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Weather 350
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Weather 350


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  • 1. Climate The Final Chapter
  • 2. What is climate?
    • Weather over time
    • Decades to centuries
    • Measured by precipitation and temperature
  • 3. Basic Climate facts
    • Earth's climate has always changed; it is the rate of change that is of current concern to scientists.
    • Carbon is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth.
    • The carbon cycle includes sources, sinks, and release agents.
    • Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas.
    • Living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere.
    • Changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed.
    • Understanding the major greenhouse gases is necessary to identify the current trends
    • Human activity has been linked with increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • 4. Climate vs. Weather patterns
    • Climate is very long term
    • Over this time the weather pattern remains the same
    • Average of weather patterns
    • Broad cycles taken into account
    • Weather pattern is a one year trend
    • The trend can vary
    • Averaged and measured over one to two years
  • 5. Measuring Climate
    • Climate is measured by temperature and climate
    • It is then represented in a graph called a climatogram
  • 6. World Climate Zones
  • 7. Climate and Biomes
    • Climate creates biomes
  • 8. New England Climate
    • Four distinct seasons
    • Generally mild overall for temperature
    • Moderate rainfall
    • Distinctive storm patterns I.e. nor’easter
    • Geography and ocean proximity determines climate
  • 9. What Regulates the Earth’s Climate?
    • Eccentricity which is the shape of the Earth’s orbit
    • Obliquity which is the tilt of the Earth’s axis compared to the Sun
    • Precession which is the rotation of the axis
  • 10. Other Factors
    • The movement of continents
    • Ocean currents
    • Glacial cycles
  • 11. What does this mean over time?
    • There have been natural cycles over time.
    • We are in a warming trend
    • We are adding artificial factors into the atmosphere
  • 12. The Earth Machine
    • Carbon Dioxide is the key factor
    • Currently less than .1% of atmospheric gases
    • The more the gas, the hotter the planet
    • Carbon Dioxide cycles through the atmosphere
    • Current carbon dioxide effects are from 100 years ago
  • 13. Greenhouse Effect
    • Increase in Carbon Dioxide traps heat
    • Trapped heat creates a rise in temperature
    • Result: change in biological and climatological patterns
  • 14. Past Climates
    • There has been climate variation over time
    • Much warmer in the past
  • 15. Ice Age
    • Covered 1/3 of the Earth’s surface
    • Ice as thick as 2 miles in N.A.
    • There have periodic ice ages over Earth’s history
  • 16. Changing Ocean Currents
    • Shutting down the Gulf Stream caused past ice age climate
    • Freshwater from melting ice
  • 17. Evidence
    • Rapid melting of polar ice
    • Change in mating and migration cycles
    • Increase in storm intensity
    • No slowdown in greenhouse emissions
  • 18. What happens if the trend continues?
    • Sea Level will rise about twenty feet in less than a century
    • Temperature will rise about 12 F on average in that same time period