Training and development


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Training and development

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 8 Employee Training and Development • Importance of Training • Who Will Do the Training • How Employees Learn Best • Developing a Job Training Program • Retraining • Orientation • Overcoming Obstacles to
  2. 2. 2 Importance of Training Teaching people How to do Their Jobs: • There are three kinds of training: Job Instruction, Retraining, and Orientation. • The big sister, big brother, or buddy system is when a old hand shows a newcomer the ropes. • When good training is absent there is likely to be an atmosphere of tension, crisis, and conflict because nobody knows what to do.
  3. 3. 3 The Benefits of Training • Gives the supervisor more time to manage, standardized performance, less absenteeism, less turnover, reduced tension, consistency, lower costs, more customers, better service • Gives the workers confidence to do their jobs, reduces tension, boost morale and job satisfaction, reduces injuries and accidents, gives them a chance to advance. • Gives the business a good image and more profit.
  4. 4. 4 Then why is training often neglected? • Urgency of need • Training time • Costs • Employee turnover • Short-term worker • Diversity of worker • Kinds of jobs (simple-complex) • Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how
  5. 5. 5 Who will do the Training? • The magic apron method: people train themselves the easiest ways to get the job done, and what will keep them from getting into trouble. • The person that is leaving trains: teaches shortcuts and ways of breaking the rules. • Big sister, big brother, or buddy method: passes on bad habits and may resent new person as a competitor. • The logical person to train new workers is YOURSEF!
  6. 6. 6 How do Employees Learn the Best? • Learning is the acquisition of skills, knowledge, or attitudes. • The adult learning theory is a field of research that examines how adults learn. A number of the following tips come from the adult leaning theory.
  7. 7. 7 How employees learn the best: • When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method). • Training is relevant and practical. • Training material is organized and presented in chunks. • Training is in an informal, quiet, and comfortable setting. • When they have a good trainer. • When they receive feedback on performance. • When they are rewarded.
  8. 8. 8 Developing a Job-Training Program • Training plan: A detailed plan for carrying out employee training for a unit of work. • 1st- establish performance standards: they provide a ready made structure for a training program. • 2nd- write a training objective derived form above. • 3rd- Develop standard procedures (list tasks and spell them out).
  9. 9. 9 Developing a Unit Training Program • This is taught in several sessions. • It should provide check points to measure progress. • Should include two elements: 1. Showing and telling the employee what to do. 2. Having the employee do it (right). • Location should be quiet. • Training materials should be the same as used on the job.
  10. 10. 10 Moving from Plan to Action • Training people with some experience begins with a pretest. • Carry out the training program with employees who do not meet standards. • Once the training process is complete EVALUATE.
  11. 11. 11 Evaluation • Formal evaluation: uses observation, interviews, and surveys to monitor training while its going on. • Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways: 1. Reaction 2. Knowledge 3. Behavior 4. Attitudes 5.Productivity
  12. 12. 12 Job Instruction Training (JIT) • Also called on the job training. • Consists of 4 steps: 1. Prepare the learner 2. Demonstrate the task 3. Have the worker do the task 4. Follow through: put the worker on the job, correcting and supporting as nessicary.
  13. 13. 13 Classroom Training Skills • Be aware of appropriate body language and speech. • Watch how you talk to employees. Covey respect and appreciation. • Handle problem behaviors in an effective manner. • Avoid time wasters. • Facilitate employee participation and discussion. • Use visual aids to avoid constantly referring to notes.
  14. 14. 14 Retraining • Needed when changes are made that affect the job, employees performance drops below par, or when the worker has not mastered a particular technique. • A positive one-on-one approach to retraining is referred to a coaching. • Coaching is a two part process. 1. Observation of the employees performance. 2. Conversation between manager and employee focusing on job performance.
  15. 15. 15 Orientation: the pre-job phase of training. • Introduces each new employee to the job and the workplace. • Tells new staff members what they want to know and what the company wants them to know. • Communicates information give out a employee handbook. • Creates positive employee attitudes toward the company and the job.
  16. 16. 16 Overcoming Obstacles to Learning • Reduce fear with a positive approach (convey confidence in the worker). • Increase motivation: emphasize whatever is of value to the learner, make the program form a series of small successes, build in incentives and rewards. • Limited abilities: adjust teaching to learners level. • Laziness, indifference, resistance: May mean a problem worker.
  17. 17. 17 Overcoming Obstacles to Learning • Teaching not adapted to learners: Deal with people as they are (teach people not tasks), keep it simple, involve all the senses. • Poor training program: revise to include objectives. • Poor instructor: The trainer needs to know the job, be a good communicator + leader, sensitive, patient, helpful, etc.
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