Global Point of ViewAP Environmental ScienceHeathwood Hall Episcopal SchoolColumbia, South Carolina
Definition of ProblemGlobal Status Quo• Population increases have contributed excessivegreenhouse gas emission, waste, and degradation ofnatural capital• Current climate trend has resulted in warmer anddrier conditions• Increase in extreme weather events such asdroughts and heat waves• A decrease in precipitation affects natural resources,human health, and water resources
Definition of ProblemGlobal Status Quo• Shorter duration of snowfall each year•Water levels are rising, particularly in more isolated bodies ofwater, like the Baltic Sea• Plants have moved northwards due to the warmer climate•The economy has suffered serious losses in the past twentyyears because of extreme weather events•―Climate models predict that the average temperature at theEarths surface could increase from 3.2 to 7.2ºF above 1990levels by the end of this century‖(http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basicinfo.html)
Definition of ProblemGlobal Target Situation • ‖By decreasing use of other fossil fuels, and improving agricultural and forestry practices around the world, scientists believe we could get back below 350 by 350.org mid-century. But the longer we remain in the danger zone— above 350—the more likely that we will see disastrous and irreversible climate impacts.‖ – James Hansen, NASA
Reasons and Causes of theProblemGlobal•Government laws are in place to reduce CO2 emissions, butthey are avoidable to a point because of weak enforcement•Factories, large cities, cars, landfills, waste treatmentmethods, the importation of many goods, farmyard animalscause the burning of harmful fossil fuels
Consequences of the ProblemGlobal• Rising sea levels• Hotter summers• Serious health hazards for humans caused by increase in SO2• Changes in precipitation• Possible natural disasters• Wind currents could change• Delicate ecosystems could be irreversibly damaged• Decrease in biodiversity
Possible CountermeasuresGlobal• Switch to renewable forms of energy such ashydroelectricity, wind, and solar• Government laws that would enforce stricterregulations on greenhouse gas emissions• Greener and smarter transport systems• Creation of cap-and-trade programs forgreenhouse gas emissions
North AmericaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES•2nd Highest fossil fuel and • Cities like Mexico City andCO2 emitting continent in the New York City contribute toworld behind Asia high greenhouse gas•Air pollution from the United emissionsStates is carried in wind • Highly developed and rapidlypatterns across borders and developing economies withdamages the entire continent large industrial sectors•Emission levels peaked in2005, and have decreasedslightly since then
North AmericaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES•Winds blow pollution from •Promote and provide taxMexico and United States to incentives when trading withCanada, destroying North American countries inecosystems and biodiversity NAFTA agreement
South AsiaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• Large population of 1.3 • Growing industrial sectorbillion which contributes to • Large agriculture sectorexcessive greenhouse gas • Enormous population thatemission, waste, and continues to growdegradation of natural capital • Lack of environmental• Agriculture, area’s largest protection legislation andeconomic activity, is also industrial pollutionthreatened by the issue of regulationswater scarcity
South AsiaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Rising water levels have the • Governmental regulation ofdemonstrated potential greenhouse gas and otherto completely submerge pollutant emissionsislands off the Indian • Building support forcoast, and continue to environmental initiatives at athreaten coastal regions local level, with regards to• Natural disasters conserving resources and(floods, droughts, typhoons) reducing water pollutionwill continue to increase inintensity each year• Industry/Agriculturecontribute to climate change
EuropeDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• Southern Europe and the • Germany and the UnitedArctic have been particularly Kingdom are the largestaffected by rising temperatures contributors to European• The carbon dioxide levels in pollutionthe atmosphere have • Milan, Amsterdam, Frankfurtincreased to 375 ppm from the are the most polluted areas ofpre-industrial level of 280 ppm Europe, mainly due to Europe’s steel and coal industries
EuropeCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Wildfires, reduced forest •Countermeasures such asarea, reduced water green transport and cap-and-availability and reduced crop trade programs wouldyield implemented by national•In central and eastern areas governments but enforced byconsequences are heat local governmentswaves, reduced summerrainfall and decreased forestproductivity•In the north there will bebenefits such as reducedheating demand, milderwinters and increased cropyields
United States of AmericaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• US supports 300 million • Industrialized cities such aspeople New York and Los Angeles• To keep the economy up which have a lot ofrequires large amounts of pavement, buildings, andenergy, and most of these cars, absorbing heat andsources are non-renewable inhibiting wind flow • US is biggest emitter of greenhouse gases in world
United States of AmericaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Rising sea level - The Atlantic • ―President Barack Obama willOcean attend the U.N. climate• Delicate ecosystems all over summit next month incountry could be irreversibly Denmark, taking with him adamaged target to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas " • ―We need to reduce our emissions and implement more green technology. We should take advantage of the use of solar panels and other renewable energy sources, such as wind and hydroelectric power‖ (http://www.msnbc.msn.com/ id/34147586/)
Southeast United StatesDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES•CO2 emissions for 2007: • The addition of greenhouse • Virginia- 127.95 ppm gasses into the atmosphere • Alabama- 145.24 ppm from • Mississippi- 67.81 ppm • Large cities such as • Georgia- 184.04 ppm Atlanta, Houston, Dallas • Louisiana- 194.93 ppm • Factories • Florida- 256.27 ppm • North Carolina- 153.56 ppm • Automobiles • Arkansas- 63.70 ppm • Kentucky-156.80 ppm•Overall average is 150.033ppm
Southeast United StatesCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Shoreline retreat and • Improving transportationinundation of inland areas • Conversion to cleaner air• Rising sea temperatures are • Promotion of energyexpected to increase the conservationfrequency and strength of • Find and utilize alternativehurricanes energy source• Stronger storms with higher • hydroelectricwind speeds, more intense • wind powerrainfall and more powerfulsurges are expected to cause a • solar powerlot more damage • biomass • geothermal
South CarolinaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• After 1957, the annual • Each South Carolinaaverage temperature increased resident, per populationby nearly 1°F when compared average, producesto the average approximately 20 Tons of• Precipitation decreased 6% Carbon Dioxide each yearprimarily due to lower than • #27th highest Carbonaverage springtime rainfall Dioxide polluting state in(http://www.dnr.sc.gov/climat the United Statese/sco/Publications/climate_ch (http://www.eredux.com/stateange_impacts.php) s/state_detail.php?id=1136)
South CarolinaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• With warmer • Gov. Sanford formed thetemperatures, crops like corn Climate, Energy and Commercewould cease to be profitable in the Advisory Committee (CECAC) inSoutheast, while heat-tolerant 2007, which recommendedcrops like cotton could make a • A voluntary reduction in statecome back. carbon emissions to five• The forestry industry will have a percent below the 1990 level by 2020.dieback of the forests in the next • Focus on bringing renewable30 to 80 years, a loss of nuclear fuel generators to thebiodiversity, conversion of forests stateto grasslands, and increased • Expand bike and pedestrianvulnerability to disease and pests opportunities, alternative fuel infrastructure, mass transit and carpooling options • Begin forestland conservation and methane reclamation projects
QuestionsGermany•Canyou currently see the effects of climate change in yourcountry?•What policies would you want the government to enforce to cutgreenhouse gas emissions?•How often do you use public transportation as opposed toautomobiles? How far do you drive each week?•How many km does your car get per liter? How much does gascost per liter?•What percentage of your domestic waste is recycled?•Which renewable energy source has the most potential in yourregion?
QuestionsIndia•Can you currently see the effects of climate change in your country?•What policies would you want the government to enforce to cutgreenhouse gas emissions?•What forms of renewable energy do you view to be the most viablefor building a "greener" economy in your country?•Do you think that historical Western usage of nonrenewable resourcesjustifies India’s current usage as the economy develops, given thecurrent knowledge of the environmental impacts?
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