The British Indian Army , officially simply the Indian Army , was the principal army of the British Raj in India before independence in 1947. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First and S econd World War s .
Mesopotamia 1917/Modern Day Iraq
Indian gun crew in East Africa
Indian gun crew at Flanders
Khudadad Khan , VC (20 October 1888 – 8 March 1971), was the first South Asian recipient of the Vi ctoria Cross , the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Comm onwealt h forces. He was the fir st native-born Indian to win the VC.
The India Gate built to commemorate the Indian War dead in WW1
Ib hl govt of india act 1919
The Government ofIndia Act 1919IB Higher Level History
Learning ObjectiveTo what extent did the First World War changeIndian perceptions of Great Britain and how didthese contribute to the passing of theGovernment of India Act of 1919?
Changing Views:Impactof WarBritish war effort supported greatly (evenGhandi!)Indian eyes opened in the dirt and mud ofFlandersWere Europeans really civilised/superior?Incompetence of British leadership during thebattles in Mesopotamia
Agitation for reformMutinies in 1914-15; Ghadr movementHome rule leagues (not including defence andforeign policy) Annie Besent/Tilak “freedomwithout separation”Besant/Tilak’s home rule league verysuccessful initiallyUltimately failed BUT with consequences as ithad created the first truly national masscampaign
Lucknow Act 1916At the Congress meeting of December 1916 inLucknow, a historic agreement was reachedbetween the predominantly Hindu Congressand the AU-India Muslim League. The so-calledLucknovv Pact covered not only a broadstatement of political objective but also theprecise details of future electorates, once Indiawas self-governing.
The Montagudeclaration 1917“The increasing association of Indians in everybranch of the administration and the gradualdevelopment of self-governing institutions witha view to the progressive realisation ofresponsible government in India as part of theBritish Empire.”
Wilson strikes (again)President VVoodrow Wilson Fourteen Points of international policy.These included the right of peoples toindependent nationhood.Applying this principle to the British Empirewould mean the end for the British in India.Making matters worse, the British agreed to thecreation of Iraq after WW1. Why support arabnationalism and not Indian?
Post-War InsecurityDefence of India Act (1915): Unlimited detentionwithout trial, trial without jury, and the use ofevidence normally not allowedFear of Communism/other subversive forcesRowlatt Act permits closing down ofnewspapers etc and use of Defence of IndiapowersA potential dictatorship by any other name
The Beginning of theEnd:Amritsar Massacrehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hgRLqBZuMQ
Result? Government ofIndia Act 1919self-government in the futurechanges to councils and electorate:Electedmembers now in majority and franchiseextendeddivision of governmental responsibilities-dyarchy established. Matters transferred fromcentral Indian government to provincialadministrations
Now plan an essay toanswer the learningobjectiveTo what extent did the First World War changeIndian perceptions of Great Britain and how didthese contribute to the passing of theGovernment of India Act of 1919?
Box Plan: Impact ofWW1: on India dramatic Initial enthusiasm British leadership failures e.g.: Mesopotamia Discrediting of European civilization Mutinies and high death toll (India gate for the War dead Woodrow Wilson 14 points self-determination Creation of Iraq-If good enough for Arabs, why not Indians? Home Rule movements: Besent/Tilak: ultimately a failure but a sign that mass movements are now a key part of Indian politics and Indian Nationalism•
Box Plan: Impact of WW1: BritishViews of India also dramatic andequally important Insecurity: Defense of India Act continued as the Rowlett act Insecurity that would lead to later Amritsar Massacre which in turn would destroy faith in the British Fear of Communism after 1917 Even though traditional enemy Russia has gone Opens the door to self government Woodrow Wilson 14 points self-determination contribute to insecurity Creation of Iraq
Q1 How would you bestsummarize the impact ofWW1 on India?A) Changes to both British and Indian perceptionsB) Loss of manpower and emotional impact of warC) Development of first mass nationalist movements-homeroom