Climate The Final Chapter
What is climate? <ul><li>Weather over time </li></ul><ul><li>Decades to centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Measured by precipitat...
Basic Climate facts <ul><li>Earth's climate has always changed; it is the rate of change that is of current concern to sci...
Climate vs. Weather patterns <ul><li>Climate is very long term </li></ul><ul><li>Over this time the weather pattern remain...
Measuring Climate <ul><li>Climate is measured by temperature and climate </li></ul><ul><li>It is then represented in a gra...
World Climate Zones
Climate and Biomes <ul><li>Climate creates biomes </li></ul>
New England Climate <ul><li>Four distinct seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Generally mild overall for temperature </li></ul><ul><...
What Regulates the Earth’s Climate? <ul><li>Eccentricity which is the shape of the Earth’s orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Obliqui...
Other Factors <ul><li>The movement of continents </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial cycles  </li><...
What does this mean over time?  <ul><li>There have been natural cycles over time. </li></ul><ul><li>We are in a warming tr...
The Earth Machine <ul><li>Carbon Dioxide is the key factor </li></ul><ul><li>Currently less than .1% of atmospheric gases ...
Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Increase in Carbon Dioxide traps heat </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped heat creates a rise in temperatu...
Past Climates <ul><li>There has been climate variation over time </li></ul><ul><li>Much warmer in the past </li></ul>
Ice Age <ul><li>Covered 1/3 of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Ice as thick as 2 miles in N.A. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Changing Ocean Currents <ul><li>Shutting down the Gulf Stream caused past ice age climate </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater fro...
Evidence <ul><li>Rapid melting of polar ice </li></ul><ul><li>Change in mating and migration cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Incr...
What happens if the trend continues? <ul><li>Sea Level will rise about twenty feet in less than a century </li></ul><ul><l...
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Weather 350

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Transcript of "Weather 350"

  1. 1. Climate The Final Chapter
  2. 2. What is climate? <ul><li>Weather over time </li></ul><ul><li>Decades to centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Measured by precipitation and temperature </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Climate facts <ul><li>Earth's climate has always changed; it is the rate of change that is of current concern to scientists. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon cycle includes sources, sinks, and release agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the major greenhouse gases is necessary to identify the current trends </li></ul><ul><li>Human activity has been linked with increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Climate vs. Weather patterns <ul><li>Climate is very long term </li></ul><ul><li>Over this time the weather pattern remains the same </li></ul><ul><li>Average of weather patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Broad cycles taken into account </li></ul><ul><li>Weather pattern is a one year trend </li></ul><ul><li>The trend can vary </li></ul><ul><li>Averaged and measured over one to two years </li></ul>
  5. 5. Measuring Climate <ul><li>Climate is measured by temperature and climate </li></ul><ul><li>It is then represented in a graph called a climatogram </li></ul>
  6. 6. World Climate Zones
  7. 7. Climate and Biomes <ul><li>Climate creates biomes </li></ul>
  8. 8. New England Climate <ul><li>Four distinct seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Generally mild overall for temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive storm patterns I.e. nor’easter </li></ul><ul><li>Geography and ocean proximity determines climate </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Regulates the Earth’s Climate? <ul><li>Eccentricity which is the shape of the Earth’s orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Obliquity which is the tilt of the Earth’s axis compared to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Precession which is the rotation of the axis </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Factors <ul><li>The movement of continents </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial cycles </li></ul>
  11. 11. What does this mean over time? <ul><li>There have been natural cycles over time. </li></ul><ul><li>We are in a warming trend </li></ul><ul><li>We are adding artificial factors into the atmosphere </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Earth Machine <ul><li>Carbon Dioxide is the key factor </li></ul><ul><li>Currently less than .1% of atmospheric gases </li></ul><ul><li>The more the gas, the hotter the planet </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide cycles through the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Current carbon dioxide effects are from 100 years ago </li></ul>
  13. 13. Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Increase in Carbon Dioxide traps heat </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped heat creates a rise in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Result: change in biological and climatological patterns </li></ul>
  14. 14. Past Climates <ul><li>There has been climate variation over time </li></ul><ul><li>Much warmer in the past </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ice Age <ul><li>Covered 1/3 of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Ice as thick as 2 miles in N.A. </li></ul><ul><li>There have periodic ice ages over Earth’s history </li></ul>
  16. 16. Changing Ocean Currents <ul><li>Shutting down the Gulf Stream caused past ice age climate </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater from melting ice </li></ul>
  17. 17. Evidence <ul><li>Rapid melting of polar ice </li></ul><ul><li>Change in mating and migration cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in storm intensity </li></ul><ul><li>No slowdown in greenhouse emissions </li></ul>
  18. 18. What happens if the trend continues? <ul><li>Sea Level will rise about twenty feet in less than a century </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature will rise about 12 F on average in that same time period </li></ul>

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