The Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change in the Dominican Republic

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The Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change in the Dominican Republic

  1. 1. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic Projections and Policy Options Emmanuelle Humblet Nosisa Ndaba Carlos Rymer Hydrology Final Presentation August 14, 2008 School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Adaptation Issues in Latin America
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Climate and Population Projections </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrological Projections </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation Options </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
  3. 3. Climate and Land Use <ul><li>The climate is variable across the landscape, with precipitation ranging from 700mm to 2,400mm </li></ul>School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic <ul><li>Land surface highly variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid tropical forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pine forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud forest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is 10% of land use, while nearly 30% of land surface is protected </li></ul><ul><li>75% of the population lives in urban areas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Economy <ul><li>Fast growth over the last few decades (9.3% average last 3 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP at purchasing power parity was $62 billion in 2007 ($7,000 per capita) </li></ul><ul><li>Yet 36% of population in poverty and unemployment at 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is largely based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing (especially textiles) </li></ul></ul>School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic
  5. 5. Climate Change and Population Growth Projections School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic Source : IPCC, 2007 -20% Source : UN Population Division
  6. 6. The Water Balance School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic Sources : INDRHI, US Army Corps of Engineers, and FAO
  7. 7. Hydrological Climate Change Impacts <ul><li>By 2100, IPCC projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% drop in annual precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in evapotranspiration of 1mm per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in sea level by 18 to 59cm </li></ul></ul>School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic <ul><li>This will result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop in annual precipitation from 69 cubic kilometers to 55 cubic kilometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in evapotranspiration from 48 to 50 cubic kilometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater loss due to saltwater intrusion </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Declining Water Availability School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic 4,700 360 Water Scarcity Threshold
  9. 9. Impacts Already Happening School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic Source : Listin Diario (August 12, 2008)
  10. 10. Need To Adapt <ul><li>Impacted Sectors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Production </li></ul></ul>School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic <ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation Options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drip-water Irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought-resistant Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalinization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated Sewage Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greywater Recycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative Management </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Policy Framework School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic Stakeholders Agriculture, Urban Populations, Power Producers, Tourism, Industry, Ecosystems National Institute of Hydraulic Resources Concerns Assistance and Requirements <ul><li>Legal Framework That Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate for Freshwater Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency Authority to Implement Law </li></ul></ul>State Secretariat on Agriculture National Institute on Potable Water and Sewer State Secretariat on Environment and Natural Resources
  12. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>Freshwater availability is projected to decline by approximately 85% by 2100 due to climate change and population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The country will have to consider adaptation strategies to sustain socioeconomic growth even as water shortages become a serious issue. </li></ul><ul><li>New policy is necessary that is in line with a broader climate change adaptation strategy and prioritizes collaborative freshwater management. </li></ul>School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic
  13. 13. Questions? School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Dominican Republic

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