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Twenties Twenties Presentation Transcript

  • Twenties
  • “Return to Normalcy”
    Resurgence of nativism
    - Fear of foreign-born people
    3) Political conservatism
    - End of the Progressive Era
  • Threat to “normalcy” – communism
    Russian Revolution
    March 15, 1917  Czar Nicholas II abdicated throne
    October/November 1917  Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin seized power, established government based on communism
    March 1919  Third Communist International meeting was held in Moscow, Russia
    Advocate worldwide revolution
  • “Red Scare” in the United States
    “Red Scare”
    Fear that Communists would take over in the United States
    Palmer Raids
    Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
    Appointed J. Edgar Hoover to lead the new antiradical division of the Justice Department (August 1919)  later became the FBI
    Suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists hunted down
    Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti
    Anarchists from Italy, avoided draft in WWI
    Accused of robbing and killing a factory paymaster (April 1920)
    Found guilty and executed (August 1927)
    Many believed that their conviction/execution was a result of the times
  • Anti-immigrant Response
    Revival of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
    Had been somewhat inactive since 1870’s
    Used “Red Scare” and anti-immigrant feelings (resulting from end of WWI) to harass all those that were different
    Edward Clark
    Pyramid structure  members kept $4 out of the $10 membership fee for every new member they recruited
    1924, 4.5 million members nationwide
    Opposed: African Americans, Jews, Catholics, immigrants, unions, saloons, & alcohol
  • Election of 1920 & A “Return to Normalcy”
    Warren G. Harding (R, OH)
    Senator from Ohio
    “looked like a president ought to look”
    Calvin Coolidge (R, MA) running mate
    Promised a “return to normalcy”
    Easily won
    404 -127
  • Harding’s Administration
    Pardoned Debs
    Washington Conference & Kellogg-Briand Pact (1921)
    Nations of the world agreed to disarm and not to resort to war
    The Emergency Quota Act (1921)
    Established maximum number of people who could enter the U. S. from each foreign country
    Cut European immigration
    Chart p. 438
    Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
    Highest tax on imports to that date
    Made it difficult for Britain and France to pay their war debt to the U.S.
    Britain and France looked to force Germany to pay them their war debt so they could repay the U. S.
    U. S. loaned money to Germany
  • Scandal in Harding’s Administration
    Cabinet selections
    Charles Evans Hughes (Secretary of State)
    Later become CJ of SC
    Herbert Hoover (Secretary of Commerce)
    Future president
    Andrew Mellon (Secretary of the Treasury)
    Reduced the national debt by 1/3 by 1923
    Ohio Gang
    Harding’s friends from back home
    Albert B. Fall (Secretary of the Interior)
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
    Oil-rich lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming & Elk Hills, California
    Albert Fall had these lands transferred to the Interior Department
    Secretly leased the lands to two private oil companies (received $325,000 in bonds and cash)
    Harding’s goodwill tour
    Set out on a trip from D.C. to Alaska in the summer of 1923
    Knew his administration had been labeled as corrupt & wanted to talk to normal people
    Returning from Alaska to San Francisco became ill and died on August 2, 1923
    Body had to be transported back across the country
    Calvin Coolidge became president
  • Business in the 1920’s
    Automobile industry
    Car Wars
    Ford v. General Motors
    Henry Ford v. Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.
    Time of prosperity
    Coolidge & Hoover led pro-business administrations
    Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth
    Paved roads
    New houses—garages
    Gas stations, repair shops, underwater tunnels (Holland Tunnel, 1927)
    Urban sprawl  spread of cities  people can live further away from jobs
    Akron, OH; Detroit, Dearborn, Flint, & Pontiac, MI
  • Car Wars
    Ford Motor Company
    Henry Ford
    Assembly line & standardization
    “The way to make automobiles is to make one automobile like another automobile, to make them all alike—just like one pin is like another pin when it comes from a pin factory…”
    “build a car for the great multitude”
    Model T
    1908, $850
    1925, $290
    Increased output and improvement of production led to reduced prices
    Ford believed that every $ chopped off the price led to a thousand new buyers
    Early 1920’s, FMC produced over 50% of all the automobiles in the world
    Very basic, all the same style & color (black)
    1919, Henry Ford bought all of the outstanding shares of FMC and took it private
    “first-mover advantages”
    Competition from GM will lead to the development of the Model A
    1927, more luxurious than the Model T, available in different colors, covered roof
    1933, new models every year
  • Car Wars
    General Motors
    Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.
    Graduated from MIT
    1918 United Motors & General Motors merger, Sloan made VP
    Sensed the desire for different models and “status symbols”
    Designed different lines at progressively higher prices to imply higher social status
    “a car for every purse and purpose”
    Chevrolet  competed w/Ford’s Model T
    Beginning in 1925, and continuing for 61 years, GM’s profit performance exceeded Ford’s
  • Prosperity?
    New advertising
    Installment plan
    Way of paying for goods over an extended period of time, without putting too much money down at the time of purchase
    Over-extend themselves
    Relevance to today?
  • Societal Changes in the 1920’s
    -NYC, Chicago, Philadelphia
    -museums, plays, sporting events, nightclubs
    -many different religions (Catholicism, Judaism, Protestantism, etc…)
    South & West
    -small towns
    -Protestant movement grounded in a literal interpretation of the Bible
    -Bible was inspired by God and therefore all of its stories were true down to every detail
  • Societies Clash in the 1920’s
    Reformers had long considered alcohol a prime cause of corruption
    Fundamentalists (Anti-Saloon League)
    Woman’s Christian Temperance Union
    18th Amendment (ratified 1919, enacted 1920)
    Prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages
    Repealed by 21st Amendment (1933)
    Government didn’t budget enough men or money to enforce
    Speakeasies hidden saloons and nightclubs
    Bootleggers liquor smugglers
    Organized crime  Al Capone
    Scopes Trial (“Monkey Trial”), July 1925
    March 1925, TN passed nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach Darwin’s theory of evolution
    ACLU promised to defend any teacher who would challenge the law
    John T. Scopes, biology teacher in Dayton, TN taught evolution & was arrested
    Scopes was obviously guilty but the trial became more about the debate between the role of fundamentalism and science in society
    ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes
    William Jennings Bryan served as a special prosecutor
    National press cover the trial (Chicago’s WGN covered it live)
    Case turned when Darrow called Bryan as an expert witness on the Bible
    Darrow caught Bryan in ambiguity
    Scopes found guilty, fined $100
  • Changes for Women in the 1920’s
    19th Amendment (ratified 1920)
    Equality vs. double standard
    Young woman of the ‘20’s that embraced the new fashions and attitudes of the day
    New work opportunities
    All types of jobs (traditional and non-traditional)
    By 1930, 10 million women were in the workforce
    Marriage changes
  • Schools & Media in the ‘20’s
    Enrollments increased
    1926, 4 million Americans attended high school
    Expanded education
    Broad range of students (immigrants)
    Vocational training
    Expanded news coverage
    Many media publications (newspapers & magazines) originated in the ‘20’s
    Time, Reader’s Digest, New York Daily News, etc…
    Most powerful communications medium to emerge in the ‘20’s
    Made news available instantly
  • Heroes and Entertainment
    Charles Lindbergh
    First to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
    Sports heroes
    Babe Ruth
    Jack Dempsey
    Knute Rockne & Notre Dame
    1925, fourth largest industry in nation
    Hollywood & silent films
    Charlie Chaplin
    1928, Disney’s Steamboat Willie
    Theater, Music, & Art
    Sinclair Lewis  first American to win Nobel Prize in literature (Main Street, Babbitt)
    F. Scott Fitzgerald  coined term “Jazz Age” for the 1920’s, wrote The Great Gatsby
    Ernest Hemingway  WWI vet, A Farewell to Arms
  • Harlem Renaissance
    Literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture led by well-educated, middle class African Americans
    Harlem, NYC  world’s largest black urban community in the ‘20’s
    The Great Migration
    Race riots in the North
    W. E. B. Du Bois
    James Weldon Johnson  antilynching legislation
    Explored and celebrated their African heritage
    Langston Hughes
    Movement’s best-known poet
    Everyday lives of working-class African Americans
    Incorporation of jazz and the blues
  • Roaring Twenties
    Economic prosperity
    New ideas
    Changing values
    Personal freedom
    Art, literature, and music