Zeine 2011 Changing Organizational Culture in Higher Education Institutions


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Recommendations to enhance constructive organizational cultural styles in Higher Educationa Institutions.

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  • ZEINE, R., Boglarsky, C.A., Blessinger, P., and Hamlet, M.T. Organizational Culture in Higher Education. Chapter in Kazeroony, H. (Ed.), The Strategic Management of Higher Education Institutions: Serving Students as Customers for Institutional Growth. Business Expert Press, Williston, VT 2011.
  • Zeine 2011 Changing Organizational Culture in Higher Education Institutions

    1. 1. Changing Organizational Culture in Higher Education<br />Rana ZEINE, MD, PhD<br />Cheryl BOGLARSKY, PhD<br />Patrick BLESSINGER, MS<br />Michael HAMLET, PhD<br />KELLER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT <br />HUMAN SYNERGISTICS Inc.<br />HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHING & LEARNING<br />
    2. 2. WELCOME TO HETL WEBINAR Executive Director Patrick Blessinger<br />PURPOSE <br />Review Research Study Results <br />Stimulate Thinking about Further Research Projects <br />Global Scale Differentiates HETL Studies<br />Prefer Quantitative Methods<br />Agenda: Presentation (uninterrupted) followed by Brainstorming <br />Contact us with your ideas <br />harkzen@aol.com<br /> patrickblessinger@gmail.com<br />
    3. 3. 12 Cultural styles <br />constructive<br />defensive<br /><ul><li>Achievement
    4. 4. Self-Actualizing
    5. 5. Humanistic – Encouraging
    6. 6. Affiliative</li></ul>PASSIVE<br /><ul><li>Approval
    7. 7. Conventional
    8. 8. Dependent
    9. 9. Avoidance</li></ul>AGGRESSIVE<br /><ul><li>Oppositional
    10. 10. Power
    11. 11. Competitive
    12. 12. Perfectionistic</li></ul>From Organizational Culture Inventory<br />by Robert A. Cooke and J. Clayton Lafferty, 1987, <br />Plymouth, MI: Human Synergistics International. <br />Copyright © 1987, 2011 by Human Synergistics, Inc. <br />
    13. 13. Organizational Culture Inventory® Circumplex<br />SATISFACTION NEEDS<br />PEOPLE <br />ORIENTED<br />TASK <br />ORIENTED<br />Research &Development by Cooke & Lafferty, <br />Copyright © 1973-2011 by Human Synergistics International. <br />All rights reserved.<br />SECURITY NEEDS<br />
    14. 14. OCImeasures <br />(1) BEHAVIORAL NORMS members understand are EXPECTED of them to “FIT IN” and meet expectations in their current position at their organization<br />(2) OUTCOMES: Individual, Group & Organizational <br />OCI-IDEAL <br />“DESIRED state”<br />cultural benchmark: <br />asks members to indicate<br />the extent to which <br />behavioral norms SHOULD (in their opinion) be expected in order to maximize their organization’s effectiveness<br />OCI vs. <br />OCI-Ideal<br />
    15. 15. Constructive styles<br />Constructive Cultures encourage members to <br /><ul><li>interact with people and
    16. 16. approach tasks </li></ul>in ways that will help them to meet their <br />higher-order satisfaction needs for <br /><ul><li>affiliation,
    17. 17. esteem and
    18. 18. self-actualization</li></ul>Encourage communication, cooperation, flexibility, consultation, coordination<br />
    19. 19. ACHIEVEMENT Culture 11:00<br /><ul><li>Do things well
    20. 20. Value members who set and accomplish their own goals.
    21. 21. Members are expected to set challenging but realistic goals, establish plans to reach these goals, and pursue them with enthusiasm. </li></ul>(Pursue a standard of excellence; <br />Openly show enthusiasm)<br /><ul><li>Effective organizations
    22. 22. Problems are solved appropriately
    23. 23. Clients and customers are served well,
    24. 24. Healthy orientation </li></li></ul><li> self-actualization Culture 12:00<br /><ul><li>Value creativity and quality over quantity
    25. 25. Value both task accomplishment and individual growth
    26. 26. Members are encouraged to gain enjoyment from their work, develop themselves, and take on new and interesting activities. </li></ul> (Think in unique and independent ways;<br /> Do even simple tasks well)<br /><ul><li>Innovative organizations
    27. 27. Offer high-quality products and/or services,
    28. 28. Attract and develop outstanding employees</li></li></ul><li>Humanistic-EncouragingCulture 1:00<br /><ul><li>Managed in a participative way
    29. 29. Person-centered
    30. 30. Members are expected to be supportive, constructive and open to influence in their dealings with one another.</li></ul> (Help others to grow and develop; <br /> Take time with people)<br /><ul><li>Effective organizational performance
    31. 31. Providing for the growth and active involvement of members
    32. 32. High satisfaction and commitment of members</li></li></ul><li> affiliative Culture 2:00<br /><ul><li>Place a high priority on constructive interpersonal relationships
    33. 33. Members are expected to be friendly, open, and sensitive to the satisfaction of their work group. </li></ul>(Deal with others in a friendly, pleasant way;<br /> Share feelings and thoughts)<br /><ul><li>Enhance organizational performance
    34. 34. Promoting open communication, good cooperation, and the effective coordination of activities.
    35. 35. Members are loyal to their work groups and feel they “fit in” comfortably.</li></li></ul><li>Passive / defensive styles<br />Passive/Defensive Cultures are those in which members believe they must <br /><ul><li>interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security
    36. 36. conflicts are primarily resolved by either accommodation or withdrawal
    37. 37. consequences includeunresolved conflicts, de-motivation, work avoidance and high turnover </li></li></ul><li>Approval Culture 3:00<br /><ul><li>Conflicts are avoided
    38. 38. Interpersonal relationships are pleasant – at least superficially
    39. 39. Members feel that they should
    40. 40. agree with others (Go along with others)
    41. 41. gain the approval ofothers
    42. 42. be liked by others (Be liked by everyone)
    43. 43. Can limit organizational effectiveness
    44. 44. Minimize constructive “differing”
    45. 45. Inhibit the expression of ideas and opinions</li></li></ul><li>conventional Culture 4:00<br /><ul><li>Conservative, Traditional
    46. 46. Bureaucratically controlled
    47. 47. Members are expected to conform
    48. 48. Follow the rules
    49. 49. Make a good impression</li></ul> (Always follow policies; <br />Fit into the “mold”)<br /><ul><li>Can interfere with effectiveness
    50. 50. Suppressing innovation
    51. 51. Preventing the organization from adapting to changes in its environment</li></li></ul><li>dependent Culture 5:00<br /><ul><li>Hierarchically controlled
    52. 52. Non-participative
    53. 53. Do not empower their members
    54. 54. Centralized decision making
    55. 55. Members do only what they are told
    56. 56. Clear all decisions with superiors</li></ul> (Please those in positions of authority; <br /> Do what is expected)<br /><ul><li>Poor performance
    57. 57. Lack of individual initiative, spontaneity, flexibility, and timely decision making</li></li></ul><li>avoidance Culture 6:00<br /><ul><li>Fail to reward success
    58. 58. Punish mistakes
    59. 59. Negative reward system
    60. 60. Members shift responsibilities to others
    61. 61. Avoid any possibility of being blamed for a mistake</li></ul> (Wait for others to act first; <br /> Take few chances)<br /><ul><li>Survival of the organization is in question
    62. 62. Members are unwilling to make decisions, take action, or accept risks </li></li></ul><li>Aggressive / defensive styles<br />Aggressive/Defensive Cultures expect members to <br /><ul><li>approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security
    63. 63. value confrontation, criticism, coercion and overconfidence
    64. 64. consequences include insecurity, disempowerment, disrespect, and punishment</li></li></ul><li>OPPOSITIONAL Culture 7:00<br /><ul><li>Confrontation prevails
    65. 65. Negativism is rewarded
    66. 66. Members gain status and influence by being critical
    67. 67. Reinforced to oppose the ideas of others (Point out flaws; </li></ul> Be hard to impress)<br /><ul><li>Make safe (but ineffectual) decisions
    68. 68. Can lead to unnecessary conflict, poor group problem solving and “watered-down” solutions to problems </li></li></ul><li>POWER Culture 8:00<br /><ul><li>Non-participative
    69. 69. Organization structured on the basis of the authority inherent in members’ positions
    70. 70. Members believe they will be rewarded for taking charge and controlling subordinates
    71. 71. Responsive to the demands of superiors</li></ul> (Build up one’s power base; <br />Demand loyalty)<br /><ul><li>Power-oriented
    72. 72. Less effective than members think
    73. 73. Subordinates resist control, hold back information, and reduce their contributions to the minimal acceptable level. </li></li></ul><li>COMPETITIVE Culture 9:00<br /><ul><li>Winning is valued
    74. 74. Members are rewarded for out-performing one another
    75. 75. Members operate in a “win-lose” framework
    76. 76. Believe they must work against (rather than with) their peers to be noticed</li></ul> (Turn the job into a contest; <br />Never appear to lose)<br /><ul><li>Can inhibit effectiveness by reducing cooperation and promoting unrealistic standards of performance that are either too high or too low.</li></li></ul><li>PERFECTIONISTIC Culture 10:00<br /><ul><li>Perfectionism, persistence, and hard work are valued
    77. 77. Members feel they must avoid any mistakes, keep track of everything, and work long hours to attain narrowly-defined objectives</li></ul> (Do things perfectly; <br />Keep on top of everything)<br /><ul><li>Can lead members to lose sight of the goal, get lost in detail, and develop symptoms of strain</li></li></ul><li>“High reliability” organizations<br /><ul><li>Military
    78. 78. Nuclear Plant
    79. 79. Emergency Medical
    80. 80. “life and death” nature of operations</li></ul>Constructive norms are desired and important for success because they help people to understand the reasons why orders need to be followed, and the benefits of faithfully implementing best practices in performing critical duties.<br />
    81. 81. OCI® RESULTS<br />CURRENT CULTURE<br />IDEAL CULTURE<br />N=63<br />N=33<br />Research &Development by Cooke & Lafferty, Copyright © 1973-2011 by Human Synergistics International. All rights reserved.<br />Zeine, Boglarsky, Blessinger & Hamlet (2011). Ch.3 In Kazeroony(Ed.), The Strategic Management of Higher Education Institutions: Serving Students as Customers for Institutional Growth. Business Expert Press, Williston, VT. <br />
    82. 82. Zeine et al. 2011 <br />
    83. 83. Gap analysis for culture styles in hEds<br />
    84. 84. ORGANIZATIONAL OUTCOMES<br />Individual Outcomes<br /> Motivation, Performance, Satisfaction, Stress<br />Group Outcomes<br /> Teamwork, Inter-Unit Coordination, <br />Unit-level Quality<br />Organizational Outcomes<br /> Organizational-level Quality <br />Customer Service Quality <br />External Adaptibility<br />Cooke, 1987<br />
    85. 85. SUBCULTURES CURRENT <br />IDEAL OCI® <br />NON-PROFIT <br />N=34<br />N=17<br />FOR-PROFIT <br />N=24<br />N=12<br />
    86. 86. SUBCULTURES in higher education<br />Academic staff<br />administrators<br />Differentiation<br /><ul><li> Different Priorities & Interests</li></ul>Individualism<br /><ul><li> Independence, Autonomy, Individual Goals</li></ul>Fragmentation<br /><ul><li> Lack of Interaction & Understanding</li></ul>Interaction<br /><ul><li> Collegiality, Interpersonal Dynamics
    87. 87. Different Stakeholders & Work Styles
    88. 88. ‘ I ’ Emphasis & Anarchy
    89. 89. Bureaucracies & Skepticism
    90. 90. Professionalism & Open Dialogue</li></ul>Interviews (n=18) about Perceptions<br />(1) Professional, (2) Differential, (3) Fragmentary RELATIONSHIPS<br />Kuo, 2009. J. Higher Education Policy & Management. 31(1):43-54<br />
    91. 91. Pitman, T. (2000). Perceptions of Academics and Students as Customers: a Survey of Administrative Staff in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 22(2), 165-175.<br />Halbesleben, J.R.B., Becker, J.A.H. and Buckley, M.R. (2003). <br />Considering the Labor Contributions of Students: An Alternative to the Student-as-Customer Metaphor.Journal of Education for Business, May-June, pp. 255-257.<br />Obermiller, C., Fleenor, P. and Raven, P. (2005). <br />Students as Customers or Products: <br />Perceptions and Preferences of Faculty and Students. Marketing Education Review, 15(2), 27-36.<br />Akinyele, S.T. (2010). Customers: Identifying the Needs in Higher Education. Educational Research, 1(7), 210-218.<br />
    92. 92. LEADING CHANGE<br />1) Use belief systems (vision, mission, core values) and performance measures to strike an effective balance between creativity and control. Become living symbols of the newly minted organizational culture and assist executives to fulfill this requirement by providing training and appropriate feedback systems.<br />2) Plan for, create and celebrate progress and work accomplishments.<br />3) Enlist people: highly talented, intelligent, energetic, tenacious, committed to placing the interests of the organization above their own self-interests.<br />4) Empower change enthusiasts with communication and consultation skills.<br />5) Establish effective conflict resolution processes.<br />6) Convey a sense of urgency by increasing awareness of the need for change.<br />
    93. 93. LEADING CHANGE<br />7) Identify, replace or eliminate rules and policies (i.e. compensation, performance-appraisal systems, organizational priorities) that are incompatible with the new vision. Implement open-door policy.<br />8) Ensure inclusive involvement and participation in shaping the transformative process. <br />9) Build trust by disseminating information to people in all roles and at all levels throughout the organization.<br />10) Inspire imagination and creativity by safeguarding freedoms, encouraging risk-taking and protecting research time.<br />11) Search constantly for newer and better ways.<br />12) Developing a shared vision and ensuring congruency of action.<br />13) Supporting one another, working together, encourage open-mindedness, innovation, problem-solving. <br />
    94. 94. Seven Practices of High Performing Organizations<br />1) Employment security, or employment opportunity alternatives (externships, internships, work-study, career development and placement services) <br />2) Selectivehiring, or selective admission alternatives<br />3) Self-managed teams and decentralization of decision making, or participative cultural alternatives (feedback, communication, consultation)<br />4) Comparatively high compensation contingent on organizational performance, or academic support alternatives (grants, fellowships, scholarships)<br />5) Extensive training including leadership, management and communication skills<br />6) Reduced status distinctions and barriers<br />7) Extensive sharing of financial and performance informationthroughout the organization<br />Pfeffer(1998). In The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press.<br />
    95. 95. CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES<br />1) Ensure that all members are given the opportunity to work to their full potential<br />2) Balance expectations for taking initiative and thinking independently with those for consensus, power sharing<br />3) Expect participation without domination<br />4) Elicit unique perspectives and concerns while working towards agreement<br />5) Value quality over quantity<br />6) Value creativity over conformity<br />7) Judge effectiveness at the system level rather than the component level<br />8) Practice empowerment and transformational leadership which are prescriptive (guide and direct) rather than restrictive (constrain and prohibit) practices<br />
    96. 96. CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES<br />9) Adopt approaches for continuous, system-wide, improvements including problem solving, strategic planning, innovation, and benchmarking<br />10)Inspire innovation by allowing people to express themselves, experiment and learn from mistakes<br />11)Increase accomplishments by encouraging people to set challenging goals, and by providing them with necessary resources<br />12)Cultivate mentors by investing in training and development, and by providing opportunities for expansion<br />13)Enhance cooperation by letting people communicate, get to know one another, contribute, share ideas<br />14)Inculcate humanistic values of mutual encouragement and support<br />
    97. 97. CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES<br />15) Develop organizational mechanisms to collect and respond to feedback, implement good suggestions<br />16)Remember that education institutions are “Learning Organizations” which emphasize creativity, individual development and systems thinking<br />17)Treat all members of the organization with respect and dignity<br />18) Provide equitable pathways for advancement (or alternative opportunities for placement elsewhere)<br />Zeine et al. 2011 <br />
    98. 98. Future Projects<br /><ul><li>Organizational Effectiveness Inventory Human Synergistics, Cheryl Boglarsky
    99. 99. Planning Expanded Studies to Prepare an Authoritative Book
    100. 100. Volunteer to be Lead Coordinators on Chapters within your Area of Expertise</li>