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VEERMATA JIJAMATA TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE,
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ELECTRONIC WASTE MANAGEMENT
SOURABH M. KULKARNI
M. Tech (ENVIRONMENTAL ENGG.)
ROLL NO. - 112020016
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The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest
growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an
increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic
growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has
increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can
be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to
sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that
could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and
organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and
other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of
materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic
equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment,
but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex
with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the
manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount
importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling
This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste Introduction,sources,
generation of e waste, composition, environmental & health hazards ,methods of
treatment, case study etc.
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Sr. no Description Page no
1 Abstract 2
2 Introduction 4
3 Sources 6
4 Categories 8
5 Generation 9
6 Composition 11
7 Hazards 12
8 Methods of treatment &
9 Recycling of E waste 16
10 Reuse of E waste 17
11 Case study 19
12 Conclusion 27
13 References 28
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"Electronic waste" may be defined as discarded computers, office electronic
equipment, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, television sets and
refrigerators. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled
(good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the
term "e-waste" broadly to all surplus electronics.
Management of solid waste has become a critical issue for almost all the major
cities in India. Increase in population coupled with the rapid urbanization of Indian
cities, has lead to new consumption patterns, which typically affect the waste
stream through the successive addition of new kinds of waste. Over the last two
decades, spectacular advances in technology and the changing lifestyle of people
has lead to an increasing rate of consumption of electronic products. A trend today
is dependence on information technology. The fast rate of technological change
has lead to the rapid obsolescence rate of IT products added to the huge import of
junk computers from abroad creating dramatic scenario for solid waste
E-Waste is a collective name for discarded electronic devices that enter the waste
stream from various sources. It includes electronics appliances such as televisions,
personal computers, telephones, air conditioners, cell phones, electronic toys, etc.
The list of e-waste items is very large and can be further widened if we include
other electronic waste emanating from electrical appliances such as lifts,
refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, and kitchen utilities or even airplanes, etc.
Faster technological innovation and consequently a high obsolete rate poses a
direct challenge for its proper disposal or recycling. This problem has assumed a
global dimension, of which India is an integral and affected part.
Electronic products contain hazardous and toxic material that poses environmental
risk if they are landfilled or incinerated. Television and computer monitors use
cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which contain significant amounts of lead. Printed
circuit boards contain primarily plastic, copper, small amounts of chromium, lead
solder, nickel and zinc. In addition, many electronic products have batteries that
often contain nickel, cadmium and other heavy metals. These toxic materials can
contaminate soil, groundwater and air, as well as affect the workers of the unit and
the community living around it. Moreover, the workers in e-waste recycling
operations may face dangerous health and environmental problems. Hence there is
a clear reason to be concerned about the trade, the technology in practice and the
existing poor disposal practices of e-waste in India.
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WEEE has been defined as any equipment that is dependent on electric currents or
electromagnetic fields in order to work properly, including equipment for the
generation, transfer, and measurement of current.
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SOURCES OF E-WASTE-
Electronic waste especially computer waste is growing exponentially in volume
because of increasing demand of information technology and its application in the
national growth process. Various government departments, public as well as
private sectors are fast feeding old electronic appliances such as computers,
telephones, etc, into the waste stream.
Individual household and small business
Large business, Institutions, government houses and Foreign Embassies
PC manufacturers and retailers
E waste from imports
Secondary market of old PCs
E-waste from Individual Households-
As far as PCs emanating from individual households are concerned, it is difficult to
know the exact quantity. Individual households are not major contributors in India.
They account for 22% of total computers in India. The rest of the share, that is
78%, comes from the business sector.
E-waste form Business Sectors-
The business sectors (government departments, public or private sector, MNC
offices, etc) were the earliest users of electronic products; today they account for
78 per cent of total installed PCs . Hence, they are the major producers of obsolete
technology in India. It is observed that the total number of obsolete PCs emanating
from business as well as form individual households will be around 1.38 million.
E-waste from Manufacturers & Retailers-
PC manufacturer and retailers are next on the list of contributors to the e-waste
segment in India. The waste form this sector comprises defective IC chips,
motherboards, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and other peripheral items produced
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during the production process. It also includes defective PCs under guarantee
procured from consumers as replacement items. It is estimated that around 1050
tonnes per year of waste comes form this sector.
E-waste from imports-
The biggest sources of PC scrap are imports. Huge quantities of e-waste such as
monitors, printers, keyboards, CPUs, typewriters, projectors, mobile phones, PVC
Wires, etc are imported. The computers thus imported are of all ranges, models and
sizes, and are functional as well as junk materials.
These are the waste coming from the secondary markets. It includes TV,
computers, mobiles, electric boards etc.
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CATEGORIES OF E-WASTE-
The electrical and electronic equipment can be broadly categorized into following
Large household appliances (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, cooking
Small household appliances (vacuum cleaners, watches, grinders, etc.)
IT and telecommunication equipment (PCs, printers, telephones,
Consumer equipment (TV, radio, video camera, amplifiers, etc.)
Lighting equipment (CFL, high intensity sodium lamp, etc.)
Electrical and electronic tools (drills, saws, sewing machine, etc.)
Toys, leisure, and sport equipment (computer/ video games, electric trains,
Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected products
radiotherapy equipment, cardiology, dialysis, nuclear medicine, etc.)
Monitoring and control instruments (smoke detector, heating regulators,
Automatic dispensers (for hot drinks, money,hot and cold bottles, etc.)
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GENERATION OF E-WASTE-
In Europe, the production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of
the fastest growing business sectors .In Europe the expected growth rate of WEEE
is at least 3 to 5% per year.
In USA, it accounts 1% to 3% of the total municipal waste generation.
The preliminary estimates suggest that total WEEE generation in India is
approximately 1, 46,180 tonnes/year which is expected to exceed 800,000 tonnes
In India to date, e-waste generation is estimated to be around 0.1–0.2%, of
The top states, in order of highest contribution to WEEE, include Maharashtra,
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka,
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Punjab.
The city-wise ranking of largest WEEE generators is Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore,
Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat, and Nagpur.
This is due to the presence of a large number of Info Tech Parks & electronic
products manufacturing companies situated in these areas, which plays the main
role in e-waste generation.
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WEEE WASTE GENERATION IN STATES IN INDIA IN 2005
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COMPOSITION OF E-WASTE-
Major Hazardous components in WEEE-
Mercury Thermostats, sensors, relays in switches
and discharge lamps, batteries, LCD
Lead Soldering of printed circuit boards,
cathode ray tubes and light bulbs,
Cadmium Switches, spings, connectors, housings
and printed circuit boards,batteries.
Hexavalent chromium Metal coatings for corrosion protection
and wear resistance.
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and
Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE)
Flame retardants in printed circuit
boards, connectors and plastic covers.
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HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH E-WASTE-
WEEE should not be combined with unsorted municipal waste destined for
landfills because electronic waste can contain more than 1000 different substances,
many of which are toxic, such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, and
hexavalent chromium. Some of the toxic effects of the heavy metals are given
Lead causes damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood systems,
kidney and reproductive system in humans. The main applications of lead in
computers are: glass panels and gasket (frit) in computer monitors , and solder in
printed circuit boards and other components.
Cadmium compounds are toxic, they can bioaccumulate, and they pose a risk of
irreversible effects on human health. Cadmium occurs in certain components such
as surface mount devices (SMD) chip resistors, infra-red detectors, and
Mercury can cause damage to various organs including the brain and kidneys.
Most importantly, the developing fetus is highly susceptible through maternal
exposure to mercury . Mercury is used in thermostats, sensors, relays, switches
(e.g. on printed circuit boards and in measuring equipment), medical equipment,
lamps, mobile phones and in batteries.
Hexavalent chromium/chromium VI-
Chromium VI is still used for corrosion protection of untreated and galvanized
steel plates and as a decorative or hardener for steel housings. It easily passes
through cell membranes and is then absorbed— producing various toxic effects in
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Plastic including PVC-
It is used in the cabling & computer housing. It contains dioxins. Reproductive and
developmental problems, Immune system damage, Interfere with regulatory
Hazards due to Incineration-
The incineration of brominated flame-retardants at a low temperature of 600–800
°C may lead to the generation of extremely toxic polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs)
and polybrominated furans (PBDfs) . Significant quantity of PVC is contained in e
waste, which makes the flue gas residues and air emissions particularly dangerous.
Hazards due to Landfilling-
It has become common knowledge that all landfills leak. Even the best “state-of-
the-art” landfills are not completely tight throughout their lifetimes and a certain
amount of chemical and metal leaching will occur. The situation is worse for older
or less stringent dump sites. Mercury will leach when certain electronic devices,
such as circuit breakers are destroyed. The same is true for PCBs from a
condenser. When brominated flame retarded plastics or cadmium containing
plastics are landfilled, both PBDE and the cadmium may leach into the soil and
groundwater. It has been found that significant amounts of lead ions are dissolved
from broken lead containing glass, such as the cone glass of cathode ray tubes,
when mixed with acid waters which commonly occur in landfills.
Hazards due to Recycling-
Recycling of hazardous products has little environmental benefit. It simply moves
the hazard into secondary products that will have to be disposed of eventually.
Unless the goal is to redesign the product to use non-hazardous materials, such
recycling is an ineffective solution. Halogenated substances contained in e-waste,
in particular brominated flame-retardants are also of concern during the extrusion
of plastics, which is a part of plastic recycling. Environmental problems during the
recycling of e-waste are not only linked to halogenated substances. A hazardous
emission into the air also results from recycling of e-waste containing heavy
metals, such as lead and cadmium. These emissions could be significantly reduced
by means of pretreatment operation. Another problem with heavy metals and
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halogenated substances in untreated e-waste occurs during the shredding process.
Since most of e-wastes are shredded without proper disassembly, hazardous
substances, such as PCB containing in capacitors, may be dispersed into the
recovered metals and the shredder waste.
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METHODS OF TREATMENT & DISPOSAL -
Recycle & Reuse
E WASTE EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA-
Products made from plastics such as like casing, front panel, rear panel.
Miscellaneous parts encased in plastics.
Management practice- The shredding & melting.
Printed circuit board waste-
Used in the fire inhibitors & in some electronic parts.
Management practice - Desoldering & open burning to remove metals.
Chips, electronic wires, broken glass waste, copper containing waste.
Management practice - Chemical stripping & open burning & some of the waste is
mixed with the municipal solid waste.
It contains internal chemicals, general waste, acid stripping waste.
Management practice- Sewerage system.
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RECYCLING OF E-WASTE-
WEEE recycling is in its infancy, and consumer recognition of the need for
recycling is a critical factor in the further expansion of this industry. More than
90% of WEEE is land filled, and in other countries a large fraction of WEEE waste
from households ends up in waste incinerators. Many consumers do not
immediately discard or recycle unused electronics, since they think that the
products retain value. More than 70% of retired CEDs are kept in storage for 3–5
years. However, with the rapid development of electronic technologies, the
residual value of outdated electronic devices decreases rapidly; both the recovery
value of parts and the machine resale value drop rapidly as machines and devices
age. Consumers also need to be educated about the effects of such waste on the
environment and health, and learn the significance of the recycling symbol that
must appear on the packaging of such equipment.
Recycling of WEEE can be divided into three major stages.
Disassembly is the systematic removal of components, parts, a group of parts or a
subassembly from a product (i.e., partial disassembly) or the complete disassembly
of a product for a given purpose. This is often necessary to isolate hazardous or
WEEE can be regarded as a resource of metals, such as copper, aluminum and
gold, and non-metals. Upgrading typically includes two stages: comminution and
separation of materials using mechanical/physical and/or metallurgical processing
to prepare the materials for refining processes. Precious metaloriented recovery
techniques, such as hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, are becoming less
popular whereas mechanical/ physical separations of WEEE, which are easier to
operate and more environmentally sound, are becoming more prevalent. Other
methods to recover materials include incineration and refining, in which metal can
be recovered after the more combustible material has been incinerated; and
chemical recycling, in which chemical processes are used to remove precious
metals such as gold and silver from printed circuit boards.
A mechanical process is ideal for upgrading recycling WEEE because it can yield
full material recovery including plastics. Sometimes products will be dismantled to
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remove the hazardous components and then the remaining material will be
granulating and shredded in order to remove the recyclable raw materials such as
plastic and ferrous metal. Shredding is often used to produce small even fine-sized
particles; usually below 10 mm.
Many of the traditional recycling separation processes, such as screening, shape
separation and magnetic separation can be used for particle separation.
The major materials in TV and computer are metals, plastics, and glass , and the
rate at which these materials can be recovered at a given materials recycling
facility (MRF) will depend on various parameters such as the size of the facility
and the target electronic products .
Reuse is the environmentally preferable option for managing older electronics
equipment. By extending the useful life of old products, reuse conserves the energy
and raw materials needed to manufacture new products and doing so reduces the
pollution associated with energy use and manufacturing. Reuse also gives people
who cannot afford new products access to electronic equipment at reduced or at
low cost. Almost all domestic and part of imported e-waste are reused in following
Direct second-hand use
Use after repair or slight modification
Use of some parts like monitor cabinet, main board for making new
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RECYCLING & DISPOSAL OF ELECTRONIC APPIENCES
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A COMPARISON OF ELECTRONIC WASTE RECYCLING IN
SWITZERLAND & INDIA
Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in
managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems
that e-waste poses.
The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances
in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling
systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices.
Electronic waste recycling is gaining currency around the world as larger quantities
of electronics are coming into the waste stream. Managing the increasing volumes
of e-waste effectively and efficiently–in cost and environmental impact–is a
complex task. Firstly, special logistic requirements are necessary for collecting the
e-waste. Secondly, e-waste contains many hazardous substances which are
extremely dangerous to human health and the environment, and therefore disposal
requires special treatment to prevent the leakage and dissipation of toxics into the
environment. At the same time, it is a rich source of metals such as gold, silver and
copper, which can be recovered and brought back into the production cycle. This
particular characteristic of e-waste has made e-waste recycling a lucrative business
in both developed as well as developing countries. While some countries have
organised systems for the collection, recycling, disposal and monitoring, other
countries are still to find a solution that ensures jobs while minimizing the negative
environmental impacts of e-waste recycling.
Switzerland was chosen because it was the first country to implement an industry-
wide organised system for the collection and recycling of electronic waste.
India was chosen as the other country for study because it is not only among the
fastest growing markets for the consumption of electronic appliances, but also
because it has a large recycling industry and has emerged as a major market for old
and junked computers .
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E-waste recycling in Switzerland-
Switzerland, with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,2 is also
among its most technologically advanced countries. The total installed PC base in
Switzerland is 3.15 million PCs, which translates into one PC for almost every two
persons , over 99% of the households have refrigerators and over 96% have TVs.
Even though market penetration of electrical and electronic goods is high, the
market for new appliances remains strong, with annual per capita spending on ICT
products topping US$3600, the highest in the world.
Switzerland also ranks among the top countries in the world regarding environment
protection.Ranked 7th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index.
Switzerland is the first country in the world to have established a formal system to
manage e-waste. Even though the 68,000 tonnes of e-waste collected in
Switzerland in 2003. Legislation on e-waste management was introduced into
Switzerland only in 1998.
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The collection and recycling of e-waste in Switzerland is an intentionally
developed and organised system. As mentioned before, the Swiss system is based
on EPR—both legally and operationally. This places both the physical as well as
the financial responsibility of an environmentally sound disposal of end-of-life
electronics with the manufacturers and importers of these products. The entire
operative responsibility is however with the two PROs–SWICO and S.EN.S–who
manage and operate the system on behalf of their member producers.
One of the pillars of the system is secured financing of the collection and recycling
by way of the Advance Recycling Fee (ARF) charged on all new appliances. The
ARF is used to pay for the collection, the transport and the recycling of the
disposed appliances. The ARF can range from a minimum CHF (Swiss franc) 1 on
small items, such as hair dryers and electric shavers, to up to CHF 20 for TVs or
CHF 40 for refrigerators. The total ARF collected in 2003 was CHF 71.66 million.
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Another key feature of the system is its comprehensive scope and nationwide
acceptance. SWICO and S.EN.S had 500 official collection points (in 2003)
around Switzerland in addition to the thousands of retail locations which have to
take back old equipment free of charge, irrespective of the brand or year of
manufacture, thereby making it easier for consumers to dispose of their e-waste at
One of the pillars that facilitates the smooth functioning of the system is the
multiple levels of independent controls which are able to check free riding and
pilferage as well as to ensure that the recyclers maintain quality and environmental
standards. Both material and financial flows are controlled at every stage. The
independent controls not only deter free riders, but also give credibility to the
entire system, thereby also ensuring the participation of retailers and consumers.
E waste recycling in India-
India, with over 1 billion people, is the second most populous country in the world.
Although the penetration of India’s market for consumer durables is substantially
lower than that of developed countries, the size of India’s market in absolute terms
is larger than that of many high-income countries. Moreover, India is one of the
fastest growing economies of the world and the domestic demand for consumer
durables in India has been skyrocketing. From 1998 to 2002, there was a 53.1%
increase in the sales of domestic household appliances, both large and small . The
growth in PC ownership per capita in India between 1993 and 2000 was 604%
compared to a world average of 181%.
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Unfortunately, economic growth and environmental protection indicators are at
odds with one another. India ranks an abysmal 101th on the 2005 Environmental
A report by a New Delhi based NGO, Toxics Link, on computer waste, estimated
that in India business and individual households make approximately 1.38 million
personal computers obsolete every year. In addition to post-consumer e-waste,
there is also a large quantity of e-waste from manufacturing in the form of
defective printed wiring boards, IC chips and other components discarded in the
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In contrast to Switzerland, where consumers pay a recycling fee, in India it is the
waste collectors who pay consumers a positive price for their obsolete appliances,
as can be seen in Fig.. The small collectors in turn sell their collections to traders
who aggregate and sort different kinds of waste and then sell it to recyclers, who
recover the metals.
The entire industry is based on a network existing among collectors, traders and
recyclers, each adding value, and creating jobs, at every point in the chain. As the
volume of e-waste has grown, a noticeable degree of specialisation has emerged,
with some waste processors focussing only on e-waste. Given the low level of
initial investment required to start a collection, dismantling, sorting or recovery
business, it is attractive for small entrepreneurs to join the industry. This recycling
network is substantiated by similar results of fieldwork by on solid waste
management in Chennai, India, which found a series of private–private
relationships among waste pickers, itinerant buyers, dealers, wholesalers and
recycling enterprises. The main incentive for the players is financial profit, not
environmental or social awareness. Nevertheless, these trade and recycling
alliances provide employment to many groups of people . E-waste recycling has
become a profitable business, flourishing as an unorganised sector, mainly as
backyard workshops . For Delhi, study estimates the number of unskilled workers
in recycling and recovering operations to be at least 10,000 people .
The biggest drawback of the current Indian system is the uncontrolled emission of
hazardous toxics that are going into the air, water and soil. The health hazards from
fumes, ashes and harmful chemicals affect not only the workers who come into
contact with the e-waste, but also the environment.
Comparison of the two systems -
From the two case studies above, it is clear that the e-waste management systems
in the two countries are very different. Based on observations of both systems, a
qualitative comparison is done using four criteria:
E-waste per capita
Emissions of Toxics
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A higher value in either factor leads to a higher annual accrual of e-waste per
capita. Compared to India, Switzerland shows a higher value for per capita waste
with its more widespread use of appliances and shorter product service lives, given
the lower rate of repair and reuse.
Switzerland has a much higher annual accrual of e-waste per capita. In the year
2003, more than 9 kg of e-waste per resident were taken back in Switzerland by the
SWICO and S.EN.S recycling
Using the Employment Potential offered by the system as one criterion to judge the
social impact of the system, it can be seen that the Indian system generates far
more jobs than the Swiss system per tonne of e-waste processed. Collection,
dismantling, sorting and segregation and even metal recovery are done manually in
India. Therefore, the ewaste recycling sector, albeit informal, employs many
unskilled or semi-skilled workers.
Study show that at least 10,000 people are involved in the recycling and recovery
operations in Delhi alone. The figure would be much higher if the entire value
chain of collectors, transporters and traders were included.
Comparatively, e-waste management in Switzerland is highly mechanised, and
employs far fewer people. For example, the S.EN.S recycling system, which
manages discarded household appliances totalling over 34,000 tonnes (for all of
Switzerland), engages 470 persons in all-including collection, transportation,
recycling, administration and controlling . The main reason for this large difference
in the number of people employed, is the availability of cheap manpower in India
as compared to the high labour costs in Switzerland.
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However, when considered from the perspective of Occupational Hazard, e-waste
handlers in India are at a much higher risk than in Switzerland. One reason for this
is the low level of awareness among workers regarding the hazards of the
chemicals and process they are exposed to and the minimum protection and safety
measures they are obliged to take. The other reason is the lack of formal guidelines
as well as a lax enforcement of existing environmental laws.
The Emissions of Toxics into the environment is another aspect to consider. Due to
the manual processes used for materials recovery, the level of toxics such as
dioxins and acids released has been found to be much higher in India than in
Switzerland. Culpable for the high levels of these externalities are backyard
processing techniques such as open burning of cables, which is conducted in the
open without any controls or precautions. The material flow in and out of the
system is totally unmonitored at present. In contrast, the Swiss system imposes
high safety and emission standards and emphasises the implementation of regular
controls and monitoring at every stage of the material and financial flow through
the system. External auditors mandated by the PRO’s carry out at least one annual
audit at each recycler, and unless standards are complied with, the recycler’s
licence is revoked. This monitoring has the effect that the e-waste recyclers stay
within the strict Swiss emission limits.
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Electronic equipment is one of the largest known sources of heavy metals and
organic pollutants in the waste stream. Without effective collection, reuse, and
recycling systems, highly toxic chemicals are found in electronic appliances like,
lead, beryllium, mercury, cadmium, chromium, brominated flame retardant, etc
will continue to contaminate soil and groundwater as well as pollute the air, posing
a threat to wildlife and people.
In India, domestic generation and imports are the two main sources of e-waste. It is
impossible to determine how much e-waste is generated in India and how much is
imported. But the growing quantities at a disastrous proportion and uncontrolled
disposal practices are alarming the situation from an environmental point of view.
Reuse and recycling of electronic equipment is a beneficial alternative than
disposal as it reduces the amount of toxic and hazardous substances that may enter
the environment through disposal.
Thus, it is opined that e-waste management is a new challenge for waste
management in India and for its proper management, various measures for
improvement in product design by using safe and environmently friendly raw
materials and most emerging technologies have been suggested. Adoption of all
those measures will minimize the environmental pollution due to toxic constituents
present in electronic products and help in achieving a clean environment.
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A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India
Deepali Sinha-Khetriwal, Philipp Kraeuchi, Markus Schwaninger.
Received 17 March 2005, Acepted 22 April 2005
Journal of Environmental impact assessment.
E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications.
Sushant B. Wath · P. S. Dutt · T. Chakrabarti
Received: 25 May 2009 / Accepted: 18 January 2010
Journal of Environmental monitoring assessment.
E-waste: A new challenge for waste management in India.
M. N. Mundada, Sunil Kumar and A. V. Shekdar
Available online: 26 Jan 2007
Journal of Environmental studies
Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.
Balakrishnan Ramesh Babu ,Anand Kuber Parande,Chiya Ahmed Basha
Received 3 March 2006; accepted in revised form 17 December 2006
Journal of waste management.