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  • Yet, to date, most advertising studies examining how this gender-related content might influence attitudes toward advertising have focused on adult consumers. Nor has the consumer socialization literature closely examined gender issues related to children's responses to advertising (Ekstrom 2003; John 1999).
  • To address this gap in the literature, this paper develops a conceptual framework, based on a synthesis of developmental psychology literature, to understand how children develop attitudes toward advertisements with gender-related content. Next, to examine the conceptual framework, the results of an experimental design study with eight- and nine-year-old children are reported, confirming the key relationships posited in the conceptual framework. Managerial and public policy implications based on this study are discussed.
  • When will gender-related content be salient and how will it be interpreted in the formation of attitudes toward the ad?
  • This paper addresses this gap in the literature by developing a conceptual framework based on biological, socialization, and cognitive factors for understanding how children form attitudes toward advertisements with gender-related content.
  • . To ensure that all participants would be able to understand the questionnaire, the interviewer read each question, waiting for participants to answer, then proceeded to read the next question, and so forth. The entire data collection process took approximately 15 to 20 minutes. At the end of the process, participants selected a "fun" pencil as a reward for their participation. Schools were also provided a nominal monetary contribution for their cooperation with the study.
  • ( only in second and third) Over a one-month period Interviewed in groups of 2-10 children
  • a 3 X 3 experimental design a 3 X 3 experimental design was developed, using print ads created for the purpose of the study. The completely randomized factorial design had two treatments: characters in the ad (only male, only female, or both male and Spring 201039 female) and product (masculine product, feminine product, or neutral product).
  • 1.Not at all exciting2.3.4. 5.very exciting
  • 1.Not at all exciting2.3.4. 5.very exciting
  • Respondents indicated whether it was appropriate for "only men," "only women," or "both men and women" to do

9922617 9922617 Presentation Transcript

  • How are children's attitudes toward ads and brands affected by gender-related content in advertising? Instructor: Dr. Pi-Ying Hsu Presenter : Yi-Ping Chien Date: May 11, 2011
  • Citation
    • Bakir, A., & Palan, K. (2010). How are children's attitudes toward ads and brands affected by gender-related content in advertising? Journal of Advertising, 39, 35-48.
  • Introduction Reflection Methodology Results Conclusion
  • Introduction Children in the United States may view more than 40,000 commercials a year (Strasburger, 2001), the likelihood that they are influenced by gender related content in the commercials is substantial.
  • The purpose of the study
    • To understand how children develop attitudes toward advertisements with gender-related content
  • The question of the study
    • What are the conditions that determine when and how children will respond to gender content in advertising?
  • Parents Peers Media Sex Age Gender schema Biological factors Socialization factors Cognitive factors Literature review
  • Conceptual framework Biological factors Socialization factors Cognitive factors H1 H2 Biological factors Socialization factors Cognitive factors Degree of gender flexibility Attitude a. toward the ad b. toward the brand H1: When exposed to advertising with gender content, children with high gender flexibility will have significantly more positive attitudes than will children with low gender flexibility for both attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. Gender related content in the ad
  • Introduction Reflection Methodology Results Conclusion
  • The procedure of the study 1. the stimuli 2. the 9 ads 3. the gender flexibility scale 1. Participants were randomly assigned 2. The interviewer read each question, waiting for participants to answer 3. About 15 to 20 minutes Gain school permission and parental consent
  • Methodology Participants Children from several elementary schools in the Midwest Instrument 256 questionnaires Gender Male 45.3% ; Female 54.7% Age 8.4 Data Collection
  • Research diagram Characters in the ad A 3 X 3 experimental design Only Female Only Male Male & Female Masculine Products Feminine Neutral
  • Measures Attitude toward the ad -A four-item summated scale -Circle on a five-point Likert-type scale -Cronbach's α= .88 Attitude toward the brand -A four-item scale -Circle on a five-point Likert-type scale -Give the brand stars -Cronbach's α=. 87 Gender flexibility
    • -A short version of the COAT scale
    • (Children: Children: Occupation,
    • Activities, and Traits ) , 45 items
    • -Cronbach's α=. 90
  • Attitude toward the ad
    • 1. How much did you like the ad?
    • 2. How did looking at the ad make you feel?
    • 3. How exciting was the ad to look at?
    • 4. Would you say this ad is good or bad?
    Participants indicated their responses by circling one of five choices on a five-point Likert-type smiley face scale .
  • Measures Attitude toward the ad -A four-item summated scale -Circle on a five-point Likert-type scale -Cronbach's α= .88 Attitude toward the brand -A four-item scale -Circle on a five-point Likert-type scale -Give the brand stars -Cronbach's α=. 87 Gender flexibility
    • -A short version of the COAT scale
    • (Children: Children: Occupation,
    • Activities, and Traits ) , 45 items
    • -Cronbach's α=. 90
  • Attitude toward the brand
    • 1. I like TIX.
    • 2. I think it is a good watch.
    • 3. I'd tell my friends about the watch
    • 4. How many stars you would give the brand?
    ✪ ✪ ✪ ✪ ✪ Participants indicated their responses by circling one of five choices on a five-point Likert-type smiley face scale .
  • Measures Attitude toward the ad -A four-item summated scale -Circle on a five-point Likert-type scale -Cronbach's α= .88 Attitude toward the brand -A four-item scale -Circle on a five-point Likert-type scale -Give the brand stars -Cronbach's α=. 87 Gender flexibility
    • -A short version of the COAT scale
    • (Children: Children: Occupation,
    • Activities, and Traits ) , 45 items
    • -Cronbach's α=. 90
  • Gender flexibility A short version of the COAT scale Whether it was appropriate for "only men," "only women," or "both men and women" to do Whether the trait was appropriate for "only boys," "only girls," "both boys and girls," or "neither boys nor girls”
  • Introduction Reflection Methodology Results Conclusion
  • Results
    • Prior to the hypotheses tests, the level of attention was examined.
    Most of the participants put effort into examining the stimulus ad. 44.1 % participants said they put a lot of effort. 43.4 % participants said they put some effort.
  • Results H1: When exposed to advertising with gender content, children with high gender flexibility will have significantly more positive attitudes than will children with low gender flexibility for both attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. H2: Gender content in advertisements significantly moderates the relationship between gender flexibility and children's attitude toward the ad and the brand.
  • Conclusion 1. The results support gender flexibility being significantly related to both attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. 2. The gender of the ad characters was a significant moderator for attitude toward the ad. 3. Incorporating incongruent gender elements together in children's ads can adversely affect children's attitude toward the brand.
  • Reflection
    • Arouse the attention about children’s ad attitude toward gender-related content
    • The concept framework and measures were displayed in detail.
    • The pretest procedures were conducted carefully.
  • Reflection
    • The numbers of the table weren’t consistent with the article.
    • The watches in the advertisements had minor differences.
    • Thanks for your attention and your patience!