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Traction Curving IAVSD 2007
 

Traction Curving IAVSD 2007

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Conference presentation of traction curving of steering bogies

Conference presentation of traction curving of steering bogies

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    Traction Curving IAVSD 2007 Traction Curving IAVSD 2007 Presentation Transcript

    • Parametric Simulation Study of Traction Curving of Three Axle Steering Bogie Designs Scott Simson Colin Cole
    • Research Objective
      • Problem
        • Adhesion in tight curves
          • limited by AOA
        • Current passive steering bogies loose steering control under high traction
      • Active Steering Traction Bogies
        • Higher adhesion in tight curves
        • Less locomotives needed for ruling grades
    • Passive Steering Bogies
      • Yaw Relaxation Bogies: Primary suspension with yaw stiffness relaxed
      • Self Steering Bogies: end axles cross linked together, Axles yaw in opposite directions only
      • Force Steered Bogies: end axles are cross linked together and linked to the bogie yaw angle.
      • Articulated Bogies: steering angle of bogie axles linked to the articulation angle of vehicle bodies
      • Independent Wheels: Axles with independent rotating wheels, zeros longitudinal creep forces
    • Locomotive Bogies
      • EMD Radial, [self steering, 2, 1],
        • 1 st patent 1987 ~ 12 years after the Scheffel
        • Production 1993
      • Further Self Steer Patents
        • ABB, 1993 [self steering, 3H]
        • MK Rail 1996, GE Locomotive 1997, [self steer 2,1]
        • Bombardier, [self steer 3, AWY 3]
    • EMD Radial Patents
    • US Patents ABB
    • US Patents M-K Rail
    • US Patent GE Locomotive
    • US Patents Bombardier
    • Traction Steering Papers
      • EMD Radial [1989 IHHA]:
        • steering performance deteriorates with traction
      • IAVSD 2005, Grassie & Elkins
        • Yaw relaxation bogies
        • Steering performance deteriorates to rigid bogie performance levels
    • Active Steering
      • Secondary Yaw Control
        • Braghin, Bruni, Resta, VSD v44
        • Reduces lateral loads
      • Actuated Wheelset Yaw
        • Goodall, Mei [many publications]
        • Bombardier Mechtronic bogie
      • Independent Wheels
      • Directly Steered
    • 3 Angles of Idealised Steering
    • Perfect Steering
      • Goodall, Bruni & Mei (IAVSD 2005)
      • Minimise wheel-rail creep forces
        • No longitudinal creep [pure rolling]
        • Equal lateral creep for all wheelsets [equal angle of attack]
      • Some creep in the lateral direction is desirable to compensate for any cant-deficiency
      • Requires profile conicity sufficient for the curve
    • Gravitational Stiffness
      • Contact angles of 10 degrees before flanging
      • Ignored in linear models
    • Traction Ideal Steering
      • Longitudinal creep are not zero
        • Longitudinal creep need only be +ve
        • Lateral creep force are not needed
        • Contact lateral forces to balance acceleration
    • Bogie Curving Forces
    • Research Program
      • Traction Steering Ideal
      • Passive Bogie Simulation
      • New Bogie Design
      • Active Bogie Simulation
    • Simulation
      • 117 tonne 6 axle Locomotive
      • Coupler loads
      • Steering movements subject to friction damping [mu = 0.05]
      • Traction , 16.6% 60 kph 186 kN, 37% 416 kN
      • Active control delay 16 Hz input and output filter.
      • Test track 600m reversing curves,
      • Equal amounts of tangent, transition and curve
    • Stability Testing
    • Passive Bogie, Traction Steering
    • Steering at High Traction Bogie Pitching Steering
    • Simson Bogie Patent
      • Active bogie yaw control
      • Forced steered
      • Australian provisional patent 2007900891
    • Control Methods
      • Semi Active
        • Longitudinal Creep Forces
        • Yaw Moment difference
      • Full Active
        • Yaw misalignment
        • Target yaw for track position
    • Semi Active Control, Sensing Creep Forces
    • Full Active Control, Sensing Yaw Alignment of Bogies
    • High Traction Curving Actuated Bogies
    • Curvature Estimation
      • Active Yaw Dampers
        • Braghin F., Bruni S., Resta F., (2006) VSD 44
      • Curve Radius Estimate from:
        • Bogie yaw velocity transducers
        • Vehicle speed
      • Trail simulations have problems identifying curve transition vs instability
        • Increased wear energy in transition
        • Target yaw in transition to be developed
    • Sensor, Actuator Placement
      • Actuated Wheelset Yaw
        • Actuators and sensors at primary suspension
      • Actuated Yaw, Force Steered (Simson)
        • Actuators at secondary suspension
        • Sensors bogie frame mounted or higher
    • Conclusions
      • Traction steering requires ideal steering
        • Steering angle control
        • Bogie yaw angle control
        • Minimal or zero angle of attack
      • Simson bogie – yaw activated force steered – achieves better (ideal) steering even at low friction to adhesion ratios.
        • Steering bogies must trade of transition curving performance against stability