Evaluating FNMI Students

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Evaluating FNMI Students

  1. 1. Evaluating FNMI Students - Ryan Clarke -
  2. 2. Topic: • Do you our current assessment practices discriminate against FNMI (Fist Nations, Métis, Inuit) students? What should be done in the classroom to accommodate for them? • It is important to understand both stances on the issue...
  3. 3. Stance #1: Current assessment practices do not discriminate against FNMI students •Not all Aboriginal students are raised in a traditional lifestyle. •This is most noticeable among the Métis, who are of mixed European and Aboriginal background. Despite having FNMI status, many Métis are raised without any connections to their Aboriginal heritage. •According to statistics Canada, there are about 400 000 Métis in Canada.
  4. 4. • Another factor to consider is where FNMI students are raised. •According to the 2006 census, three-quarters of Canada’s 700 000 Aboriginals now live off-reserve. •Fewer Aboriginal students have a traditional upbringing. If the significance of Aboriginal cultures seems to be disappearing, why assess them differently than other students? Stance #1: Current assessment practices do not discriminate against FNMI students – Contd...
  5. 5. •There are many variables that could account for why FNMI students underachieve in school other than their Native background. •Some examples are: •Individual family characteristics (i.e.. Socioeconomic status) •Peer influences. •School quality (i.e. Facilities, resources, teachers) Stance #1: Current assessment practices do not discriminate against FNMI students – Contd...
  6. 6. Stance #2: Current assessment practices discriminate against FNMI students •Attention to FNMI students as a special group is important for several reasons: •FNMI experiences with formal education in Canada (i.e. Residential schools / assimilation) •Demographics: FNMI is the fastest growing segment of the Canadian population. •The gap in education levels between Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals is one of the great social policy challenges facing Canada.
  7. 7. •Most importantly, FNMI students may bring a set of life experiences and responses to the classroom that are significantly different than those of non-Aboriginal students. Stance #2: Current assessment practices discriminate against FNMI students
  8. 8. So which stance is right? •Although every FNMI student is unique, there may exist broad similarities among them culturally. •Current assessment practices often discriminate against FNMI students.
  9. 9. •FNMI students may bring a set of life experiences and responses to the classroom that are significantly different than those of non- Aboriginal students. •Coming from a background that values oral and observational learning, FNMI students may not be as comfortable with pencil and paper forms of assessment as their non-Aboriginal peers. To ensure that FNMI students are being assesses fairly, oral and presentational forms of assessment should be used often. Culture and Assessment
  10. 10. •Because of their cultural values and/or upbringing, some FNMI students will not feel comfortable participating in class discussions. If they do, they will often be less assertive than their non-Aboriginal peers. •FNMI students are often quiet, reflective learners. Culture and Assessment Contd...
  11. 11. •Family and community commitments may have an impact on FNMI students’ ability to hand in assignments on time. It may also affect class attendance. Their ability to demonstrate learning may be put at a disadvantage •Births, marriages, deaths, community and spiritual ceremonies may result in absences Responsibilities for younger siblings and other family members may also be an influence. Culture and Assessment Contd...
  12. 12. •As a result of these circumstances, Aboriginal students may be penalized by a number of common assessment practices, including: • single rather than multiple assessment methods • inflexible deadlines • time-limited assessments • marks awarded for class participation and effort • awarding zeros for incomplete or missing assignments • failure to match testing to teaching • surprising students with pop quizzes • grading first efforts, rather than providing ample time for teaching, practice and feedback before evaluating products. Culture and Assessment Contd...
  13. 13. •If a student’s absenteeism is adversely affecting that student’s learning, discuss this with the student and his or her family. •Work together to develop strategies that respect family and cultural values, and support improved attendance. Culture and Assessment Contd...
  14. 14. Assessment Strategies Appropriate for FNMI Students • Self-Evaluation • Multiple Assessment • Using a Rubric •Giving Clear Expectations
  15. 15. Student self-evaluation is an especially appropriate form of assessment for Aboriginal students because it encourages independent learning through the awareness and development of inner control and responsibility, both of which reflect strong cultural values. Self-evaluation is useful for a number of reasons: •By learning how to evaluate their own work, students become better writers. • Self-evaluation builds motivation. Students are more likely to take responsibility for their work, to persist through challenges and to gain confidence in their own ability. •Improves student attitudes towards evaluation. With age, students tend to become cynical about traditional grading methods, but when self-evaluation contributes to final grades, they are more likely to report that the overall evaluation process has been fair and worthwhile. Self-Evaluation
  16. 16. Multiple assessment methods are effective because they: • create opportunities for Aboriginal students to demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways, such as through presentations, creation of products or written work. • accommodate individual differences, learning preferences and learning strengths. Multiple Assessment
  17. 17. Examples of opportunities for multiple assessment include learning tasks such as: • Venn diagrams • mathematical word problems • scripts for radio shows • reactions to guest speakers, films or videos • artwork/photographs • storyboards • presentations • raps and poems • reflective learning logs. Multiple Assessment Contd...
  18. 18. •Rubrics are an effective form of assessment to use with Aboriginal students because they clearly and concisely convey assessment expectations. •They show the student both the goal of the task and the steps to take in order to reach that goal. Using a Rubric
  19. 19. •To use rubrics effectively with FNMI students, consider the following strategies. • Present a rubric, or construct it in partnership with students prior to beginning the task or assignment. • Help students examine and analyze samples of work that meet the rubric’s various levels of criteria. Discuss how these examples could be improved through revision. • Rubrics are especially effective in assessing presentations, performances, visual work, and more complex and comprehensive learning activities. When using rubrics for these tasks, it is important to ensure that the assessment criteria move beyond basic knowledge and comprehension, and into higher-order thinking skills that express an understanding of basic knowledge. Using a Rubric Contd...
  20. 20. Assessment practices that are effective support the learning strengths and needs of Aboriginal students by clearly and consistently reflecting learning outcomes. To ensure that assessment practices achieve this, consider the following strategies. ••Integrate assessment into the instructional planning process. This will ensure that assessment progresses naturally out of instruction and relates directly to learning strategies. • •Make sure that assessment is compatible with the instructional approaches used. For example, students learning to proofread and edit work should be assessed on a writing task that demonstrates these skills, not on multiple-choice questions about grammar and language use. Giving Clear Expectations
  21. 21. ••Include students in the assessment planning process. Let them know why and how assessment information is being gathered. Give directions that are clear, complete and appropriate to the ability, age and grade level of the students. Be prepared to repeat and clarify directions. •Show students examples of work and discuss why the work meets, exceeds or fails to meet expectations. ••Give students opportunities to practice assessment tasks or assignments so that the students become familiar and comfortable with them. Giving Clear Expectations Contd...
  22. 22. Conclusion • Do you our current assessment practices discriminate against FNMI (Fist Nations, Métis, Inuit) students? •A. Yes, they might. FNMI students may bring a set of life experiences and responses to the classroom that are significantly different than those of non-Aboriginal students. •What should be done in the classroom to accommodate for them? •A. Work to develop strategies that respect family and cultural values. Assessment strategies that are appropriate include self- assessment, rubrics, giving clear expectations and using multiple assessment.
  23. 23. Richards, John. (2008). Closing the Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Education Gaps. C.D. Howe Institute. 116, 1-2. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/backgrounder_116.pdf Bibliography (Information) Robb, Marnie. (2005). Our Words, Our Ways – Teaching First Nations, Métis and Inuit Learners. Alberta Education. 1-215. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://education.alberta.ca/media/307199/words.pdf Statistics Canada. (2006). Aboriginal identity population, by province and territory [Data file]. Retrieved from Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/DEMO60A-eng.htm
  24. 24. Bibliography (Pictures) •http://www.canadiandesignresource.ca/officialgallery/symbols/metis-nation- flags/ •http://www.hicker-stock-photography.com/stockphoto/aboriginal-tee-pee-city- hall-winnipeg-manitoba-506.htm •http://www.fsd38.ab.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=107& Itemid=314 •http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_groups_overview.html •http://www.naaf.ca/scholarships •http://camosun.ca/ccr/news/2009/may/fn-students-story.html •http://business.nmsu.edu/2008/10/07/rio-grande-pow-wow-at-nmsu-oct-11-12- to-feature-navajo-scholar-medicine-man/ •http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/bbing/stories/s1334254.htm
  25. 25. •http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoot/teacher_toolkit/english/learnin gResources/culturalProtocol.html •http://www.canada.com/theprovince/news/story.html?id=35a261 a1-bcd4-43a1-9268-0bd329adca08&k=4331 •http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/274825 •http://www.theguardian.pe.ca/News/Local/2010-08-30/article- 1709362/Historic-partnership-signed-to-support-First-Nations- students-in-P.E.I./1

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