Scala
@ TechMeetup Edinburgh

   Stuart Roebuck
   stuart.roebuck@proinnovate.com
What does ProInnovate do?




TOP SECRET
The basics…
• Scala stands for ‘scalable language’
• Scala runs on the Java Virtual Machine ( JVM)
• Created by Martin Ode...
How long has it been
             around?


• Scala 1.0 appeared in 2003
• Scala 2.0 appeared in 2006
• Scala 2.7.7 is the...
“If I were to pick a language to
use today other than Java, it
would be Scala”
                   James Gosling
Try this at home!

• Scala home: http://www.scala-lang.org/
• Downloadable for Mac, Linux & Windows
• Shell interpreter: s...
Hello World!
->scala
Welcome to Scala version 2.7.7.final (Java HotSpot
(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 1.6.0_17).
Type in expr...
Build tools +

• Maven Plugin (no endorsement implied)—http://
  scala-tools.org/mvnsites/maven-scala-plugin/
• simple-bui...
How does Scala differ
              from Java?
                            • Pattern matching and
• Object oriented and    ...
Statically Typed

Statically Typed    Dynamically Typed

                   Ruby, Python, Groovy,
  Java, Scala
          ...
Dynamic typing in JavaScript

> function calc(x) { return ((x + 2) * 2) }
undefined

> calc(1)
6

> calc("1")
24
Dynamic typing in Groovy

groovy:000> def calc(x) { ((x + 2) * 2) }
===> true

groovy:000> calc(1)
===> 6

groovy:000> cal...
Static Typing in Scala
scala> def calc(x:Int) = ((x + 2) * 2)
calc: (x: Int)Int

scala> calc(1)
res0: Int = 6

scala> calc...
Static Typing in Scala
scala> def calc(x:Any) = x match {
  |       case y:Int => ((y + 2) * 2)
  |       case y:String =>...
Type inference
  va




     Date x = new Date();
Ja
  a




     val x = new Date
 al
Sc




     x: java.util.Date = Tue...
Everything is an object


 “Answer = ” + 6 * 4

“Answer = ”.+(6.*(4))
Concise / first-class functions
  va


     String s = "Which are the longer words";
Ja



     Array<String> words = s.spl...
Pattern matching
scala> val words = List("three","words","first")
words: List[java.lang.String] = List(two, words, first)

s...
Properties, getters and setters
  va

   public class Rect {
Ja



     private final int width;
     private final int heig...
Regular expressions and
                extractors
val Email = """([A-Za-z0-9._%-]+)@([A-Za-z0-9.-]+.[A-Za-z]{2,4})""".r
v...
XML literals and parsing
val xml = <item>
      <title>Lift Version 1.0 Released</title>
      <link>http://www.scala-lang...
Further XML file parsing +
import xml.XML

val loadnode = XML.loadFile(“input.xml”)

println(“Number of items = ” + (loadno...
Commercial users of Scala
• Twitter—Scala back end Ruby front end
• LinkedIn
• Foursquare—Scala and Lift
• Siemens—Scala a...
Questions?
Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh
Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh
Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh
Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh
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Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh

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TechMeetup Edinburgh introductory talk on Scala with a taste of some of its features.

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Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh

  1. 1. Scala @ TechMeetup Edinburgh Stuart Roebuck stuart.roebuck@proinnovate.com
  2. 2. What does ProInnovate do? TOP SECRET
  3. 3. The basics… • Scala stands for ‘scalable language’ • Scala runs on the Java Virtual Machine ( JVM) • Created by Martin Odersky (EPFL) • he previously created the Pizza language with Philip Wadler (now at Edinburgh University) • …then GJ (Generic Java) that became Java Generics in the official Java 5.0 release for which he apologises!
  4. 4. How long has it been around? • Scala 1.0 appeared in 2003 • Scala 2.0 appeared in 2006 • Scala 2.7.7 is the current stable release • Scala 2.8 beta 1 is due for release any day now!
  5. 5. “If I were to pick a language to use today other than Java, it would be Scala” James Gosling
  6. 6. Try this at home! • Scala home: http://www.scala-lang.org/ • Downloadable for Mac, Linux & Windows • Shell interpreter: scala • Compilers: scalac and fsc • Documentation generator scaladoc • Plugins for Eclipse, Netbeans, IntelliJ
  7. 7. Hello World! ->scala Welcome to Scala version 2.7.7.final (Java HotSpot (TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 1.6.0_17). Type in expressions to have them evaluated. Type :help for more information. scala> def main { println("Hello World!") } main: Unit scala> main Hello World!
  8. 8. Build tools + • Maven Plugin (no endorsement implied)—http:// scala-tools.org/mvnsites/maven-scala-plugin/ • simple-build-tool—http://code.google.com/p/ simple-build-tool/ • Apache Ant tasks for Scala—http://www.scala- lang.org/node/98 • Apache Buildr—http://buildr.apache.org/ • JavaRebel—http://www.zeroturnaround.com/
  9. 9. How does Scala differ from Java? • Pattern matching and • Object oriented and Extractors functional • Actors • Everything is an object • XML literals • First-class functions • Properties (‘closures’) • Case classes • Singleton objects • Lazy evaluation • Mixin composition with Traits • Parser combinators • Tuples
  10. 10. Statically Typed Statically Typed Dynamically Typed Ruby, Python, Groovy, Java, Scala JavaScript
  11. 11. Dynamic typing in JavaScript > function calc(x) { return ((x + 2) * 2) } undefined > calc(1) 6 > calc("1") 24
  12. 12. Dynamic typing in Groovy groovy:000> def calc(x) { ((x + 2) * 2) } ===> true groovy:000> calc(1) ===> 6 groovy:000> calc("1") ===> 1212
  13. 13. Static Typing in Scala scala> def calc(x:Int) = ((x + 2) * 2) calc: (x: Int)Int scala> calc(1) res0: Int = 6 scala> calc("1") <console>:6: error: type mismatch; found : java.lang.String("1") required: Int calc("1") ^
  14. 14. Static Typing in Scala scala> def calc(x:Any) = x match { | case y:Int => ((y + 2) * 2) | case y:String => ((y + 2) * 2) | } calc: (x: Any)Any scala> calc(1) res1: Any = 6 scala> calc("1") res2: Any = 1212
  15. 15. Type inference va Date x = new Date(); Ja a val x = new Date al Sc x: java.util.Date = Tue Jan 12 01:04:42 GMT 2010 va Ja List<Integer> y = new ArrayList<Integer>(); Collections.addAll(y,1,2,3); a al val y = List(1,2,3) Sc y: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3)
  16. 16. Everything is an object “Answer = ” + 6 * 4 “Answer = ”.+(6.*(4))
  17. 17. Concise / first-class functions va String s = "Which are the longer words"; Ja Array<String> words = s.split(‘ ’); ArrayList<String> longWords = new ArrayList<String>(); for (w in words) { if (w.size() > 3) longWords.add(w); } System.out.println(longWords); a al val s = "Which are the longer words" Sc val longWords = s.split(‘ ’).filter( _.size > 3) println(longWords)
  18. 18. Pattern matching scala> val words = List("three","words","first") words: List[java.lang.String] = List(two, words, first) scala> val List(x, y, z) = words.sort( (a,b) => a < b ) x: java.lang.String = first y: java.lang.String = three z: java.lang.String = words scala> val (x :: _) = words.sort( _ < _ ) x: java.lang.String = first
  19. 19. Properties, getters and setters va public class Rect { Ja private final int width; private final int height; public Rect(int width, int height) { this.width = width; a this.height = height; al } Sc case class Rect(width:Int, height:Int) { public int getWidth() { return this.width; def area = width * height } } public int getHeight() { return this.height; val r = Rect(2,4) } public int area() { println(r.area) return this.width * this.height; } } … Rect r = new Rect(2,4); System.out.println(r.area());
  20. 20. Regular expressions and extractors val Email = """([A-Za-z0-9._%-]+)@([A-Za-z0-9.-]+.[A-Za-z]{2,4})""".r val Telephone = """+(d+) ([d ]+)""".r val inputs = List("+44 2423 1313", "test@gmail.co.uk", "Fred Bloggs") inputs.foreach{ input => val output = input match { case Email(user, domain) => "Email => User:" + user + " Domain:" + domain case Telephone(country, code) => "Telephone => Country:" + country + " Code:" + code case _ => "Unknown" } println(output) } Telephone => Country:44 Code:2423 1313 Email => User:test Domain:gmail.co.uk Unknown
  21. 21. XML literals and parsing val xml = <item> <title>Lift Version 1.0 Released</title> <link>http://www.scala-lang.org/node/1011</link> <description>Twelve is &gt; six</description> <comments>http://www.scala-lang.org/node/1011#comments</comments> <category domain="http://www.scala-lang.org/taxonomy/term/15">Featured</category> <pubDate>Fri, 27 Feb 2009 10:02:55 +0000</pubDate> <dc:creator>bagwell</dc:creator> <guid isPermaLink="false">1011 at http://www.scala-lang.org</guid> </item> xml: scala.xml.Elem = … (xml "description").text res1: String = Twelve is > six (xml "category" "@domain" ).text res2: String = http://www.scala-lang.org/taxonomy/term/15
  22. 22. Further XML file parsing + import xml.XML val loadnode = XML.loadFile(“input.xml”) println(“Number of items = ” + (loadnode “item”).toList.size) Number of items = 2 val authors = (loadnode “item” “creator”).toList.map (_.text ).toSet.toList.sort(_<_) println(“Authors were: ” + authors.mkString(“, ”)) Authors were: admin, bagwell
  23. 23. Commercial users of Scala • Twitter—Scala back end Ruby front end • LinkedIn • Foursquare—Scala and Lift • Siemens—Scala and Lift • SAP • EDF • Sony Pictures (ImageWorks) • Nature Magazine • …and Google
  24. 24. Questions?
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