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Weather 101
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Weather 101

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Transcript

  • 1. Weather 101 Weather from the ground up Part I
  • 2. It all begins with the Sun
  • 3. Visual UV X Ray
  • 4. Basic Solar Statistics
    • Surface Temperature of ~5800 K
    • 93,000,000 miles from Earth
    • It takes light eight minutes to reach us
    • It would take100 Earths to equal the Sun’s size
    • It emits 4 x 10 26 Watts/s
    • Mass of 2 x 10 30 kg
    • Rotation of 24 days
  • 5. Solar Energy This is A LOT of energy..enough raise the temperature Of the Earth several 100 degrees…
  • 6. If this occurred we would be dead, but……. WE HAVE AN ATMOSPHERE!!
  • 7. The Atmosphere’s Energy Budget
  • 8. The Earth in Space
    • 365.25 days to orbit
    • 23.5 degree axial tilt
    • Nearly circular orbit
    • The earth orbits on the solar plane
    • These orbital parameters can change but that’s a more complex story……..
  • 9. Once the energy comes into the Atmosphere, how does it get distributed? It would be straight to the poles, of course…….
  • 10.
    •                       
    There’s just one problem……… WE ROTATE!
  • 11. Creating Winds
    • Hot air rises, cold air sinks
    • Energy surplus to deficit
    • Coriolis effect “tilts” the flow
    • Prevailing winds
  • 12. Water, Water Everywhere
    • Water is found in three states on Earth
    • All water is cycled over time
  • 13. Ocean Currents: Moving energy in Water
    • Water, like air, rises and sinks
    • Warm water flows north
    • Cold water flows south
    • Interaction between air and water create the weather dynamic
  • 14. Where Are We? Tuesday Partly Cloudy. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind SSW 22 mph / 36 km/h Low: 46° F / 8° C Wednesday Chance of Rain. High: 51° F / 11° C Wind WNW 8 mph / 14 km/h Low: 37° F / 3° C Thursday Clear. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind SSE 8 mph / 14 km/h Low: 42° F / 6° C Friday Partly Cloudy. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind South 15 mph / 25 km/h Low: 42° F / 6° C Saturday Clear. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind South 17 mph / 28 km/h Low: 42° F / 6° C Sunday Chance of Rain. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind South 33 mph / 54 km/h Low: 46° F / 8° C Monday Partly Cloudy. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind WSW 8 mph / 14 km/h London, England - January
  • 15. Happy Valley-Goose Bay Happy Valley-Goose Bay: Issued 11.30 AM NST Tuesday 10 January 2006 Today Sunny with cloudy periods. 30 percent chance of flurries near noon. Wind becoming west 20 km/h this afternoon. High 14. Tonight Cloudy periods with 40 percent chance of flurries. Wind northwest 30 km/h gusting to 50. Low 0. Cold wind chill minus 2. Wednesday Sunny. Wind northwest 30 km/h gusting to 50. Temperature falling to minus 2 in the afternoon. Cold wind chill minus 5. Thursday A mix of sun and cloud with 30 percent chance of flurries. Low minus 2. High 11. Friday A mix of sun and cloud with 30 percent chance of flurries. Low 11. High minus 12. Saturday A mix of sun and cloud with 60 percent chance of flurries. Low minus 3. High 9. For Comparision…..Labrador, Canada Temperatures in farenheit
  • 16. What do we know?
    • The Sun is the ignition for the weather engine
    • The atmosphere protects us from over heating
    • Heat, water and air are the “ingredients” of weather
    • Energy moves around the Earth due to atomospheric and ocean circulation
  • 17. Weather 101 Part II
  • 18. Air Masses
  • 19. High Pressure Systems
  • 20. When Air masses meet..
    • The polar front or jet stream forms
    • Divides the cold air from the warm air
    • Storms form at this border of air
  • 21. When air collides
    • Fronts are the boundary between two air masses
    • Warm air pushed up due to cold air
    • Move counterclockwise
  • 22. Interior of Fronts
    • Frontal systems evolve
    • Warm and cold fronts are part of a low pressure system
    • Stationary fronts are “stalled”
    • Occluded fronts are one sitting on top of another
  • 23. Creating Cyclones
    • Cyclones are Low pressure systems moving counter clockwise
    • They are “spun off” from the polar front
    • As Temperature reaches equilibrium, they dissipate.
  • 24. Low Pressure Systems
    • Lows evolve over time
    • They can last as long as a week
    • Wave of unstable air
    • Mature system
    • Form occluded front
    • Stationary when stalled
  • 25. Friday 1/13
  • 26. Saturday 1/14
  • 27. Sunday 1/15
  • 28. Monday 1/16

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