1999). 14Karla P. Simmons 21 A-1 Paper
  • 30. Landmark Symbol DefinitionCollarbone Point J Upper (superior) points of the shoulder (lateral) ends(Clavical Point) Figure 12 of the clavical (Gordon, et.al, 1989).Crotch Point K Body area adjunct to the highest point (vertex) of the Figures 12, included angle between the legs (ASTM, 1999). 13Crown L Top of the head (ASTM, 1999; O’Brien & Sheldon, Figure 12 1941).Elbow M When arm is bent, the farthermost (lateral) point of(Olecranon) the olecranon which is the projection of the end of the inner most bone in the lower arm (ulna) (O’Brien & Sheldon, 1941); the joint between the upper and Figures 12, lower arm (ASTM, 1999). 13, 14Gluteal Furrow N The crease formed at the juncture of the thigh andPoint Figures 13, buttock (McConville, 1979; Gordon, et. Al, 1989). 14Hip Bone O Outer bony prominence of the upper end of the thigh(Greater bone (femer) (ASTM, 1999; O’Brien & Sheldon,Trochanter) Figures 12, 1941). 14Iliocristale P Highest palpable point of the iliac crest of the pelvis, ½ the distance between the front (anterior) and back Figures 12, (posterior) upper (superior) iliac spine (Gordon, et.al, 14 1989; Jones, 1929).Kneecap Q Upper and lower borders of the kneecap (patella) located by palpatation (Gordon, et.al, 1989; Figures 12, McConville, 1979); joint between the upper and lower 14 leg (ASTM, 1999).Neck R Front (anterior) and side (lateral) points at the base of the neck; points on each cervical and upper borders of neck ends of right and left clavicles [J] (O’Brien & Figures 12, Sheldon, 1941; Gordon, et.al, 1989). 13Infrathyroid S The bottom (inferior), most prominent point in the(Adam’s Apple) middle of the thyroid cartilage found in the center Figure 14 front of the neck (Gordon, et.al, 1989).Shoulder Blade T Large, triangular, flat bones situated in the back part(Scapula) of the chest (thorax) between the 2nd and 7th ribs Figures 13, (Totora, 1986; Bryan, Davies, & Middlemiss, 1996). 14Scye U Points at the folds of the juncture of the upperarm and torso associated with a set-in sleeve of a garment (Gordon, et.al, 1989; McConville, 1979; O’Brien & Sheldon,1941). *See Armpit.Karla P. Simmons 22 A-1 Paper
  • 31. Landmark Symbol DefinitionTop of the V Bottom most (inferior) point of the jugular notch of theBreastbone breastbone (sternum) (Gordon, et. al, 1989; Jones,(Suprasternal) Figure 12 1929).Tenth Rib W Lower edge point of the lowest rib at the bottom of the rib cage (Gordon, et. al, 1989; O’Brien & Sheldon, Figures 12, 1941). 147th Thoracic X The 7th vertebra of 12 of the thoracic type whichVertebra covers from the neck to the lower back (Totora, Figure 13 1986).Waist (Natural Y Taken at the lower edge of the 10th rib [W] byindentation) palpatation (O’Brien & Sheldon, 1941); point of greatest indentation on the profile of the torso or ½ the distance between the 10th rib [W] and iliocristale [P] landmarks (Gordon, et.al, 1989); location between the lowest rib [W] and hip [O] identified by bending Figure 13 the body to the side (ASTM, 1999).Waist Z Center of navel (umbilicus) (Gordon, et. al, 1989;(Omphalion) Figure 14 Jones, 1929).Wrist (Carpus) AA Joint between the lower arm and hand (ASTM, 1999); Distal ends (toward the fingers) of the ulna (the inner most bone) and radius (the outer most bone) of the Figures 12, lower arm (McConville, 1979; Gordon, et. al, 1989). 13Karla P. Simmons 23 A-1 Paper
  • 32. [L] Crown Neck [R] Collarbone Point [J] (Clavical Point) Shoulder Point (Acromion) [B] Top of Breastbone[V] (Suprasternal) Bicep Armpit Point [E] [D] (Axilla) Iliocristale [P] Elbow [M] (Olecranon) Hip Bone (Greater [O] Trochanter) Tenth [W] Rib Wrist (Carpus) [AA] Crotch [K] Point Calf (Gastrocnemius) [H] Kneecap [Q] (Patella) Ankle (Malleolus) [C] Figure 12. Anatomical points used in locating body landmarks on the front of the body. Karla P. Simmons 24 A-1 Paper
  • 33. [R] Neck Cervicale (7th Cervical [I] Vertebra) 7th Thoracic[X] Vertebra Shoulder Blades (Scapula) [T] Waist [Y] (Natural Armpit Indentation) (Axilla) [D] Wrist Elbow [AA] (Carpus) (Olecranon) [M] Gluteal Furrow Crotch Point [N] [K] Point Calf (Gastrocnemius) [H] Ankle [C] (Malleolus) Figure 13. Anatomical points used in locating body landmarks on the back of the body. Karla P. Simmons 25 A-1 Paper
  • 34. Adam’s Apple Cervical (Infrathyroid) [S] (7th Cerival Vertebra) [I] Bust Point [F] Shoulder Blade [T] (Scapula) Elbow (Olecranon) [M] [W] Tenth Rib Waist (Omphalion) [Z] [G] Buttock Iliocristale [P] Gluteal Furrow Abdominal [N] Point Extension [A] Hip Bone Calf (Greater [O] [H] (Gatrocnemius) Trochanter) Kneecap Ankle (Patella) [Q] [C] (Malleolus)Figure 14. Anatomical points used in locating body landmarks on the sideof the body.Karla P. Simmons 26 A-1 Paper
  • 35. Comparison of the Traditional Anthropometrical Method With 3D Body Scanning Methods Simple anthropometric methods using measuring tapes and calipers arestill being utilized to measure the human body. The methods are time consumingand often not accurate. With the development of three-dimensional bodyscanning, this technology allows for the extraction of body measurements inseconds. It also allows consistent measurements. However, there are severalproblems that exist with the adoption of this technology. One such issue is the comparability of measuring techniques between thescanners. Among the growing number of scanners that are currently available,significant variance exists in how each scanner captures specific bodymeasurements. Until the data capture process of these measurements can bestandardized or, at the very least, communicated among the scanning systems,this technology cannot be utilized for its maximum benefit within the apparelindustry. A second problem is the unwillingness of some scanner companies toshare information about their scanning process. Some companies will give howthe data capture occurs, how and what landmarks are used, and generalinformation about their measurement extraction. However, the real proprietaryinformation is in the mathematic/algebraic algorithms that are used. Almost allscanning companies are keeping this secret, which is understandable since thismight be their competitive advantage. When these particular scanningcompanies are questioned about their data capturing methods, they simply give astandard answer of “we follow the ISO standards” or a similar statement. TheseKarla P. Simmons 27 A-1 Paper
  • 36. are the kinds of attitudes that cause barriers to be built, which could inhibit thegrowth of this technology. Research of this comparative nature should enable3D scanner companies to see the importance of their support in order to promoteadoption of their technologies. A third problem with body scanning technology is that there are nostandards, published or unpublished, on the interpretation of measurements ormeasurement terms. Current standards for body and garment dimensionsinclude those established by the Association of Standards and Testing Materials(ASTM) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). The predominantstandard for measurements taken for the military today in their issue of clothing isthe 1988 study of U.S. Army personnel by Gordon, Bradtmiller, Churchhill,Clouser, McConville, Tebbetts, and Walker (1989). Three-dimensional body scanning brings to the forefront issuesconcerning these current standards. Most current standards require palpatation,or touching of the human body, or the bending of body parts to find appropriatelandmarks for the needed measurements. Most scanners are intended to benon-contact so that the privacy of the individual being scanned can be protected.If we were to use the current standards to define the measuring process in 3Dscanning, they just will not work. New standards are needed that will work for 3Dscanners on a global basis. A fourth problem is the need of some scanners to require landmarking.Manually identifying landmarks is time consuming and, usually, full of error.Landmarking also violates the privacy of the individual. A human must come incontact with the subject’s skin in order to find the landmark and to mark it. OnKarla P. Simmons 28 A-1 Paper
  • 37. the other side, another issue is that scanners that do landmarking automaticallyare most times making an educated guess as to the exact location of thatlandmark. Without being able to touch the subject’s skin, absolute identificationcannot be achieved. In this study, 17 measurements were chosen that were considered criticalin the initial design of well fitting garments. These measures includedmidneck/neckbase, chest/bust, waist by natural indentation/waist by navel,hips/seat, sleeve length/arm length, inseam, outseam, shoulder length, acrossback, across chest, back of neck to waist, rise, crotch length, thighcircumference, bicep circumference, and wrist circumference. For each of the 17measurements, the method of data capture is described below for three differentscanners: ImageTwin , Cyberware, and SYMCAD.Neck-Midneck Traditional measurement method. The midneck is defined as thecircumference of the neck approximately 25mm (1 inch) above the neck base(ASTMa,1995; ASTMb, 1995; ASTM, 1999). The girth of the neck measured2cm below the Adam’s apple and at the level of the 7th cervical vertebra (ISO,1981; ISO, 1989; National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 1971). The plane isperpendicular to the long axis of the body (McConville, 1979; Gordon, et al,1979). ImageTwin method. In this system, the mid-neck measure is referred toas the “collar”. It is measured byKarla P. Simmons 29 A-1 Paper
  • 38. Cyberware method. The “neck circumference” measureis taken at the collar level. It is the smallest circumference ofpoints that pass through the center of the Adam’s Apple. Itoften lies on or near a plane at varying offsets and tilt angles(Steven Paquette, personal communication, December 1, Figure 15. Midneck2000). measurement. SYMCAD method. The “neck girth” is the perimeter of the neck that is thesmallest circumference measured from the 7th cervical vertebra (SYMCAD,2000). Discussion. For the midneck measure, the first issue of discussion is thatthe current standards are not in agreement as to the proper method ofmeasurement. About 25 mm above the neckbase and 2 cm below the Adam’sapple can vary widely between individuals. Secondly, men have an Adam’sapple but women do not. The ISO and NBS definitions seem not to beappropriate for women. Thirdly, the terms used for the midneck are not clear.The midneck measure is used as the collar measurement in men’s shirts.ImageTwin recognizes this usage by calling their measure “collar”. However,Cyberware and SYMCAD refer to their midneck as neck circumference and neckgirth.Karla P. Simmons 30 A-1 Paper
  • 39. Neck-Neckbase Traditional measurement method. The neckbase is defined as thecircumference of the neck taken just over the cervical at the back and at the topof the collarbone in the front (ISO, 1989; ASTMa, 1995; ASTM, 1999; NBS, 1971;NBS, 1972). ImageTwin method. The neckbase is the “neck”measurement in this system. It is the circumference measuredright at the base of the neck following the contours. It is notparallel to the floor (Ken Harrison, personal communication,September, 1999). Cyberware method. Cyberware does not have a Figure 16.neckbase measure. Neckbase measurement. SYMCAD method. The “neckbase” is the perimeteraround the neck defined by a plane section based on the 7th cervical vertebraand both left and right neck bases (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. The neckbase measurement for the ImageTwin andSYMCAD seem to be consistent with the current standards. The term “neck”could be changed so it would not be confused with the midneck measure. Thismeasure is possibly more important for women than men because of the variouscollarless clothing styles. Considering the development of the Cyberware systemand its use by the military, it is understandable that they have not developed aneckbase measure.Karla P. Simmons 31 A-1 Paper
  • 40. Table 6. Midneck and Neckbase Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Midneck Neckbase ImageTwin Collar Neck Cyberware Neck Circumference n/a SYMCAD Neck Girth NeckbaseChest Circumference Traditional measurement method. The chest circumference is defined asthe maximum horizontal girth at bust levels measured under the armpits, over theshoulder blades, and across the nipples with the subject breathing normally(NSB, 1971; ISO, 1989; ISO, 1981); parallel to the floor (ASTMa, 1995; ASTMb,1995; ASTM, 1999; McConville, 1979). ImageTwin method. The “chest” measurement is measured horizontallyat the armpit level just above the bustline (Ken Harrison, personalcommunication, September, 1999; [TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. Cyberware does not have ameasurement that differentiates the chest from the bustmeasures. Their chest measure is more related to thebust measure and is discussed in the next section. SYMCAD method. The “maximum chest girth” isthe maximum horizontal perimeter of the chest(SYMCAD, 2000). Figure 17. Chest circumference measurement.Karla P. Simmons 32 A-1 Paper
  • 41. Discussion. Current standards do not differentiate between the chest andbust measurements. However, there is a distinct difference. The only system toclearly recognize this difference is the ImageTwin. The SYMCADmeasurement discusses the maximum circumference which on a man might bethe chest measure. For a woman, the bust will almost always be the maximumcircumference. The above-bust (or chest) circumference is vitally important forthe best fit in women’s clothing. Because men’s clothing is seldom created witha close, form fit, the measure and its determination may be less important.Bust Circumference Traditional measurement method. The bust circumference is defined asthe maximum horizontal girth at bust level measured under the armpits, over theshoulder blades, and across the nipples with the subject breathing normally(NSB, 1971; ISO, 1989; ISO, 1981); parallel to the floor (ASTMa, 1995; ASTMb,1995; ASTM, 1999; McConville, 1979). ImageTwin method. The “bust” measurement is the horizontalcircumference taken across the bust points at thefullest part of the chest ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. The “chest circumference”measurement is the sum of the distances separatingsuccessive points from the torso segment that lies onor near a parallel place to the X axis which passesthrough the right and left bustpoints (Steven Figure 18. Bust circumferencePaquette, personal communication, December 1, measurement.Karla P. Simmons 33 A-1 Paper
  • 42. 2000). SYMCAD method. The “chest girth” is the horizontal perimeter measuredat the average height of the most prominent points of each breast with thesubject standing with arms apart and breathing normally (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. All three scanners have definitions that include going throughthe bust points for the bust circumference. The standards discuss going acrossthe nipples but, if you notice, this definition is the same as the one for chestcircumference. The definition for the chest measurement should be changed inthe standards to reflect the true definition of being measured horizontally at thearmpit level just above the bustline. The terminology in the three scanners forthe bust circumference name should be changed to reflect a very different bustmeasure. Since the term “bust” may be an issue in men’s measurement and notreally needed, another general term may be needed or the measurement setsmay be defined by gender.Table 7. Chest and Bust Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Chest Bust ImageTwin Chest Bust Cyberware n/a Chest Circumference SYMCAD Maximum Chest Girth Chest GirthWaist-Natural Indentation Traditional measurement method. The natural waist measure is definedas the horizontal circumference at the level of the waist, immediately below thelowest rib (Gordon, et al, 1989; ASTM, 1999; ASTMa, 1995; NSB, 1971; NSB,Karla P. Simmons 34 A-1 Paper
  • 43. 1972); between the iliac crest and lower ribs (ISO, 1989; ISO, 1981); may not beparallel to the floor (ASTMb, 1995). ImageTwin method. The “waist” is the smallest circumference betweenthe bust and hips determined by locating the small of the back and then going upand down a predetermined amount for a starting point to find the waist. Thesystem allows the user to define how far from horizontal the waist can rotate ordetermine a fixed angle for the waist. Zeros for the center front and center backvalues will make the waist parallel to the floor. The waist can be adjusted basedon the hips. The distance you start above the waist is based upon where thehips are located. The system uses a formula that defines a distance above thecrotch to start the waist based on the circumference of the hips. Someone whohas rather large, wide hips might allow the waist to go up higher (Ken Harrison,personal communication, September 1999; [TC2], 1999). Cyberware Method. This system does not use the natural indentation ofthe body as the waist measure. They use the navel as the waist landmark whichis explained in the next section. SYMCAD method. The “natural waist girth” is the horizontal perimetermeasured at the narrowest part of the abdomen (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. Both ImageTwin and SYMCAD have definitions thatcoincide with the current standards. However, palpatation or bending to one sideis needed to determine the landmarks used in the natural waist. In a scanner,the subject stands vertically and does not move. Therefore, the standards needto reflect this issue in their definition.Karla P. Simmons 35 A-1 Paper
  • 44. Waist-Navel (Omphalion) Traditional measurement method. No current standard could be foundthat had a waist-at-the-navel definition. ImageTwin method. This system does not have a method of detectingthe navel for use in the waist measurement. Cyberware method. The “waist circumference” is taken in reference to thenavel. It is the measurement of the total distance around the torso segment thatlies on or near a plane parallel to the XY plane whichpasses through the navel (omphalion). The center of thenavel is taken to be the center of mass of the 3D objectoccurring at or near the inside middle of the central thirdof the torso segment (Steven Paquette, personalcommunication, December 1, 2000). SYMCAD method. The “waist girth (at the Figure 19. Waist at the navelnavel)” is the horizontal perimeter measured where the measurement.system detects the navel. The “belt girth” is where the trousers are wornaccording to the rise as defined by the user (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. Using the navel as a landmark has a significant problem ofnot being able to be located. The subject in the scanner will usually have onclothing that could cover up the navel. This would affect other measurementsthat rely on an accurate waist measure for their extraction. The terminology forthe waist-at-the-navel terms for Cyberware and SYMCAD should be changed toindicate the usage of the navel as a landmark.Karla P. Simmons 36 A-1 Paper
  • 45. Table 8. Waist-Natural Indentation and Waist-Navel(Omphalion)Terms Usedin Selected Scanner Models Waist-Natural Waist-Navel Indentation (Omphalion) ImageTwin Waist n/a Cyberware n/a Waist Circumference SYMCAD Natural Waist Girth Waist Girth Belt girthHip Circumference Traditional measurement method. The hip circumference is defined as themaximum hip circumference of the body at the hip level, parallel to the floor(ASTMa, 1995); maximum circumference of the body at the level of maximumprominence of the buttocks (ASTM, 1999); maximum hip circumference at thelevel of maximum prominence of the buttocks, parallel to the floor (ASTMb,1995); the horizontal girth measured round the buttocks at the level of thegreatest lateral trochanteric projectors (ISO, 1989); the horizontal girth measuredround the buttocks at the level of maximum circumference (ISO, 1981). ImageTwin method. The “hips” measure is defined as the largestcircumference defined between the waist and the crotch. Upper and lower limitscan be specified by the user. These limits are based on a percentage of thedistance from the crotch and the waist and a distance above or below that point(Ken Harrison, personal communication, September, 1999; [TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. Cyberware does not have a hips measurement. SYMCAD method. SYMCAD does not have a hips measurement.Karla P. Simmons 37 A-1 Paper
  • 46. Seat Traditional measurement method. The seat measure is defined as thehorizontal circumference of the level of the maximum protrusion of the rightbuttock, as viewed from the side (Gordon, et al, 1989). ImageTwin Method. The “seat” measure is the circumference taken atthe largest (widest) part of the bottom, as viewed from the side. The seatmeasure will never be larger than the hips measure unless limits are placed onthe area the scanner searches in (Ken Harrison, personal communication,September, 1999; [TC2], 1999). Cyberware Method. The “seat circumference” finds the seat at the mostprominent posterior protuberance on the buttocks. Starting at the crotch, crosssections of the pelvis are taken until the waist is reached. At each level, thegreatest posterior point is found. At the level of the most posterior point, thecircumference is measured around the point cloud (Beecher, 1999). SYMCAD method. The “seat girth” is the horizontalperimeter measured at the average height of the mostprominent point of the buttocks (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. The traditional definitions of thismeasure allow for a great deal of measurement variancesince no consistent landmark is defined. The Figure 20. Seat measurement.ImageTwin most correctly follows the ASTMa, 1995and ISO, 1981 standards but does not support the other definitions. The otherdefinitions (ASTMb, 1995; ASTM, 1999; ISO, 1989) most clearly follow theKarla P. Simmons 38 A-1 Paper
  • 47. definition of seat as stated above. A strong case can be made for the importanceof both hip and seat measures as well as the location of those measures form abasic landmark (floor or waist).Table 9. Hip Circumference and Seat Terms Used in Selected ScannerModels Hip Circumference Seat ImageTwin Hips Seat Cyberware n/a Seat Circumference SYMCAD n/a Seat GirthSleeve Length Traditional measurement method. The sleeve length is defined as thehorizontal surface distance from the mid-spine landmark, across the olecranon-center landmark at the tip of the raised right elbow, to the dorsal wrist landmark(Gordon, et al, 1989); the distance between the 7th cervical vertebra to theextremity of the wrist bone, passing over the top of the shoulder (acromion) andalong the arm bent at 90 degrees in a horizontal position (ISO, 1989; ASTMa,1995). ImageTwin method. The “shirt sleeve length” ismeasured from the back of the neck, over the shoulder, anddown to 2 inches above the knuckle ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. The “sleeve length” measurestarts by measuring one-half the cross-shoulder Figure 21. Sleeve lengthmeasurement. A line is then drawn from the shoulder measurement.Karla P. Simmons 39 A-1 Paper
  • 48. endpoint (acromion) to the wrist. One inch is added to the length to give theapproximate sleeve end point (ARN, 1999). SYMCAD method. The “total arm length” is the distance between thebase of the neck and the exterior inferior edge of the wrist, measured along thearm through the tops of both the acromion and the elbow, arm and forearm in avertical plane forming an angle of about 120 degrees. The subject must standwith their fists about 15cm out from the hips (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. This measure, as defined here, is primarily used in men’stailored clothing. The ISO, ASTM, and U.S. Army study standards for sleevelength require the arm to be bent at 90 degrees for this measure. In manyscanners, the subject’s arms are hanging straight down and are not bent. Noneof these standards will work for body scanning as they currently exist. SYMCADneeds to have a term that reflects its relationship with the sleeve.Arm Length Traditional measurement method. The arm length is defined as thedistance from the armscye/shoulder line intersection (acromion), over the elbow,to the far end of the prominent wrist bone (ulna), with fists clenched and placedon the hip and with the arms bent at 90 degrees (ISO, 1989; ASTMa, 1995;ASTMb, 1995; ASTM, 1999). ImageTwin method. This system does not have an arm length measure. Cyberware method. This system does not have an arm length measure. SYMCAD method. The “arm length” measure is the distance between theedge of the shoulder and the exterior inferior edge of the wrist, measured alongKarla P. Simmons 40 A-1 Paper
  • 49. the arm through the top of the elbow, arm, and forearm in a vertical plane formingan angle of about 120 degrees, standing with fists about15cm apart from the hips(SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. SYMCAD is the only scanner with thisarm length measure at this time. It is labeled appropriately.The current standards require the arms to be bent at 90degrees. The ImageTwin and Cyberware require Figure 22. Arm lengthsubjects to hang their arms naturally be their side, slightly measurement.away from the body. The SYMCAD requires an awkward stance of the elbowsbent up and out from the body. However, it does not give the 90 degreesstipulated by the standards and is questionable as to whether this would effectthe measure.Table 10. Sleeve Length and Arm Length Terms Used in Selected ScannerModels Sleeve Length Arm Length ImageTwin Shirt Sleeve Length n/a Cyberware Sleeve Length n/a SYMCAD Total Arm Length Arm LengthInseam Traditional measurement method. The inseam measure is defined as thedistance from the crotch intersection straight down to the soles of the feet(ASTMa, 1995; ASTMb, 1995; ASTM, 1999; ISO, 1981; ISO, 1989)Karla P. Simmons 41 A-1 Paper
  • 50. ImageTwin method. The “inseam” measureallows for user defined parameters on where the inseamshould be measured. Both methods start at the crotchpoint. One variation of the measure can be made straightdown to the floor. The other variation can take themeasure along the inside of the leg, ending at the inside ofthe foot. The default for the system gives the height of thecrotch straight up from the floor ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. The “pant inseam” is the Figure 23. Inseam measurement.measure of the crotch height which is the straight heightabove the floor of the lowest crotch point. The legs are separated from the torsoat the crotch, therefore the measurement value is the height of segmentationbetween the legs and torso (Steven Paquette, personal communication,December 1, 2000). SYMCAD method. The “inside leg length” is the distance measured on astraight line along the leg between the crotch and the ground while subjectstands with legs apart (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. SYMCAD is the only system that deviates from the currentdefinitions in that it is measured along the leg and not straight down to the floor.Its terminology could be changed to be inline with the others.Karla P. Simmons 42 A-1 Paper
  • 51. Table 11. Inseam Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Inseam ImageTwin Inseam Cyberware Pant Inseam SYMCAD Inside Leg LengthOutseam Traditional measurement method. The distance from the side waist to thesoles of the feet, following the curves of the body (ASTM, 1999; ISO, 1981);following the contour of the hip then vertically down (ISO, 1989); The verticaldistance between a standing surface and the landmark at the preferred landmarkof the right waist (Gordon, et al, 1989). ImageTwin method. The “outseam” measure starts at the side waistpoint and follows the body down to the hips. From there, user definedparameters allow three variations: (1) from the hip point, the measure goesstraight down to the floor and disregards whether thelegs are in the way or not, (2) from the hip point, themeasure goes down to the outside of the foot, and(3) from the hip point, the measure goes straight tothe floor as soon as there is no leg getting in the way([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does nothave an outseam measure. Figure 24. Outseam SYMCAD method. The “outside leg length” is measurement.Karla P. Simmons 43 A-1 Paper
  • 52. the distance comprised between the natural waist line and the ground, measuredon the flank side along the hip and then vertically from the fleshy part of the thigh(SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. Both ImageTwin and SYMCAD follow the same basicdefinition. However, the standards should be clearer on the outseam measure.Gordon’s traditional definition is really a vertical waist height measure. While animportant measure, it doesn’t have a direct application or the best fit of pants orskirts.Table 12. Outseam Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Outseam ImageTwin Outseam Cyberware n/a SYMCAD Outside Leg LengthShoulder Length Traditional measurement method. The shoulder length measure is takenwith the arms hanging down naturally. It is the measure from the side of the neckbase to the armscye line at the shoulder joint (ASTMa, 1995; ASTMb, 1995;ASTM, 1999); from the base of the side of the neck (neck point) to the acromionextremity (ISO, 1989). ImageTwin method. The “shoulder length” is the distance from the sideof the neck to the shoulder point (acromion)([TC2], 1999).Karla P. Simmons 44 A-1 Paper
  • 53. Cyberware Method. This system does not have a shoulder lengthmeasure. SYMCAD method. With the arms apart, the“shoulder length” is the distance between the base ofthe neck and the edge of the shoulder (SYMCAD,2000). Discussion. Both the ImageTwin andSYMCAD have terms and definitions that areconsistent with the current standards. However, there Figure 25. Shoulderis still an issue of the scanners being able to correctly length measurement.identify the landmarks of the neck and acromion consistently.Table 13. Shoulder Length Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Shoulder Length ImageTwin Shoulder Length Cyberware n/a SYMCAD Shoulder LengthAcross Chest Traditional measurement method. Measure across the chest fromarmscye to armscye at front breakpoint8 level (ASTMa, 1995; ASTMb, 1995);from front-break point to front-break point (ASTM, 1999).8 Front breakpoint is the location on the front of the body where the arm separates from the body(ASTM, 1999).Karla P. Simmons 45 A-1 Paper
  • 54. ImageTwin method. The “across chest”measure is taken from the front of the arm at thearmpit level to the front of the other arm at thearmpit level ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does nothave an across chest measure. SYMCAD method. The “across chest” Figure 26. Across chest measurement.measure is the distance between the pointssituated at the middle of the segment between the edge of the shoulder and thearmpit in the front with subject standing with arms apart (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. The definition for the across chest measure for SYMCADseems unclear. Greater detail or different wording should be used.Table 14. Across Chest Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Across Chest ImageTwin Across Chest Cyberware n/a SYMCAD Across ChestAcross Back Traditional measurement method. Measure across the back fromarmscye to armscye back-break point9 level (ASTMa, 1995; ASTM, 1999);approximately the same level as the chest (ASTMb, 1995); the horizontal9 Back breakpoint is the location on the back of the body where the arm separates from the body(ASTM, 1999).Karla P. Simmons 46 A-1 Paper
  • 55. distance across the back measured half-way between the upper and lower scyelevels (ISO, 1989). ImageTwin method. The “across back” measure is taken from the backof one arm to the back of the other at the armpit level, where the arm joins theback at the crease ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does nothave an across back measure. SYMCAD method. The “across back”measure is the distance between the points situatedat the middle of the segment between the edge ofthe shoulder and the armpit in the back with the Figure 27. Across back measurement.subject standing with arms apart (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. Te definition for the across back measure for SYMCADseems unclear. Greater detail or different wording should be used. Standardsshould be more consistent.Table 15. Across Back Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Across Back ImageTwin Across Back Cyberware n/a SYMCAD Across BackKarla P. Simmons 47 A-1 Paper
  • 56. Back of Neck to Waist Length Traditional measurement method. The back of neck to waist measure isdefined as the distance from the 7th cervical vertebra (cervicale), following thecontour of the spinal column, to the waist (ISO, 1989; ASTMa, 1995; ASTMb,1995; ASTM, 1999; Gordon, et al, 1989). ImageTwin method. The “neck to waist” measurecan be measured in the front or the back. For the backmeasure, it is taken at the neck base, following the contoursof the spine down to the waist at the location previouslydefined in the system ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does not have a Figure 28. Back of neckback of neck to waist measure. to waist measurement. SYMCAD method. The “back neck to waist” is thedistance between the 7th cervical vertebra and the waist (at the navel) along thebody between the shoulder blades up to the widest point then vertically. The“back neck to belt” is the distance between the 7th cervical vertebra and the belt(the waist measure at the preferred height) along the body between the shoulderblades up to the widest point then vertically (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. This is a critical measure for appropriate fit of most upperbody garments. A significant issue for this measure is the location of the waist.When the waist measure is standardized, it will affect this measure also.Karla P. Simmons 48 A-1 Paper
  • 57. Table 16. Back of Neck to Waist Length Terms Used in Selected ScannerModels Back of Neck to Waist ImageTwin Neck to Waist Cyberware n/a SYMCAD Back Neck to Waist Back Neck to BeltRise Traditional measurement method. The rise measure is defined as thevertical distance between the waist level and the crotch level taken standing fromthe side (ISO, 1989; ASTM, 1999); while sitting on a hard, flat surface, measurestraight down from the waist level at the side of the body to the flat surface(ASTMa, 1995). ImageTwin method. The “vertical rise” is thevertical distance from the crotch to the waist, not beingmeasured along the body. Instead, it is the difference inheight of the waist and the crotch ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does not have arise measure. SYMCAD method. The “body rise” is the difference Figure 29. Rise measurement.between the height of the belt girth (where the trousersare worn) and the inside leg length (SYMCAD, 2000). Discussion. Again, the issue for this measure is the location of the waist.When the waist measure is standardized, it will affect this measure also.Karla P. Simmons 49 A-1 Paper
  • 58. Table 17. Rise Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Rise ImageTwin Vertical Rise Cyberware n/a SYMCAD Body RiseCrotch Length Traditional measurement method. The crotch length is defined as themeasure from the center front waist level through the crotch to the center backwaist level (ASTMb, 1995); the distance between the abdomen at the level of thepreferred landmark of the waist to the preferred landmark onthe back is measured through the crotch to the right of thegenitalia (Gordon, et al, 1989). ImageTwin method. The “crotch length” is themeasurement along the body from the front waist through thecrotch to the back waist. This system allows the user todefine whether a front, back, or full crotch length is needed([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does not have a Figure 30. Crotch length measurement.crotch length measure. SYMCAD method. This system does not have a crotch length measure. Discussion. ImageTwin was specifically designed for use in apparel. Inthis research, they were the only system to have a crotch length. The onlystandard that included the crotch length is the ASTM 5586 for Women over 55.Karla P. Simmons 50 A-1 Paper
  • 59. Other standards should include the crotch length also. This is a critical measurefor the appropriate fit of pants, shorts, or variations of each.Table 18. Crotch Length Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Crotch Length ImageTwin Crotch Length Cyberware n/a SYMCAD n/aThigh Circumference Traditional measurement method. The thigh circumference is defined asthe maximum circumference of the upper leg close to the crotch (ASTMa, 1995;ASTM, 1999); parallel to the floor (ASTMb, 1995); at the juncture with the buttock(Gordon, et al, 1989); at the highest thigh position (ISO, 1989). Traditional measurement method for mid-thigh circumference. Thehorizontal circumference of the thigh measured midwaybetween the hip and the knee (ISO, 1989; ASTMa, 1995;ASTM, 1999); parallel to the floor (ASTMb, 1995). ImageTwin method. The “thigh” measure offersuser defined parameters for several choices on definingthe position of the thigh. The system allows for a fixedlocation of the search for the thigh. The default uses thisparameter by placing the thigh 2 inches below the crotch. Figure 31. ThighYou can also program the system to find the largest circumference measurement.Karla P. Simmons 51 A-1 Paper
  • 60. circumference between the upper and lower limits using the knee as the lowerlimits or defining another one usually above the knee ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware method. This system does not have a thigh circumferencemeasure. SYMCAD method. This system does not have a thigh circumferencemeasure. Discussion. The ImageTwin system allows for the determination of thethigh circumference and the mid-thigh circumference. For pattern making, thelargest circumference is the one needed whether it is at the crotch or midwaybetween the hip and knee, however, it is also very important to know where thatmeasure was located.Table 19. Thigh Circumference Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Thigh Circumference ImageTwin Thigh Cyberware n/a SYMCAD n/aBicep Circumference Traditional measurement method. The bicep circumference is taken withthe arms down. It is the measure of the maximum upper arm circumferenceparallel to the floor and usually taken near the level of the armpit (ASTMb, 1995);between the shoulder joint and the elbow (ASTMa, 1995; ASTM, 1999); at thelowest scye level (ISO, 1989); with the subject extending upper arm horizontally,Karla P. Simmons 52 A-1 Paper
  • 61. the elbow flexed at 90 degrees, the fist clenched and held facing the head, andthe subject exerting maximum effort in making the muscle flex, the circumferenceof the flexed biceps muscle of the upper arm is measured (Gordon, et al, 1989). ImageTwin Method. The “biceps” is thecircumference of the arm taken about 2 inches belowthe armpit. It is not necessarily the largestcircumference of the upper arm ([TC2], 1999). Cyberware Method. This system does nothave a bicep circumference measure. SYMCAD method. This system does nothave a bicep circumference measure. Figure 32. Bicep circumference measurement. Discussion. The bicep circumferenceneeds to be the largest circumference of the upper arm. The ImageTwinsystem has a bicep circumference measure but it does not reflect the maximumcircumference.Table 20. Bicep Circumference Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Bicep Circumference ImageTwin Bicep Cyberware n/a SYMCAD n/aWrist Circumference Traditional measurement method. The wrist circumference is defines asthe girth over the wrist bone (ISO, 1989); over the prominence of the outer wristKarla P. Simmons 53 A-1 Paper
  • 62. bone (ASTMb, 1995); over the inner and outer prominence at the lower end ofthe forearm (ASTMa, 1995; ASTM, 1999). ImageTwin method. The “wrist circumference” isthe smallest circumference from the elbow to theknuckles of the hand (Ken Harrison, personalcommunication, September, 1999). Cyberware method. This system does not have awrist circumference measure. SYMCAD method. This system does not have a Figure 33. Wrist circumferencewrist circumference measure. measurement. Discussion. The wrist circumference should be defined by the location. Inshirts that have a cuff, the wrist circumference should be taken at the mostprominent bones to ensure the cuff will go over the area. For shirts that haveelastic at the wrist, the wrist circumference would be the smallest area just belowthe prominent bones. ImageTwin takes the smallest circumference, no matterwhat the location. This is not in line with the current standards.Table 21. Wrist Circumference Terms Used in Selected Scanner Models Wrist Circumference ImageTwin Wrist Cyberware n/a SYMCAD n/aKarla P. Simmons 54 A-1 Paper
  • 63. Conclusions and RecommendationsConclusions The apparel industry is diligently researching the usage of three-dimensional body scanning for apparel design and the mass customization ofgarments. Body scanning technology is capable of extracting an infinite numberof data types. However, a problem exists in the consistency of measuringtechniques between scanners. Among the several scanners that are currentlyavailable, significant variance exists in how each captures specific bodymeasurements. Until the data capture process of specific body measurementscan be standardized or communicated among scanning systems, this technologycannot be utilized for its maximum benefit within the apparel industry.Classical anthropometric data provides information on static dimensions of thehuman body in standard postures (Kroemer, Kroemer, & Kroemer-Elbert, 1986).Body scanning is now allowing data to be captured in three-dimensions. With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can benon-contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establisheslandmarks and takes the measurements need to be established so thatstandardization of the data capture can be realized. In this study, seventeenmeasurements were chosen as being critical to the design of well fittinggarments. On each of the seventeen measurements, the method of data capturewas described for three different scanners, ImageTwin , Cyberware, andSYMCAD. A summary of traditional measurement terms compared to theselected scanner models is shown in Table 23.Karla P. Simmons 55 A-1 Paper
  • 64. Of the seventeen measures in the study, ImageTwin was the onlyscanner that had all of the measures. They were most closely in line with thecurrent standards or with what the standards should be, depending on themeasure. The Cyberware scanner is only being used by the military for sizeestimation in their clothing issue. They use the WB4 in the issue of their dresscoat, dress shirt, and pants. SYMCAD is just now beginning to be used inapparel. They have a set of 60+ measurements that are defined according toISO standards (so they say). These measures allow no revision or adjustmentfor users needs. They also find it difficult to share information on anything thatconcerns their scanner. As mentioned previously, many of the traditionalstandards used by SYMCAD are inadequate for apparel fit needs and areimprecise. Ultimately, for this technology to serve the industry best, we must be ableto clearly and precisely indicate how and where measurements were taken.These measures must also be accurate. We must be able to get all of thenecessary measurements to ensure fit of the garments.Karla P. Simmons 56 A-1 Paper
  • 65. Table 23. Summary of Traditional Measurement Terms Compared toSelected Scanner Model Terms ImageTwin Cyberware SYMCADMidneck Collar Neck Neck Girth CircumferenceNeckbase Neck n/a NeckbaseChest Chest n/a Maximum Chest GirthBust Bust Chest Chest Girth CircumferenceWaist-Natural Waist n/a Natural WaistIndentation GirthWaist-Navel n/a Waist Waist Girth Circumference Belt GirthHips Hips n/a n/aSeat Seat Seat Seat Girth CircumferenceSleeve Length Shirt Sleeve Sleeve Length Total Arm Length LengthArm Length n/a n/a Arm LengthInseam Inseam Pant Inseam Inside Leg LengthOutseam Outseam n/a Outside Leg LengthShoulder Shoulder Length n/a Shoulder LengthLengthAcross Chest Across Chest n/a Across ChestAcross Back Across Back n/a Across BackBack of Neck Neck to Waist n/a (1)Back Neck toto Waist Waist (2) Back Neck to BeltRise Vertical Rise n/a Body RiseCrotch Length Crotch Length n/a n/aThigh Thigh n/a n/aCircumferenceBicep Bicep n/a n/aCircumferenceWrist Wrist n/a n/aCircumferenceKarla P. Simmons 57 A-1 Paper
  • 66. Recommendations This research will establish a benchmark for the standardization of using3D body scanners globally in the manufacture of apparel. It will enable thetechnology transfer of the individual components of mass customization andrapid prototyping to become efficient and less laborious as to facilitate greaterusage in the apparel industry. It will also help governing bodies of currentstandards for body and garment sizing, such as ASTM and ISO, see a glimpse ofthis important issue and raise new questions for further study. Recommendations from this research include:• Current standards need to be revised to include three-dimensional body scanning or create a new set of standards specifically for body scanning. These standards need to take into account the terminology of measures and the non-palpatation by the measurer or movement of the subject.• Terminology for the individual measures between the scanners need to be standardized. This can only happen if all scanner companies are willing to share their information.• This research only compared three of the major scanners available. Other research should be targeted on other scanning systems.• Research should be initiated concerning gathering information from the “hard- to-get-to” companies that are reluctant to share. All available resources should be utilized to get this information.Karla P. Simmons 58 A-1 Paper
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