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Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context
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Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context

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n the evolution of software, stakeholders continuously seek and consult various information artifacts and their interdependencies to successfully complete their daily activities. While a lot of …

n the evolution of software, stakeholders continuously seek and consult various information artifacts and their interdependencies to successfully complete their daily activities. While a lot of research has focused on supporting stakeholders in satisfying various information needs, there is little empirical evidence on how these information needs manifest themselves in the context of professional software development teams of real world companies. To investigate the information needs of the different stakeholder roles involved in software evolution activities, we conducted an empirical study with 23 participants from two professional development teams of one company. The analysis of the gathered data shows that information needs exhibit a crosscutting nature with respect to stakeholder role, activity, artifacts and even fragments of artifacts. We also found that the dependencies between information artifacts are important for the successful performance of software evolution activities, but often not captured explicitly. The lack of an explicit representation of these interdependencies often result in difficulties identifying dependent artifacts and additional communication effort. Based on our findings, we suggest ways to better support stakeholders with their information needs.

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  • 1. Sebastian Müller and Thomas Fritz Stakeholders’ Information Needs for Artifacts and their Dependencies in a Real World Context ICSM 2013, Eindhoven 1
  • 2. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  • 3. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  • 4. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  • 5. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  • 6. Stakeholder Activities 2 (c) blog.cloudbooking.com and Sebastian Bergmann 2
  • 7. Stakeholder Activities 2 Evolution of a project requires stakeholders to perform a lot of different activities. (c) blog.cloudbooking.com and Sebastian Bergmann 2
  • 8. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Bug 3
  • 9. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Requirements Bug 3
  • 10. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Requirements Code Bug 3
  • 11. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Requirements Code Bug 3
  • 12. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Bug 3
  • 13. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Bug 3
  • 14. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Test Bug 3
  • 15. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Test Bug 3
  • 16. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Test Bug Stakeholders need to acquire and manage a lot of different information artifacts to perform activities. 3
  • 17. Research Questions 4 RQ 1: RQ 2: What are the characteristics of information artifacts needed by different kinds of stakeholder roles in the daily software evolution activities? How are these artifacts interdependent? 4
  • 18. Related Work Focused on • single stakeholder role (e.g. Schröter et al CSWC’12, Seaman ICSM’02) • single information artifact (e.g. Breu et al CSCW’10, Aranda et al ICSE’09) • single activity (e.g. Sillito et al TSE’08, Roehm et al ICSE’12) 5 5
  • 19. Study Methods 6 403 instances of activity description & interview transcriptions 23 participants from 2 software development teams diary study interviews 6
  • 20. Study Participants 7 Role # Subjects Team 1Team 1 Software developer 5 (4 interviewed) Software tester 1 Requirements engineer 1 Project manager 1 (0 interviewed) Line manager 1 Team 2Team 2 Software developer 6 (5 interviewed) Software tester 4 Requirements engineer 2 Project manager 1 Line manager 1 All stakeholders 23 (20 interviewed) 7
  • 21. Study Methods 8 403 instances of activity description & interview transcriptions 23 participants from 2 software development teams diary study interviews 8
  • 22. Data Analysis 9 9
  • 23. Data Analysis 9 Collected Data Interview transcripts from 20 follow-up interviews Activity descriptions from a six day diary study 9
  • 24. Data Analysis 9 Data Coding Open coding to develop concepts and categories Axial coding to related these to each other Selective coding to related data to these categories Collected Data Interview transcripts from 20 follow-up interviews Activity descriptions from a six day diary study 9
  • 25. Data Analysis 9 Data Coding Open coding to develop concepts and categories Axial coding to related these to each other Selective coding to related data to these categories Collected Data Interview transcripts from 20 follow-up interviews Activity descriptions from a six day diary study Findings Information needs exhibit a crosscutting nature Information needs are fragmented Dependencies between information artifacts are very important 9
  • 26. Stakeholders’ Activities 10
  • 27. Bug Fixing Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager 10
  • 28. Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager Bug Analysis 10
  • 29. Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager Software Testing 10
  • 30. Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager Requirements Creation 10
  • 31. Research Question 1 What are the characteristics of information artifacts needed by different kinds of stakeholder roles in the daily software evolution activities? 11 11
  • 32. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  • 33. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  • 34. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  • 35. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  • 36. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Information needs exhibit a crosscutting nature over information artifacts. Activities Information artifact 12
  • 37. Crosscutting Information Needs for Bug Analysis Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 13 13
  • 38. Crosscutting Information Needs for Bug Analysis Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 13 Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models 13
  • 39. Crosscutting Information Needs for Bug Analysis Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 13 Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models Line managers: 2 artifacts: change request, requirements 13
  • 40. Crosscutting Information Needs Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 14 Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models Line managers: 2 artifacts: change request, requirements 14
  • 41. Crosscutting Information Needs Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 14 Information needs vary by stakeholder role for each activity. Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models Line managers: 2 artifacts: change request, requirements 14
  • 42. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 15
  • 43. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 “Especially important is the person who has reported the change request.” Line manager 15
  • 44. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 “Especially important is the person who has reported the change request.” Line manager “The type of the change request is important. If it is a defect, the severity is important.” Project manager 15
  • 45. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 “Especially important is the person who has reported the change request.” Line manager “The type of the change request is important. If it is a defect, the severity is important.” Project manager Information needs per artifact are also fragmented. 15
  • 46. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 16
  • 47. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 For different activities, different stakeholder roles need different information artifacts. 16
  • 48. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 For different activities, different stakeholder roles need different information artifacts. For the same activity, different stakeholder roles might used different information artifacts. 16
  • 49. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 For different activities, different stakeholder roles need different information artifacts. For the same activity, different stakeholder roles might used different information artifacts. Even if the same information artifact is used, different fragments in this information artifact are important for different stakeholder roles. 16
  • 50. Research Question 2 How are these artifacts interdependent? 17 17
  • 51. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 18
  • 52. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Test case Requirements 18
  • 53. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Test case Requirements Severity of a change request Test case 18
  • 54. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Location of incident in a bug reported from field Specific part of a requirements document Test case Requirements Severity of a change request Test case 18
  • 55. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Location of incident in a bug reported from field Specific part of a requirements document Test case Requirements Severity of a change request Test case Multiple artifact dependencies are needed for an activity 18
  • 56. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 19 Multiple artifact dependencies are needed for an activity Links between multiple information artifacts have to be established and maintained. 19
  • 57. Artifact Dependencies in Reality Links between information artifacts are often missing for many reasons These missing links lead to additional and repeated communication effort by all stakeholder roles 20 20
  • 58. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 21
  • 59. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 “I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link between the test case and the requirements.” (R2) 21
  • 60. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 “I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link between the test case and the requirements.” (R2) “There is a lot of documentation available, but it is not widely known where to find it.” (D9) 21
  • 61. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 “I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link between the test case and the requirements.” (R2) “There is a lot of documentation available, but it is not widely known where to find it.” (D9) “4-5 iterations [with a requirements engineer] are necessary until every issue is clarified and until I can start to implement anything.” (D2) 21
  • 62. Current Practices to Link Artifacts 22 22
  • 63. Current Practices to Link Artifacts Stakeholders already used a lot of different tools to recover from this problem, e.g.: 22 “In the wiki links to other important internal documents, e.g. requirements specifications, are stored.” (D3) 22
  • 64. Current Practices to Link Artifacts Stakeholders already used a lot of different tools to recover from this problem, e.g.: 22 “In the wiki links to other important internal documents, e.g. requirements specifications, are stored.” (D3) “We in the requirements engineering team do know that developers use a wiki, but we do not think that this is useful.” (R2) No success so far: 22
  • 65. Better Tool Support for Linking Information Artifacts Make links first class entities Focus on many-to-many links instead of 1- to-1 Aggregate and tailor information based on activity and role context 23 23
  • 66. Conclusion 24 24
  • 67. Conclusion 24 24
  • 68. Conclusion 24 24
  • 69. Conclusion 24 ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! 24
  • 70. Conclusion 24 ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! 24
  • 71. Survey / Interview Guide Diary study survey and interview guide are available online: http://www.ifi.uzh.ch/seal/people/mueller/info-needs 25 25

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