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    Twenties Twenties Presentation Transcript

    • Twenties
    • “Return to Normalcy”
      Resurgence of nativism
      - Fear of foreign-born people
      3) Political conservatism
      - End of the Progressive Era
    • Threat to “normalcy” – communism
      Russian Revolution
      March 15, 1917  Czar Nicholas II abdicated throne
      October/November 1917  Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin seized power, established government based on communism
      March 1919  Third Communist International meeting was held in Moscow, Russia
      Advocate worldwide revolution
    • “Red Scare” in the United States
      “Red Scare”
      Fear that Communists would take over in the United States
      Palmer Raids
      Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
      Appointed J. Edgar Hoover to lead the new antiradical division of the Justice Department (August 1919)  later became the FBI
      Suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists hunted down
      Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti
      Anarchists from Italy, avoided draft in WWI
      Accused of robbing and killing a factory paymaster (April 1920)
      Found guilty and executed (August 1927)
      Many believed that their conviction/execution was a result of the times
    • Anti-immigrant Response
      Revival of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
      Had been somewhat inactive since 1870’s
      Used “Red Scare” and anti-immigrant feelings (resulting from end of WWI) to harass all those that were different
      Edward Clark
      Pyramid structure  members kept $4 out of the $10 membership fee for every new member they recruited
      1924, 4.5 million members nationwide
      Opposed: African Americans, Jews, Catholics, immigrants, unions, saloons, & alcohol
    • Election of 1920 & A “Return to Normalcy”
      Warren G. Harding (R, OH)
      Senator from Ohio
      “looked like a president ought to look”
      Calvin Coolidge (R, MA) running mate
      Promised a “return to normalcy”
      Easily won
      404 -127
    • Harding’s Administration
      Pardoned Debs
      Washington Conference & Kellogg-Briand Pact (1921)
      Nations of the world agreed to disarm and not to resort to war
      The Emergency Quota Act (1921)
      Established maximum number of people who could enter the U. S. from each foreign country
      Cut European immigration
      Chart p. 438
      Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
      Highest tax on imports to that date
      Made it difficult for Britain and France to pay their war debt to the U.S.
      Britain and France looked to force Germany to pay them their war debt so they could repay the U. S.
      U. S. loaned money to Germany
    • Scandal in Harding’s Administration
      Cabinet selections
      Charles Evans Hughes (Secretary of State)
      Later become CJ of SC
      Herbert Hoover (Secretary of Commerce)
      Future president
      Andrew Mellon (Secretary of the Treasury)
      Reduced the national debt by 1/3 by 1923
      Ohio Gang
      Harding’s friends from back home
      Albert B. Fall (Secretary of the Interior)
    • Teapot Dome Scandal
      Oil-rich lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming & Elk Hills, California
      Albert Fall had these lands transferred to the Interior Department
      Secretly leased the lands to two private oil companies (received $325,000 in bonds and cash)
      Harding’s goodwill tour
      Set out on a trip from D.C. to Alaska in the summer of 1923
      Knew his administration had been labeled as corrupt & wanted to talk to normal people
      Returning from Alaska to San Francisco became ill and died on August 2, 1923
      Body had to be transported back across the country
      Calvin Coolidge became president
    • Business in the 1920’s
      Automobile industry
      Car Wars
      Ford v. General Motors
      Henry Ford v. Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.
      Time of prosperity
      Coolidge & Hoover led pro-business administrations
      Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth
      Paved roads
      New houses—garages
      Gas stations, repair shops, underwater tunnels (Holland Tunnel, 1927)
      Urban sprawl  spread of cities  people can live further away from jobs
      Akron, OH; Detroit, Dearborn, Flint, & Pontiac, MI
    • Car Wars
      Ford Motor Company
      Henry Ford
      Assembly line & standardization
      “The way to make automobiles is to make one automobile like another automobile, to make them all alike—just like one pin is like another pin when it comes from a pin factory…”
      “build a car for the great multitude”
      Model T
      1908, $850
      1925, $290
      Increased output and improvement of production led to reduced prices
      Ford believed that every $ chopped off the price led to a thousand new buyers
      Early 1920’s, FMC produced over 50% of all the automobiles in the world
      Very basic, all the same style & color (black)
      1919, Henry Ford bought all of the outstanding shares of FMC and took it private
      “first-mover advantages”
      Competition from GM will lead to the development of the Model A
      1927, more luxurious than the Model T, available in different colors, covered roof
      1933, new models every year
    • Car Wars
      General Motors
      Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.
      Graduated from MIT
      1918 United Motors & General Motors merger, Sloan made VP
      Sensed the desire for different models and “status symbols”
      Designed different lines at progressively higher prices to imply higher social status
      “a car for every purse and purpose”
      Chevrolet  competed w/Ford’s Model T
      Beginning in 1925, and continuing for 61 years, GM’s profit performance exceeded Ford’s
    • Prosperity?
      New advertising
      Installment plan
      Way of paying for goods over an extended period of time, without putting too much money down at the time of purchase
      Over-extend themselves
      Relevance to today?
    • Societal Changes in the 1920’s
      -NYC, Chicago, Philadelphia
      -museums, plays, sporting events, nightclubs
      -many different religions (Catholicism, Judaism, Protestantism, etc…)
      South & West
      -small towns
      -Protestant movement grounded in a literal interpretation of the Bible
      -Bible was inspired by God and therefore all of its stories were true down to every detail
    • Societies Clash in the 1920’s
      Reformers had long considered alcohol a prime cause of corruption
      Fundamentalists (Anti-Saloon League)
      Woman’s Christian Temperance Union
      18th Amendment (ratified 1919, enacted 1920)
      Prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages
      Repealed by 21st Amendment (1933)
      Government didn’t budget enough men or money to enforce
      Speakeasies hidden saloons and nightclubs
      Bootleggers liquor smugglers
      Organized crime  Al Capone
      Scopes Trial (“Monkey Trial”), July 1925
      March 1925, TN passed nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach Darwin’s theory of evolution
      ACLU promised to defend any teacher who would challenge the law
      John T. Scopes, biology teacher in Dayton, TN taught evolution & was arrested
      Scopes was obviously guilty but the trial became more about the debate between the role of fundamentalism and science in society
      ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes
      William Jennings Bryan served as a special prosecutor
      National press cover the trial (Chicago’s WGN covered it live)
      Case turned when Darrow called Bryan as an expert witness on the Bible
      Darrow caught Bryan in ambiguity
      Scopes found guilty, fined $100
    • Changes for Women in the 1920’s
      19th Amendment (ratified 1920)
      Equality vs. double standard
      Young woman of the ‘20’s that embraced the new fashions and attitudes of the day
      New work opportunities
      All types of jobs (traditional and non-traditional)
      By 1930, 10 million women were in the workforce
      Marriage changes
    • Schools & Media in the ‘20’s
      Enrollments increased
      1926, 4 million Americans attended high school
      Expanded education
      Broad range of students (immigrants)
      Vocational training
      Expanded news coverage
      Many media publications (newspapers & magazines) originated in the ‘20’s
      Time, Reader’s Digest, New York Daily News, etc…
      Most powerful communications medium to emerge in the ‘20’s
      Made news available instantly
    • Heroes and Entertainment
      Charles Lindbergh
      First to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
      Sports heroes
      Babe Ruth
      Jack Dempsey
      Knute Rockne & Notre Dame
      1925, fourth largest industry in nation
      Hollywood & silent films
      Charlie Chaplin
      1928, Disney’s Steamboat Willie
      Theater, Music, & Art
      Sinclair Lewis  first American to win Nobel Prize in literature (Main Street, Babbitt)
      F. Scott Fitzgerald  coined term “Jazz Age” for the 1920’s, wrote The Great Gatsby
      Ernest Hemingway  WWI vet, A Farewell to Arms
    • Harlem Renaissance
      Literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture led by well-educated, middle class African Americans
      Harlem, NYC  world’s largest black urban community in the ‘20’s
      The Great Migration
      Race riots in the North
      W. E. B. Du Bois
      James Weldon Johnson  antilynching legislation
      Explored and celebrated their African heritage
      Langston Hughes
      Movement’s best-known poet
      Everyday lives of working-class African Americans
      Incorporation of jazz and the blues
    • Roaring Twenties
      Economic prosperity
      New ideas
      Changing values
      Personal freedom
      Art, literature, and music