Regional And International Conflict
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Regional And International Conflict

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    Regional And International Conflict Regional And International Conflict Presentation Transcript

    • Managing Peace and Security: Regional and International Conflict
    •  
    • What is the chapter about?
      • What were the causes and the consequences of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?
      • How was the conflict between Iraq and Kuwait resolved?
      • How can transnational terrorism be managed?
    • Remember what we learnt in the last lesson..?
      • - all countries want to protect their national interests
      • - conflicts occur when countries do not agree with one another on various issues which might threaten their national interests
    • Conflict Resolution
      • Conflicts can be resolved through diplomacy
      • Conflicts that cannot be solved through peaceful means may lead to war
      • These conflicts may impact surrounding countries in the region and at times, even the world
    • Conflict Resolution
    • Middle East
    • Middle East
      • Countries: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen
    • Middle East
      • People: Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Jews
      • Religions: Islam, Judaism, Christianity
    • Kuwait
    • Sudan
    • Middle East
      • Per Capita Income can vary from US$23,000 in richer nations to US$800 in poorer nations
      • Such differences has caused resentment between countries of the middle east
    • Why is the Middle East so important to the world?
    • Why is the Middle East so important to the world?
      • It is one of the most important oil producing regions in the world
      • It controls a strategic waterway, the Suez Canal which links Europe to Asia
    • Suez Canal
    • Iraq
      • Kuwait
      • Neighbours
      • Both former British colonies
      • Both were under the Ottoman Empire
    • Iraq and Kuwait
      • Kuwait granted independence in 1961
      • Iraq refused to recognise independence
      • Iraq tried to invade Kuwait in 1960’s but failed
      • 1963 – Iraq gave up claim over Kuwait
      • Iraq and Kuwait worked together during Iran-Iraq war
    • What worsened the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait?
      • Economic problems in Iraq
      • - Iraq suffered tremendously during the war with Iran
      • - It owed about US$80 billion in debts
      • - Reconstruction of war-torn areas required US$230 billion
    • What worsened the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait?
      • Oil production
      • - Falling oil prices due to overproduction by countries like UAE and Kuwait
      • - Iraq lost a lot of revenue and blamed UAE and Kuwait for waging an economic war
    • What worsened the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait?
      • Dispute over territory
      Rumaila Oilfields
    •  
    • Were there attempts to resolve the problems between Iran and Kuwait?
      • Mediation by the Arab League
    • Remember ASEAN?
      • Association of Southeast Asian Nations
    • Was mediation successful?
      • Kuwait agreed to produce oil according to OPEC quota
      • Iraq still accused Kuwait of having plans to produce more oil
      • Iraq assured league that as long as negotiations were underway, he would not use force against Kuwait
    • Was mediation successful?
      • OPEC ministers agreed to raise the price of oil so that Iraq could make more revenue for its reconstruction efforts
      • Kuwait agreed to write off Iraq’s debts as well as provide US$500 million as a loan
      • Kuwait refused to give in to territorial demands
    • 02 AUGUST 1990
      • Iraq invades Kuwait
      • Within 2 days, most of the Kuwaiti soldiers had given up
      • Occupation lasted 7 months until a US led coalition freed Kuwait
      • This came to be known as the Persian Gulf War
    • Persian Gulf War
      • 2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991
      Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti George Herbert Walker Bush
    • Why War?
      • Sunni Muslim
      • Worried about Shi’a uprising
      • Saw himself as a great leader
      • Needed to improve situation in Iraq
    • Why War?
      • Hussien Misread US position
      • Did not think America would go to war over Kuwait
    • Reactions to the invasion
      • Fear of Iraqi dominance
      • - Iraq would control 20% of world’s oil production
      • Saudi Arabia was worried
      • World was worried for Saudi Arabia
      • No ‘Arab Solution’
    • Reactions to the invasion
      • US decided to intervene in the interest of its ally, Saudi Arabia (Operation Desert Shield)
      • More than 30 countries took part in the coalition to liberate Kuwait
      • UN passed resolution demanding Iraq to withdraw
      • Economic Sanctions on Iraq
    •  
    • Timeline
      • August 2, #1 Iraq invades Kuwait and seizes Kuwaiti oil fields. Kuwait's emir flees. Iraq masses troops along the Saudi bordr. U.N. condemns Iraq's invasion and demands withdrawl.
    • Timeline
      • August 9, #2 First U.S. military forces arrive in Saudi Arabia. U.N. declares Iraqi annexation of Kuwait void.
      • December 17 U.N. sets deadline for Iraqi withdrawal on January 15, 1991. Hussein rejects all U.N. resolutions.
    • Timeline
      • August 9, #2 First U.S. military forces arrive in Saudi Arabia. U.N. declares Iraqi annexation of Kuwait void.
    • Timeline
      • January 17 Operation Desert Storm begins at 3 a.m. Baghdad time.
    • Timeline
      • January 19, #3 First scud missiles strike Israel.
    • Timeline
      • February 26, #8 Hussein announces Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait.
    • Timeline
      • War ended with Iraq accepting all UN resolutions.
    • Was the use of force the only solution?
      • Diplomacy did not work (Saddam’s defiance)
      • Impact of sanctions would take too long to be of consequence
    • Impact of the conflict
      • Casualties (both civillian and military)
      • Destruction of Iraqi military capability
      • Political instability (Kurds)
      • Suffering of Iraqis
    •  
    •  
    • Impact of the conflict
      • Environmental catastrophe
    • Impact of the conflict
      • Displacement of foreign workers (large no. of workers from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, the Philippines, Palestine)
      • Why do nations go to war?
      • What motivated the Western decision to go to war in the Gulf?
      • What motivated Iraq to invade Kuwait?
      • Why was oil an important factor in the war? Were other factors involved?
      • How do we distinguish between acts of aggression and acts of defense?
      • How do we decide what stategy to respond with? (sanctions, force, etc.)
      • What role should the United Nations play in conflict situations?
      • What do leaders need to consider before going to war?