General Emilio F. Aguinaldo First President of the Republic of the Philippines. Aguinaldo’s presidential termformally began in 1898 and ended on April 1, 1901, when he took an oath of allegianceto the United States a week after his capture in Palanan, Isabela. His term also featuredthe setting up of the Malolos Republic, which has its own Congress, Constitution, andnational and local officialdom -- proving Filipinos also had the capacity to build.Aguinaldo is best remembered for the proclamation of Philippine Independence on June12, 1898, in Kawit, Cavite.
Manuel L. Quezon First of the Philippine Presidents of the Commonwealth. He won the electionsheld in September 1935 to choose the head of the Commonwealth Government. It wasa government made possible by the Tydings-McDuffie Law, which Quezon securedfrom the U.S. Quezon’s term (1935 - 1944), though chiefly known for making Pilipino thenational language, tried to solve nagging problems inherited from the Spanish andAmerican administrations. The Commonwealth Government was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of1941. Quezon and his government were forced to go into exile in the U.S. He died onAugust 1, 1944, in New York. Jose P. Laurel. President of the Second Republic of thePhilippines. He was elected by the National Assembly as President of the Republic onSeptember 25, 1943 and inducted on October 14, 1943. This unicameral assembly wascreated through the sponsorship of the Japanese authorities.
Sergio Osmena Second President of the Philippine Commonwealth. He was elected VicePresident of the Philippines in 1935 and succeeded Quezon to the Presidency in-exile.
Manuel A. Roxas Last of the Philippine Presidents of the Philippine Commonwealth. First Presidentof the Third Republic of the Philippines. In 1948, Roxas declared amnesty for thosearrested for collaborating with the Japanese during World War II, except for those whohad committed violent crimes.
Elpidio Quirino Second President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. His six years aspresident were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, andincreased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however,particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted bywidespread graft and corruption.
Ramon Magsaysay Third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. As president, he was aclose friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman againstcommunism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia TreatyOrganization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defend South EastAsia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific from communism. He was also knownfor his integrity and strength of character.During his term, he made Malacañáng Palace literally a "house of the people", openingits gates to the public.
Carlos P. Garcia Fourth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines During hisadministration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the leaseof the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every fiveyears. He also exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policyheavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsiblefor changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in thecountry.
Diosdado Macapagal Fifth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. During his presidency, thePhilippines enjoyed prosperity and was the second most developed country in the Asianregion, next only to Japan and ahead of the future tiger economies of Asia such asSingapore, Taiwan, and Korea. Allowed the Philippine peso to float on the free currencyexchange market. abolition of tenancy and accompanying land reform program in theAgricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 which underscored his endeavour to fight masspoverty.
Ferdinand E. Marcos. Sixth and last President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. During his firstterm he had made progress in agriculture, industry, and education. Yet hisadministration was troubled by increasing student demonstrations and violent urban-guerrilla activities. Initially, he had a good record as president and the Filipinos expectedhim to be one of the best. However, conditions changed in later years and his popularitywith the people started diminishing. Proclaimed Martial Law.
Corazon C. Aquino First President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines. First Woman amongPhilippine Presidents of the Republic of the Philippines. Despite the euphoria followingthe overthrow of the Marcos government, Aquino faced the massive challenge ofrestoring the nation. She established a revolutionary government under the terms of aprovisional "Freedom Constitution", legally establishing the structure of the governmentpending the adoption of a permanent, democratically-drafted constitution.
Fidel V. Ramos Second President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines. The first few years ofhis administration (1992-1995) were characterized by economic boom, technologicaldevelopment, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people.During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended toopen up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite moreforeign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption.
Joseph M. Estrada Third President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines. As vice president,Estrada headed an anticrime commission from 1992 to 1997. Idolized by the poor, hecampaigned on a combination of policies that are both market-friendly and designed toreduce widespread poverty in a population of 70 million.
Gloria M. Arroyo Fourth of the Philippine Presidents of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines.Arroyo, a practicing economist, has made the economy the focus of her presidency.Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holidayeconomics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boostingdomestic tourism and allowing Filipinos more time with their families