More advanced students will use this LO: To explain and justify the most significant causes and consequences of the failure of the Early Republic
Top students may compare her first point with that of Meiji Japan and why the Tokugawa fell
L1 yuan shikai
Yuan Shikai and the Early Republic IB Higher Level History Core Readings for this lesson Lipman pgs 257-260 Schoppa pgs 209-2011
Learning ObjectiveWhat role did Yuan Shikai play in the failure of the Chinese republic?Learning Objective: To explain the causes and consequences of the failure of the Early Republic
First Steps 1911-12• The revolutionaries had elected Sun Yat-Sen as the first Provisional President of the Republic of China,• Militarily weak, he soon resigns in favour of Yuan Shikai
Yuan Secures Control• Moves capital of the new republic to Beijing (near his base of power)• He put his own followers and supporters in important government posts• Some Tung-meng hui members were forced to resign by Yuan.
Reaction• The Tung-meng hui absorb four other lesser parties to form the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) in an attempt to counter Yuan Shikai• Led by Sung Chiao-jen• He is assassinated at Shanghai Train Station (and his killers die not long after)• Was Yuan Shikai behind it?
The Second Revolution, 1913• Yuan negotiated a "reorganization loan" from the Five Power Banking Consortium without parliaments approval.• Yuan dismissed some Kuomintang governors in the south.• The Kuomintang started Second Revolution against Yuans dictatorship• The revolutionaries were easily defeated by Yuans armies• The Kuomintang was itself banned as a political party
Reasons for the failure of the 2 Revolution nda. The revolutionaries led by the Kuomintang were divided among themselves. The revolution was badly planned. Money was lacking.b. Yuans armies were superior, both in numbers and in arms.c. British help was given to Yuan in the form of loans and weapons.d. The Chinese people, especially the peasants, knew little about city politics, did not understand why the revolutionaries fought with Yuan, were tired of further political disorder, and gave no support to the Kuomintang.e. The local-provincial gentry wished to protect their own interests and were not sympathetic toward the revolutionaries.
Question 1If you had to outline the major reasons for the failure of the early republic in order what would you choose?A. Underlying problems in China; Yuan Shikai; Mistakes by othersB. Yuan Shikai; Mistakes by others; Underlying problems in ChinaC. Mistakes by others; Yuan Shikai; Underlying problems in China
Dictatorship?• In 1914, Yuan Shih-kai ordered the creation of a Constitutional Compact• The Presidents term of office was extended to 10 years• Renewable by reelection.• Yuan had the power to decide who was to succeed him.• Attempts to restore the monarchy but China has changed forever
Reasons for failure of Republici. Harmful effects of Yuan Shih-kais dictatorial policies - Yuan Shih-kai had no intention of working under and serving a republic. He ruled like a dictator, ignoring the constitution and using methods like bribery and murder. Even the Kuomintang men accepted bribes from Yuan. In effect, therefore, the Republic became a ground for selfish struggle for power among the opportunists. The ideals of republicanism were forgotten.ii. Chinas lack of democratic tradition - China had no solid democratic tradition. There was, for example, a traditional dislike for political parties. Party activities were thought to be selfish and harmful to political harmony. Even the Western-educated revolutionaries hated the idea of open struggle for constitutional power. Sun Yat-sen, for example, failed to support Sung Chiao-jen for fear of being accused of being power-hungry. China had been traditionally used to the rule of men, not the rule of law.iii. Selfishness of local-provincial gentry and militarists - Political decentralization and the rise in power of the military leaders made really democratic government difficult to carry out. Local-provincial gentry and militarists were interested in keeping their own power in the provinces rather than in working for the creation of an efficient parliament in Peking.iv. Political inexperience and disunity of progressive forces - Liberals and intellectuals were divided and inexperienced in politics and lost every opportunity to check Yuans dictatorship.v. The parties lack of popular support - Political parties like the Kuomintang were led by intellectuals who enjoyed little popular support. Consequently, party power was weak. Social conservatism was strong. Democracy had difficulty in taking root in China.vi. Nationalism over democracy - To many Chinese nationalists, the most important national aim for China was the reunification and centralization of the whole country, not the establishment of a republic.
Question 2• Choose which of those reasons for failure is most important.• Rank all the reasons for failure in order of importance• Be prepared to defend your choice• Combining reasons is a very good idea
Effects of the Failurei. The failure of republicanism led to the warlords dominating China after 1916.ii. The urgent need for social and economic reforms in China was neglected, as the Republic was weak, corrupt and divided. As a result,iii. Foreign control of China increased.iv.Chinas weakness invited Japanese aggression, like the presentation of the 21 Demands to Yuan Shih-kai in 1915.v.. Some Chinese intellectuals and liberals began to lose faith in republicanism as an effective way of saving China. They were prepared to turn to radical ideas like Communism.
Question 3Look again at the effects of failure.Which ones are most historically significant and why?
Historiography• If you remember, Fenby argued that the revolution wasn’t really a ‘sea change’. On what grounds did he argue this?
Fenby’s Argument• The revolution did not bring the changes that the revolutionaries wanted• Local power holders remained in place• Shift of regime not a big change• Foreigners held onto concessions• China unable to keep up with Japan
Contrasting View-Diana LaryDiana Lary argues that the revolution did lead to fundamental changes in ChinaFirstly: Power becomes localized eg: No more law of avoidance so regional powerbases can appearSecondly: Civilian power under the Qing Mandarins/civil service shifts to Military Power and the Warlord era
Question 4• Look again at Fenby and Lary. Which historian do you personally agree with? Or do you have a different interpretation?• What evidence would you use to support your point?
TOK LinkYuan Shikai’s failure to restore the monarchysuggests something fundamental had changed inpolitical culture in China since the fall of the Qing.What changes can lead to fundamental alterationsto a country’s political structure?Are these changes real? Or just perceived?