Lect1 csse81


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Lect1 csse81

  1. 1. Introduction toComputer-Aided InstructionCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 1
  2. 2. History of Computers• 1943 – ENIAC was constructed, finished in 1946, and turned off in 1955 for the last time.• 1945 – the term “bug” was coined by Grace Hooper when programming Mark II• 1949 – Claude Shannon builds the first machine that plays chess at the Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 2
  3. 3. History of Computers• 1949 – The Harvard-MARK III, the first of the MARK machines to use an internally stored program and indirect addressing, goes into operations again under the direction of Howard Aiken• 1950 – The first electronic computer is created in Japan by Hideo YamachitoCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 3
  4. 4. History of Computers• 1953 – A magnetic memory smaller and faster than existing vacuum tube memories is built at MIT• 1955 – Dartmouth College’s John McCarthy coins the term "artificial intelligence."• 1963 – Doug Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouseCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 4
  5. 5. History of Computers• 1967 – IBM creates the first floppy disk.• 1975 – Paul Allen and Bill Gates write the first computer language program for personal computers, which is a form of BASIC designed for the Altair. Gates later drops out of Harvard and founds Microsoft with Allen.CSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 5
  6. 6. History of Computers• 1980 – IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to create an operating system for a new PC. The pair buy the rights to a simple operating system manufactured by Seattle Computer Products and use it as a template. IBM allows the two to keep the marketing rights to the operating system, called DOS.CSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 6
  7. 7. History of Computers• 1990 – Tim Berners-Lee, working with Robert Cailliau at CERN propose a hypertext system, which is the first start of the Internet as we know it today.• 1997 – IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeats world champion chess player Garry Kasparov in their second six-game showdown, winning the tie-breaking game in only 62 minutes.CSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 7
  8. 8. History of Computers inEducation• early use of computers in education are primarily on the field of: – mathematics – science – engineering• mathematical problem-solving tool CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 8
  9. 9. History of Computers inEducation• 1959 – PLATO at University of Illinois – by Donald Bitier – first, large-scale project for the use of computers in education – enable computer-based instruction to integrate text and graphics, and provided instructors with one of the first programming environment for computer-based instruction CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 9
  10. 10. History of Computers in Education• 1963 – Patrick Suppes and Richard Atkinson at Stanford – establish a program of research and development on CAI in math and reading. • develop an individualized, instructional strategies that allowed the learner to correct his responses through rapid feedback. • mastery is obtained through drill-and-practice CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 10
  11. 11. History of Computers inEducation• 1970s – researchers were looking for new educational paradigms to take advantage of the breakthrough in computer technology. • developed paradigm: ICAICSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 11
  12. 12. CAI• stands for Computer Aided Instruction• an instructor-led, computer–based teaching aid.• the use of computer in the delivery of instruction.• the integration of software and hardware in instruction CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 12
  13. 13. CAI – CAI: Computer-Assisted Instruction – CBE: Computer-Based Education – CAL: Computer-Assisted Learning – IAC: Instructional Applications of Computers – CBI: Computer-Based InstructionCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 13
  14. 14. Arguments in Using Computers (Instruction) Pro • Computers have endless supply of energy • Computers can be made available for longer period of time vs. human tutors • Computers, when properly programmed, are faster and more accurate than human instructors • Computers are capable of giving endlessly changing list of examples. CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 14
  15. 15. Arguments in Using Computers (Instruction) Against – computer instruction programs are notoriously poor in anticipating a students individual needs. – computer instruction programs are often more than rote exercises having scant educational values. – computer instruction programs have been very poor at adapting to the students changing abilities, and have locked the student into relatively rigid mode of instructions. CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 15
  16. 16. Use of Computers in Academe• As Tools• As Assistants• As Teachers CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 16
  17. 17. Computers as Tools• General purpose: – To automate tasks• Word processors – MS Word, Notepad, Wordpad, etc.• Spreadsheets – MS Excel, Lotus 123, etc.• Presentation Applications – MS Powerpoint, etc. CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 17
  18. 18. Computers as Assistants• General purpose: – for Assessment, Remediation, and Reinforcement• Applications – Drills – Instructional games – simulations CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 18
  19. 19. Computers as Teachers• General purpose: – for Instruction, Remediation, and Assessment• Implementations: – CAI – ICAI – Tutorials – Simulations CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 19
  20. 20. Advantages of CAI• Interactive• Provides immediate feedback• Infinitely patient• Motivates learners• Provides consistency in presentation• Can adjust difficulty to the level of the learner CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 20
  21. 21. Advantages of CAI• Can present concepts or processes dynamically and using multiple forms of representation• Can maintain records of student performance• Can accommodate large number of learners CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 21
  22. 22. Limitations of CAI• Repeated instruction• Inexpensive distribution• Equipment and software can be costly• Development takes time and money• Lack of “personal touch” CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 22
  23. 23. Development Tools• Programming Languages – Relatively inexpensive – Powerful and flexible – Difficult to learn and use – Ex: Pascal, C, Java, Visual Basic, etc.CSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 23
  24. 24. Development Tools• Multimedia/Hypermedia tools – Relatively easy to learn and use – Relatively powerful and flexible – Moderately priced – Ex: HTML, Flash, etc. CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 24
  25. 25. Development Tools• Authoring Tools – Relatively easy to learn and use – Powerful and flexible – Expensive – Ex: Macromedia Authorware, IconAuthor, Quest, Pathware CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 25
  26. 26. Expository Model of Instruction• According to that model (EMI), for instruction to be effective the following four phases should be present: – Presenting information – Guiding the student – Practicing by the student – Assessing student learning CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 26
  27. 27. Expository Model of Instruction• Presentation of Information – “to teach something new, the instructor must first present information” • The instructor will perform the skills so that the students can imitate – methods: Examples – instructor-centered CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 27
  28. 28. Expository Model of Instruction• Guidance – interactive tutorial – Student performs under guidance of teacher • answers questions about factual info • apply rules and principles in problem-solving activities • practice procedural skillsCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 28
  29. 29. Expository Model of Instruction• Guidance – the instructor observes the student, correct errors, and give suggestions or hints – Guided discovery is part of the guidance phase of instructionCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 29
  30. 30. Expository Model of Instruction• Practice – learner-centered – Instructor observes and corrects the student, but emphasis is on the student practicing and the instructor making only short corrective statements. CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 30
  31. 31. Expository Model of Instruction• Practice – Fluency, speed and practice – method: use of workbooks (arithmetic), flashcards (foreign-language instruction) CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 31
  32. 32. Expository Model of Instruction• Assessment – level of learning – quality of teaching – future instructional needs – method: testsCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 32
  33. 33. Instructional Methodologies• Tutorials• Drills• Simulations• Instructional Games• Tests CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 33
  34. 34. Instructional Methodologies• Tutorials – teach new materials – typically they present information and then question the user to ascertain the level of learning achieved – able to monitor the students progress and to present remedial or advanced levels if and when required CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 34
  35. 35. Instructional Methodologies• Drills – typically deals with material that has already been taught – the student is presented with a task, often selected randomly, and feedback is offered immediately – able to keep pace with the student by offering remedial or advanced level if and when they become necessary CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 35
  36. 36. Instructional Methodologies• Educational Games – may be tutorial/drill and practice/simulation with game elements added – learning elements are hiddenCSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 36
  37. 37. Instructional Methodologies• Simulations – may be used to present information and guide the learner, to guide and drill, to do all three, or to test the student’s knowledge. – in here, the student learns by actually performing the activities to be learned in a context that is similar to the real world. CSSE 81: Computer-Aided Instruction Lecture#1: 37
  38. 38. Instructional Methodologies• Tests – assessed the level of learning – use for a variety of purpose: • Determine what a student knows and does not know; • Rank ordering of students in terms of performance; • Assigning grades; etc.CSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 38
  39. 39. Instructional Methodologies• Tests – Can take the form of an informal quiz or a strictly monitored examination where admission is by reservation only.CSSE 81: Computer-Aided InstructionLecture#1: 39