EnglishIntroduction. How to use this course.French language: similarities to English. Over 60 percent of English vocabularycomes from French. Key to similar vocabulary. Active vocabulary is small: 500-1,500 words.Words in English ending with -ible and -able are the same in French.possibletablecomfortableit is / that isthe lifeIt is possible.It is comfortable.goodIt is good.veryIt is very good.It is very comfortable.It is probable.It is acceptable.for meforIt is for me.for youIt is for you.It is very comfortable for me.it is notNot for me, thank you.thanksIt is not for me.It is not very comfortable for me.so-so (lit. like this, like that)like that / that wayIt is like that (that way).It is not like that.It is not possible for me that way.Im sorry...Im sorry but...butIm sorry but it is not very comfortable for me that way.Im sorry but it is not acceptable for me that way.It is very remarkable.considerableWords in English ending in -ent and -ant come from French. They have the samespelling and the same meaning.differentimportantPronunciation of im- and in-. The stress is always at the end of the word in French.It is not very different that way.But it is very important for me.The s at the end of a word may be pushed over to the following word if that wordstarts with a vowel. It is pronounced as a z.very importantevidentrecentconstant
Words in English ending in -ary become -aire in French.necessaryIt is not necessary for me.contraryon the contrarymilitaryvocabularyI would like...to speakto speak FrenchI would like to speak French.withwith youwith meI would like to speak French with you.Will you...? / Will you..., please? / Do you want...?Will you speak French with me?to comeWill you come with me?to eatWill you eat?Will you come eat with me?to cometo goWill you go eat with me?Where?Where do you want to go?Where do you want to go eat?tonightIt is for tonight.It is for me.Where do you want to go eat tonight?to have dinnerthe dinnerWhere do you want to have dinner tonight?Do you want to come have dinner with me tonight?to knowI would like to know...I would like to know where...I would like to know where it is.How much?I would like to know how much it is.somethingthe thingthe same thingI would like to eat something.I would like to eat the same thing.Do you want to eat something?Do you want to eat the same thing?The same thing for me, please.I would like the same thing for me, please.Words in English ending in -ance and -ence come from French.differencepreferenceimportanceinfluencethe difference
a differenceWhat difference?What? / Which?the preferencea preferenceWhat preference?Have you? / Do you have?Do you have a preference?What preference do you have?For what restaurant do you have a preference tonight?Words in English ending in -ion come from French. They have the same spellingand the same meaning.opinionconditionthe conditiona conditionWhat condition?positionthe positiona positionWhat position?reservationthe reservationa reservationWhat reservation?Do you have a reservation for me for tonight?What sort...?ofWhat kind of reservation do you have for me for tonight?What kind of reservation do you want for tonight?There are approximately 1,200 nouns in English and in French ending in -ion. Outof 1,200 there are only three exceptions: translation, explanation, vacationtranslationI would like a translation.to do / to makeWill you make a reservation for me?What kind of reservation do you want to make?Will you make a translation for me?explanationto giveWill you give an explanation for me?vacationto spend moneyto spend timeto spend the vacationWhere do you want to spend the vacation?the situationWhat impression do you have of the situation?Words in English ending in -ical end in -ique in French.politicaleconomicalphilosophicalastronomicallogicalpracticalIt is not logical but it is very practical that way.
the political situationthe economical situationandthe political and economical situationin Francein / to (a country)I would like to go to France.I would like to spend the vacation(s) in France.What impression do you have of the political and economical situation in France atthe present time?What kind of reservation do you have for me?What kind of reservation do you want for tonight?The consonant at the end of a word in French is not pronounced unless it isfollowed by an e.restaurantIt is very small.too / too muchlateIt is very late.It is too late.It is too much for me.big / tallHe is big.She is big/tall.She is small.fastIt is very fast.It is too fast for me.to speakyou speakYou speak too fast for me.you go / you are goingYou are going too fast for me.It is very good.soIt is so good.ifif it is so good...I would like to know if it is so good.Why?I would like to know why it is so good.I would like to know where you are going.I would like to know where you are going to have dinner tonight.port / harbourairportthe doorA consonant at the end of a word which is not followed by an e is not pronouncedwith the following four exceptions: C, R, F, L - CAREFUL consonants.withwith mewith youbagA c which is preceded by an n is not pronounced.white winea glassa glass of white wine
I would like a glass of white wine.bottleI would like a bottle.I would like a bottle of white wine.waterI would like a glass of water.I would like a glass of mineral water.All words in English ending in -al or -el come from French.normalnormallygeneralgenerallyanimalspecialIt is very special.specially for youcupI would like a cup of coffee.still / still morea littleI would like a little...latermoreWill you come later?a little laterWill you come a little later?nownot nowpossiblynot now, possibly a little laterI would like to eat something.the same thingI would like to eat the same thing.otherthe other thinganother thingsomething elseI would like something else.to seebye byeto see againI would like to see something else.Do you have something else?Do you want something else?Do you want to see something else?to haveI would like to have something else.I would like to know...Difference between un(e) autre and encoreanother glass (one more)I would like another bottle of white wine.I would like another cup of coffee.I would like another glass of mineral water.More on the CAREFUL consonants: -rto leaveto speak
The to form of a verb (infinitive) is expressed in an ending with -r. Ninety percentof French verbs end in -er.to goMore on the CAREFUL consonants: -fbeefMore on the CAREFUL consonants: -lDefinition of nouns, verbs and adjectivesIf you know how to use the verbs, you know how to use the language. Verbs arethe backbone of any language.to sleepto comprehend / to understandto do / to makeWill you come eat with me?I must...I must speak with you.Will you speak French with me?I must know where it is.I am...I am tired.I am very tired now.busyI am very busy now.I canI can a littleNot for me, thank you.I cannot.The signal for the negative is ne.I am not.I am not tired now.But I am not very busy now.to waitbecauseIm sorry but I cannot wait because I have to leave now.Im sorry.Im sorry but I cannot come with you now because I am very busy.I would like to speak with you.I have to speak with you.you speakThe ending for vous is -ez.Asking questions in French by inversionDo you speak? / Are you speaking?Do you speak French?Do you go? / Are you going?Where are you going?Where are you going to have dinner tonight?you leave / you are leavingAt what time?At what time are you leaving?to stayyou are stayingTo form the first person of a verb, drop the -r from the infinitive.I am stayinghe is stayingshe is stayingMy friend is staying.
everybodyEverybody is staying.Im not staying.I dont stay.In English there are three ways to express the present tense: I stay, I am staying, Ido (not) stay. In French there is only one way: je reste.I am busy.I am not busy now.readyready to wearready to eatI am ready. (masculine)The difference between masculine and feminine adjectival formsI am ready. (feminine)He is ready.She is ready.There are no -ing tenses in French: no is-ing, am-ing or are-ingI am eatingI am speakingYou do not translate do and dont directly in French.Do you speak?Are you speaking?you waitThe imperativeWait!Wait a moment!You are not waiting.You dont wait.Why?Why do you wait?Why are you waiting?we are leavingwith uswe are waitingwe speakto startyou are startingwe are startingAt what time are you starting?At what time do you start?At what time do we start tomorrow?tomorrowAt what time are we starting tomorrow?I am startingI am not starting.he is startingshe is startingShe is not starting.She doesnt start.it / this / thatIt starts.It is ready.It is starting.it is is cest when not followed by -ing (it is ready). When followed by -ing, it is isça.It is very important.It is very different.
It is not necessary.It is not ready.It is not starting.It doesnt start.he canshe canIt can start now.It must start now.It cannot start.You can guess vocabulary but not structure.At what time do you arrive tomorrow?to arriveAt what time are you arriving?At what time do we arrive in Paris tomorrow morning?morningto spend the whole morningthis eveningto spend the whole eveninggood daydayto spend the whole dayHow to say in and to a city and a countryin / to (for cities)in Paris / to Parisin / to Francein / to Englandin London / to LondonI am arrivinghe is arrivingshe is arrivingsoonso long (until soon)She is arriving soon.todayau is a contraction of à and le.the restaurantat / to the restaurantthe officeI am at the office.not todayto behereI would like to be here with you.At what time are you going to be here?I haveI have something for you.I have a message for you.he hasHe has something for you.I dont havehe doesnt havehungerI am hungry.I would like to eat something now because Im hungry.Im goingIm going to stay here.Im going to leave soon.
Im not going to stay.Im going to eat.Im going to start soon.Im not going to leave today.he is goingHe is going to start soon.thereHe is there.He is not there.He is not in.Who?Who is there?My friend is there.Everybody is there.nobodythe persona personNobody is in. / Nobody is there.Everybody is ready.Im going to be ready soon.He is going to be ready soon.She is going to be ready soon.Who is going to be there tonight?all / everythingeverything is goingEverything is going very well.wellnothingnothing is goingNothing is going to be ready today.Nothing is ready.Who is ready?Nobody is ready.Everything is ready.More practice of is going and isEverybody is going to be ready soon.it is goingHow?How is it going?It is going well.It is going very well.It is going very well the way it is (like that).It is going to be ready soon.A closer look at the verb to gowe are goingit is not goingIt is not going to be ready today but everything is going to be ready for youtomorrow.More on allerFor all verbs, the form for he, she and it follows the same sound as I. Forexample, for he can think of I can.it canEverybody would like to be here.Everybody must leave soon.Who speaks English here?I speak
How to form the first person (I): with all -er verbs you cut off the -r and sound theconsonant. For non -er verbs you dont sound the consonant.to understandI understandI dont understand.he understandsNobody understands.Everybody understands very well.you are leavingwe are leavingI am leavingEverybody is leaving.Im waitingEverybody is waiting.Nobody is waiting.to takeI am takinghe is takingIt is taking too much time.It doesnt take too much time.It is not taking too much time.to sellIm sellinghe is sellingEverybody can start now.Everybody must start now.To make the verb forms for he, she and it, you follow the sound of I with threeexceptions: I am / he is, I have / he has, Im going / he is goingWill you come with me?Will you come have dinner with me at the house tonight because I would like tospeak with you. It is very important for me.And I would like to know......at what time you are going to be here......because Im going to prepare the dinner for us.There are many French verbs for which you simply add an -er to the English.formationto formto conformto confirmWill you confirm the reservation for me?to observeobservationto reserveWill you reserve a table for two for dinner for tonight?to inviteto considerto acceptWill you accept the condition?to preferyou preferwe preferI preferI must speak with you.Whenever you have two or three consecutive verbs, you do not conjugate thesecond or third verbs. They are always in the infinitive.He must be here soon.
She must be ready now.He must be ready.It must be ready now.It can be ready.perhapsPerhaps it can be ready now.For non -er verbs in the first person you have an -s ending: s for self. He, sheand it have the same sound as I but they have a t at the end.I do / Im doinghe is doingIt makes a big difference that way.to say / to tellI say / I tellhe says / he tellsI seehe seesyou knowwe knowWe dont know.You dont know.Do you know?Do you know where it is?I knowI dont know.he knowsI know where it is.Nobody knows where it is.Everybody knows where it is.Who knows?Review of the verb avoiryou havewe havewe dont haveyou dont haveDo you have?Do we have?The verb devoirto have to / mustyou must / you have towe must / we have toWe have to leave soon.You have to come with me.You have to wait.He has to wait.You have to separate we (nous) and you (vous) from everything else.Im going to wait here.Everybody is going to wait.Nobody can wait.Can you?you canI would like to know if you can come with me.Can you wait here?we canWe cannot wait. We have to leave now.she is goingeverybody is goingWho is going?
to do itI would like to do it.I must do it.Im going to do it.Im not going to do it.Were going to do it.Were not going to do it.Youre going to do it.You are not going to do it.When?When are you going to do it?He is going to do it.He is not going to do it because he cannot do it but he must do it.You have to do it.We have to do it / We must do it.I cannot do it now.Can you do it?We cannot do it.The pronoun leto see itto see himIm going to see it tonight.Im going to see him tonight.I cannot understand it.I cannot understand him.Im going to take it.I would like to know it.I must know it.I would like to have it.I must have it today.When do you want to have it?to buyI would like to buy it because I must have it.Im going to buy it.Will you prepare it for me?Will you accept the condition?thank you very muchmuch / very much / manyI would like very much to accept the condition......but Im sorry......but I cannot accept it......because it is not acceptable for me that way.Im going to see him tonight.herto see herIm going to see her tonight.themIm going to see them tonight.to see youI would like to see you.Im going to see you tonight.I hopeWhenever that is implied in English but omitted, you say que in French.I hope [that] Im going to see you tonight......because I would like very much to see you.to see usto see me
Can you come see me?to understand itto understand himto understand herto understand themto understand youI cannot understand you.to understand usto understand meCan you understand me?me is me if placed before a verb and moi after it.to tell itto tell youto tell usto tell meI must tell you.Im going to tell you later.to findwe findI findWill you tell me where it is because I cannot find it?Can you tell me?dear / expensivedear frienddarlingIt is very expensive.It is too expensive.Will you tell me how much it is......because I would like to have it......and Im going to buy it......if it is not too expensiveI would like to buy it.Im going to buy it.to callto phoneWill you call me later?Can you call me later?When can you call me?When are you going to call me?Im going to call you later.Will you call me later......and can you tell me......at what time it is going to be readyI have to have it today......if it is possibleI cannot understand him.attendre is used in the sense of to await somebody.Will you wait for me?Can you wait for me?Im going to wait for you.I am in a hurry.Im sorry but I cannot wait for you because I am very much in a hurry and I have toleave soon.Whenever him implies to him, use lui.him (to him)to giveto carry
to wearto bringIm going to bring you something.the bookIm going to bring you the book.to sendIm going to send him the book.Will you send it to him?When can you send it to him?Im going to see him tonight and Im going to give him the book.her (to her)Im going to see her tonight and Im going to give her the book.To whom?It is for me.It is for you.It is for us.It is for him.for herIts only in front of a verb that lui means him / to him / her / to her. Otherwise luiis him and elle is she / her.with himwith herIm going to give it to him.Im going to give it to her.Im going to bring him the book.Im going to bring her the book.Im going to bring the book to him.Im going to bring the book to her.them (implying to them)the moneysilverIm going to send them the money.my - masculine, feminine and plural formsmy fathermy motherwith my fatherwith my mothermy parentshis - masculine, feminine and plural formshis fatherhis motherhis parentsher - masculine, feminine and plural formsher fatherher motherher parentstheirtheir fathertheir mothertheir parentsIm going to bring them their book.Will you tell him?Will you tell him that Im going to call him later?to askWill you ask him?Will you ask him if he can wait for me?I dont have the time.
The concept of masculine and feminine nounsthe policethe armyloveNouns in English ending in -ty come from French. In French they end with -té andare feminine.libertythe difficultythe facilitythe possibilitythe opportunitythe specialityWhat speciality do you have?What is the speciality of the house?the qualityWhat quantity?societyVerbs that end in -ate in English end in -er in French. In speaking just drop thesound of the t.to operateto moderateto accelerateto facilitateto negotiateto cooperateVerbs ending in -fy in English end in -fier in French.to certifyto modifyto justifyArticles in French: le (the) = un (a) and la (the) = une (a)In spoken language le and la is contracted and pulled into the preceding word soit becomes lI dont have the time.problemIn French all words ending in -me are masculine.Its not the problem.Its not a problem.In spoken language for un and une, just touch the n.there is / there areThere is a problem.someoneTheres someone here who would like to speak with you.To ask a question, use inflection (for example: Il y a quelquun ici?) or est-ceque....Is there...? / Are there...?Is there a message for me?the in the plural is les.the messagesthe booksThe plural of un / une is des.Im going to buy books/ some books.Im going to buy some flowers/ flowers.There is a message for you.There are messages for you.Are there any messages for me?Is there someone here who speaks English?There is nobody here who speaks English. parle anglais.
nobody and not. ne is the signal that you are going to use a negation.notNot for me.Not now.no or not any (none of) is pas de.none ofNo coffee for me.No problem.No cream for me.No sugar for me.Nobody understands why.I dont understand.I understand it.I dont understand it.trueIt is true.It is not true.Is that so?Ah, truly?I dont understand him.I dont understand her.I dont understand them.I dont understand you.He doesnt understand you.He doesnt understand us.He doesnt understand me.I understand you very well.I dont understand you very well.nothingpas is only used for not. All other negations replace the pas.I dont understand anything.I dont see it.I dont see anything.neverI never see it.I never understand why.I can never understand.I cannot understand anything.I would like a glass of mineral water.I would like a cup of coffee.It is not possible to do it.If you use an adjective followed by a full verb, you add de after the adjective.It is not necessary to do it now.happyShe is happy.He is happy.I am happy.I am happy to do it for you.I am very happy to see you.I am very glad to see you.If a noun is followed by the infinitive, you add de after the noun.Time: passing of time (temps), sequence of times (fois)time (sequence of times)oncetwicethree times
the first timethe next timethe last timeonce moreIm going to see it next time.I see it for the first time.I would like to have the opportunity to see it next time.I dont always have the opportunity to see it.I dont always have the time to do it.It is always a pleasure to see it.Im taking it.It is taking too much time that way.It is making a big difference that way.I enjoyIm pleased to see you.Im very pleased to see you.Im sorry but I dont have the time to do it now because Im very busy.You use de after adjectives, nouns and also after some verbs such as dire,demander and décider if they are followed by another verb.to decideWill you ask him to do it?Will you tell him to wait for me?Will you ask him to call me later?In English you need to make a distinction between have to (must) and have todrink, eat, etc.. For the latter, you use avoir + à.What do you have?Do you have...?Do you understand?Is it that you understand?Is it that you understand me?What is it that...?What do you have to eat? (What have you got to eat?)You have to eat.to drinkWhat do you have to drink?What is there?What is there to drink?What is there to eat?You use à after chose if it is followed by a verb because it is normally anextension of have.I have something to tell you.After expressions of quantity you use de.How much time?too much timemuch timeI dont have much time.many thingsIm going to buy many things.I dont have too much time.Im not going to buy too many things.If an expression of quantity is followed by a verb, you use à.I have much to do.I have much too much to do.I have nothing to do.nothing doingwhat?
What difference?What is the difference?betweenbetween usbetween the two / between bothWhat is the difference between the two?What speciality do you have tonight?What address?What is your address?telephone numberWhat is your telephone number?If you combine nouns in French (telephone + number = telephone number), youneed to join them together with de.What is your name?what followed by a verb is que?What do you want?What do you want to eat?What do you want to do now?What do you want to know?What do you prefer?to thinkWhat do you think?What do you have?Instead of que? you can also use quest-ce que? for what?. They areinterchangeable. If you use quest-ce que?, you do not invert.What is it that you want?What do you know?What do you have for me?What do you want to say? / What do you mean?what (in the middle of a sentence)I dont know what Im going to do today.Nobody knows what it is.Who knows?I dont understand what you mean.There are only two verbs for which the ending for the first person is x not s:pouvoir and vouloir.I wantI want it.I dont want it.Thats not what I want.Thats exactly what I want.But thats not what I mean.Sound distinction between veux and vaisI want to do it.Im going to do it.Im going to do it because I want to see it.Thats not what I mean.I dont understand what it means.it meansWhat does it mean?to explainWill you explain to me what you mean? vous voulez dire?The future tense (1): use the present tense of aller and the infinitive (I amgoing...).I will do it tomorrow.He will be here in a few days.I will arrive tomorrow morning.
We will arrive tomorrow morning.The future tense (2): background information on origins (I to leave have)He will leave.The ending -rai with any verb means I will. The ending -ra means he/she/it will.The ending -rez means you will. The ending -rons means we will.I will say. / I will tell.I will wait.You will wait.We will wait.He will wait.I will understand.I will not understand it.I wont understand you.He wont understand me.He will tell you.He wont tell me.I will ask you later.It will start soon.It will start soon. / It is going to start soon.The future tense (3): use of the present tenseIt starts tomorrow.next weekIm going to see you next week.to lift / to lift upIm lifting it.Hes lifting it.Shes lifting it.one is startingOne is starting now.In spoken language on is often used for we.One is very comfortable here.one is going / we are goingOne is going to leave.One is going to stay here. / We are going to stay here.Shall we...?Shall we start?Shall we leave?Shall we stay?What shall we...?What shall we do?What shall we eat?What shall we order?What shall we drink?What shall we take?When referring to food or drink you do not use the verb avoir (to have), you useprendre (to take).Im going to have a cup of coffee.to have lunchthe lunchWill you have lunch with me?breakfastWill you have breakfast with me tomorrow morning?I will do it.In English will expresses the future tense with one exception: will you(please...)?, which is a polite request and not the future tense.
Will you come with me?Do you want to come with me?Will you wait for me?Do you want to wait for me?Introduction to reflexive verbsIm getting up (lifting myself up).We are getting up.You are getting up.He is getting up.One is getting up. / We are getting up.Im going to get up.One is going to get up. / We are going to get up.Shall we get up?Will you get up, please?When (At what time) are you going to get up tomorrow morning?Im askingIm asking you.I wonderI callI call you.I call you tomorrow.My name is... (I call myself)to call back / to recallWill you call me back?Im going to call you back.Will you tell him to call me back?I call you back later.I remember. (I recall to myself.)I dont remember.to hurryIm hurrying.Im going to hurry.I must hurry.One is going to hurry.We are going to hurry.You must hurry.Will you hurry, please.en is used for in with countries and continents that take la(feminine), but au isused for in with masculine countries (those countries that end in a consonant).in France / to Francein Englandin Italy / to Italyin Germanyin SwitzerlandWe are going to Spain.We are going to be in Spain.in Californiain Japan / to Japanin Denmarkin Portugalin Brazilin Italyin Canadain Quebecen is also used for languages.in French
How does one say ... in French?one says...How is it spelt? (How does it write itself?)to writeWhat price?What is the price?It is how much?Will you write it?Will you write down the price?in Englishin Spanishin passing / while passingin/while waiting / in the meantimeof it / from it / some of it / any of it / some (implying some of it) / any (implyingany of it)I want some of it.I dont want any of it.Im going to buy some.I would like to have some.Do you want to have some?Do you have it?Do you have any of it/ some of it?Do you want some of it?enoughI have enough.I have enough of it.Im fed up with it.I really am fed up with it.to need is to have need of - avoir besoin de...I need this book.I need to do it.one mustOne must do it. / It is necessary to do it.I need...It is necessary for me to do it.What do you want to do now?if you wantThe ending for you is always -ez with three one-syllable exceptions (the threecuties): vous êtes (you are), vous faites (you do/make), vous dites (you say)you areWhere are you?Are you busy?Are you free?Where are you?you are doing/makingWhat are you doing?you are saying/tellingWhat are you saying?I dont understand what youre saying.Im hurrying because I am in a hurry.Will you hurry, please?Hurry yourself.to botherIt bothers me.It doesnt bother me.It bothers you.
Does it bother you if I smoke?to smokeinformationto teachto informto inform oneself / to get some informationIm going to find out.Auxiliary verbs (handles). After you grab a handle (such as pouvoir), you use thewhole verb.He doesnt do it. (using a handle)Why dont you do it now? (using a handle)Why dont you tell me? (using a handle)Why dont you come with me? (using a handle) venir avec moi?Auxiliary handle - must (devoir)I have to leave now.One must leave now.Auxiliary handle - want (vouloir)The handle in the past tenseI couldyou can gives you I could and he could: pouvez - pouvais - pouvaitI couldnt understand you.He couldnt wait for us.I had tohe had toHe had to leave.He wanted to wait.He wanted to buy it.I didnt want to buy it.Another handle - know (savoir)I knewI didnt know.Another handle - have (avoir)I hadI didnt have the time to do it.Another handle - wasI wasit wasit was notIt was not possible to do it that way......because I was very busy.yesterdayyesterday morningyesterday afternoonyesterday eveningI was there last night......but nobody was there.I like / I loveI like to do it that way.Difference between like and love (use of bien)I love you.I like you.I like you but I dont love you.I adore doing it.Conclusion.Introduction to the Advanced course.I want it now.I dont want them.
Do you want it?Is it that you want it?You want it?Why do you want it now?Why dont you want it now?I dont know where it is.I dont know what it is.to explainCan you explain to me what it is?What do you want?What do you want to do?What do you want to say?What do you mean?I dont understand what you mean.Can you explain to me what you mean?Thats not what I mean.It means...What does it mean?I dont understand what it means.I want it.I dont want it.I want some/some of it.I dont want any.I dont know what it means.There are many people here.the worldeverybodyEverybody knows where it is.Nobody knows where it is.Nobody can find it.Everyone wants to see it.I have it.I dont have it.I want them.I dont want them.I dont want anything.en means of it, some of it, any of it.I dont understand it.I dont understand anything. / I understand nothing.neverI never understand what he wants.I dont know anything.I never know.I dont know anymore.anymoreIm going to see it.Im going there.I would like to go there.(But) I cannot go there now.Im busy.Im very busy now.I would like to go there.with youwith himwith herwith themIm going to see him tonight and Im going to give him his book.
Im going to see her tonight and Im going to give her her book.lui means him, to him/her, to her.Im going to tell him.Im going to tell her.Will you tell him?Can you tell her?them / to themWill you tell them?Will you give them the book?the bookthe pound (£)silverIm going to send her the money.Im going to send them the money.Im going to send the money to him.Im going to send the money to her.Im going to send the money to them.Im going to send it to him.Im going to send it to her.Im going to send it to you.If there are two pronouns together and both start with an l, then le, la and lescome before lui and leur.Im going to send them to her.Im going to send them the money.Im going to send them to Paris.Im going to write a letter to them.Im going to send them to them.Will you send it to me?Will you send it to me?not to himWill you send them to us?not to themI cannot tell it to you now because I do not know it.-er verbsto askto stay-ir verbs-re verbsto sellto waitto understandto taketo put-oir verbsto haveto knowto seeto be ablethe powerto have to / mustthe dutyThat is your duty.homeworkto speakVerbs can be divided into two boxes: a long box and a short box. vous and nousgo in the long box.you speak
we speakAll other forms of the verb (not vous and nous) go in the short box (cut off ther). For parler the short box is parle.I speakI am ready.I am eatingIn French there are no -ing tenses: no am-ing, is-ing or are-ing.I dont speak.we are stayingyou are stayingHow long are you staying?How long are we staying?Stay!Stay here!Dont stay!Lets stay!Lets stay here!Lets speak French!Speak French with me!Dont speak English now!Im stayingIm not staying.Everybody is staying.Nobody is staying.My friend is staying.It is ready.It is staying.It is not staying.he is stayingthey are staying-ent at the end of a verb is silent and means theydifferentevidentIt is special.speciallynormalnormallypossiblepossiblycertaincertainlyevidentlyconstantconstantlyto start / to beginwe are startingLets start!At what time are we starting?At what time are you starting?Start now!Dont start now, start a little later.I dont understand.I dont understand anything.I dont understand any more.It is starting now.Everybody is starting.My friend is starting.
my friendsMy friends are starting.My friends are arriving tonight.to leavewe are leavingLets leave!At what time are you leaving?At what time are we leaving?Dont leave!to prepareHe is preparing it.They are preparing it.He is not accepting it.He doesnt accept the condition.Everybody is ready.My friends are arriving.My friends are leaving.they are leavingThey are selling it.they are waitingThey are waiting for me.My friends are waiting for me.Wait a moment!Lets wait here.Dont wait!Theyre waiting for you.In the short box, if it is not an -er verb, you dont sound the consonant (except forthey).Im waitinghe is waitingthey are waitingEverybody is leaving.Im leavingtheyre leavingto sleepIm sleepinghe is sleepingEverybody is sleeping.My friends are sleeping.she is sleepingto serveHe is serving the dinner.They are serving the dinner at seven oclock.One is serving the dinner at seven oclock.Use of onWe are very comfortable here.We are leaving soon.We are going to leave soon.We are going to start soon.We are starting soon.We can start now.We must start.to feelI feel it.They feel it.He feels it.
I feel (myself) fine.I dont feel well.I feel better.This wine is better than the other.In English the comparative and superlative of good is better and best. Thecomparative and superlative of well is also better and best. However, in Frenchbetter of well is mieux and of good its meilleur.It is the best wine of the house.I feel better now.I feel much better now.to smellIt smells good.he is sleepingone is sleepingthey are sleepingIn spelling, with -er verbs you drop the r and you are left with the e ending,except for they (-ent). If it is not an -er verb, in spelling you add s for I (self) andt for he/she/it.to do / to makeIm doingIm not doing it.Hes doing it.One is doing it.One is not doing it that way.It is making a big difference that way.All nouns ending in -ance and -ence take la / une.It doesnt make much difference.It is too late.Youre going too fast.It is too much.to workHe is working too much.It is taking too much time.After expressions of quantity use de (of).It is much too much.It is much too much for me.It is taking much too much time like that.Im taking it.he is takingHe doesnt understand me.Everybody is waiting for me.My friends are waiting for me.In spelling -ir verbs in the short box, you drop the consonant that you dont sound.For the endings you have s and t.Dinner is being served.Im putting it on the table.He is putting it on the table.Where are you putting it?Put the book on the table.Dont put it here.Start now!Dont start!Lets not start!Lets wait!Lets not wait!Lets put the book on the table.on the floor
Lets not put it on the floor.Dont put it on the floor.Whenever you use the positive command (imperative), the pronoun comes afterthe verb. In all other cases, the pronoun comes before the verb.Put it here.Dont put it here.Position of the pronoun with a positive imperativeDont put it there.Put them on the table.Dont put them on the floor.Im calling you.Youre being called.Call me later.Dont call me today, call me tomorrow.Wait for me.Wait for me here.You can avoid the positive imperative by using will you....Will you wait for me?Dont wait for me.You have to wait for me.One has to wait for me. / One must wait for me.Im doing it.I havehe hasthey haveFormation of future tenseI will leave tomorrow.he will leavethey will leave-ai, -a, -ont hooked onto the infinitive forms the future tense and becomes -rai, -ra,-ront.I will leavehe will leavethey will leavewe will leaveyou will leaveI will... and you will... have the same sound (-rai/-rez). we will... and they will...also have the same sound (-rons/-ront). The three sounds, -rai, -ra, -ront, apply toall verbs in the future tense.-oir verbsI will be ableI will have toWe will have to leave soon.Future of avoirI will have it.We will have it.Future of savoirI will knowI will tell you later.I will write to you.I will do it.He wont do it.He wont tell you why he wont do it.Spelling of feraI will put it here.All composite verbs in English that contain mit come from the French mettre.
to committo omitto permitto submitI promiseI promise you.I will take it.I wont understand him.He will sell it.He is selling it.Theyre selling it.to comehe is comingthey are comingThey are coming from Vienna.It is coming.It is going to come.I will comewe will cometo come backI will come backThey will come back soon.We will come back soon.We are going to come back soon.Exception for future tense: être (to be)I will behe will bethey will bewe will beyou will beThey are going to be here soon.They will be here tonight.It will not be possible to do it.It wont be necessary to do it today.It will take too much time that way.It will take much too much time.Its a pleasure to see you. / I enjoy seeing you.I enjoy very much seeing you.I am looking forward to seeing you.Exception for future tense: aller (to go)Im goinghe is goingthey are goingwe are goingyou are goingThey are going to come with us.I will gohe will gowe will gothey will goyou will goI will go there.We will go there tonight.Three ways of using the future: will, going to, the present tenseI will call you tomorrow.Im going to call you tomorrow.I call you tomorrow.
I call you next week.The present tense is often used in French to signify the future.Exceptions for we in the present tenseExceptions for you in the present tenseyou areyou are doing/makingyou are saying/tellingWhat are you doing?What are you saying?I dont understand what you are saying.Tell me!Dont tell me, I dont want to know it!Dont tell it to me.Dont tell it to him.Dont tell it to her.The key to the short box is the sound of the first person (I). Theres a difference inspelling, but the sound is the same.Everything must be ready today.The key to the long box is the infinitive.we knowVerbs that contain prendre lose the d in the present tense.to learnto take backwe understandyou understandDo you understand?Do you understand it?Do you understand me?We are taking it.Why dont you take it?they are takingThey are taking it.They dont understand it.The verbs to have, to be and to go in the present tense.we haveyou havehe isthey areWhere are they?They are not there.They are not in.He isnt in.Exceptions for they in the present tensethey are doingThey are doing it.They are not doing it.For the past tense use have. If you want to say I bought it., you will say I havebought it.. Did you buy it? = Have you bought it? / I saw it. = I have seen it. / Hedidnt understand. = He has not understood. In French you dive into the past:have is the diving board. With -er verbs you dive into é, which has the samesound as the infinitive.I spokehe spokeDid you speak?We didnt speak with him.When did you speak with him?Did you buy something?
What did you buy?He prepared the dinner.The picture started.alreadystill / still moreI would like another cup of coffee.a little morenot yetWe have not yet started.The picture started already.ten minutes agotwo days agoI have it.I dont have it.I have them.I dont have them.I have some.I dont have any.I bought it.I didnt buy it.I bought them.I did not buy them.I bought some for you.I didnt buy any because I didnt find any.How many did you buy (of it) of them?Where did you buy them?to forgetI forgot where I bought them.At what time did you call?At what time did you call me?She called me this morning.Why did you call me?Why didnt you call me?I called them.I called him.I called her.I called you.I didnt call you.to askI asked you.I didnt ask you.Why did you ask me?Why didnt you ask me?With -re verbs when you dive, you drop the re and replace it with u.soldI sold it.Why did you sell it?Why didnt you sell them?He sold them.We sold some.I waited.I waited for you.You didnt wait for me.Why didnt you wait for me?With -ir verbs when you dive, you drop the r.We finished.