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  1. 1. Twenties<br />
  2. 2. “Return to Normalcy”<br />Isolationism<br />Resurgence of nativism<br />- Fear of foreign-born people<br />3) Political conservatism<br /> - End of the Progressive Era<br />
  3. 3. Threat to “normalcy” – communism <br />Russian Revolution<br />March 15, 1917  Czar Nicholas II abdicated throne<br />October/November 1917  Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin seized power, established government based on communism<br />March 1919  Third Communist International meeting was held in Moscow, Russia<br />Advocate worldwide revolution<br />
  4. 4. “Red Scare” in the United States<br />“Red Scare”<br />Fear that Communists would take over in the United States<br />Palmer Raids<br />Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer<br />Appointed J. Edgar Hoover to lead the new antiradical division of the Justice Department (August 1919)  later became the FBI<br />Suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists hunted down<br />Inconclusive<br />Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti<br />Anarchists from Italy, avoided draft in WWI<br />Accused of robbing and killing a factory paymaster (April 1920)<br />Found guilty and executed (August 1927)<br />Many believed that their conviction/execution was a result of the times<br />
  5. 5. Anti-immigrant Response<br />Revival of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)<br />Had been somewhat inactive since 1870’s<br />Used “Red Scare” and anti-immigrant feelings (resulting from end of WWI) to harass all those that were different<br />Edward Clark<br />Pyramid structure  members kept $4 out of the $10 membership fee for every new member they recruited<br />1924, 4.5 million members nationwide<br />Opposed: African Americans, Jews, Catholics, immigrants, unions, saloons, & alcohol<br />
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  7. 7. Election of 1920 & A “Return to Normalcy”<br />Warren G. Harding (R, OH)<br />Senator from Ohio<br />“looked like a president ought to look”<br />Calvin Coolidge (R, MA) running mate<br />Promised a “return to normalcy”<br />Easily won<br />404 -127<br />
  8. 8. Harding’s Administration<br />Calm<br />Pardoned Debs<br />Disarmament<br />Washington Conference & Kellogg-Briand Pact (1921)<br />Nations of the world agreed to disarm and not to resort to war<br />Isolationist<br />The Emergency Quota Act (1921)<br />Established maximum number of people who could enter the U. S. from each foreign country<br />Cut European immigration<br />Chart p. 438<br />Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)<br />Highest tax on imports to that date<br />Made it difficult for Britain and France to pay their war debt to the U.S.<br />Britain and France looked to force Germany to pay them their war debt so they could repay the U. S.<br />U. S. loaned money to Germany<br />
  9. 9. Scandal in Harding’s Administration<br />Cabinet selections<br />Good<br />Charles Evans Hughes (Secretary of State)<br />Later become CJ of SC<br />Herbert Hoover (Secretary of Commerce)<br />Future president<br />Andrew Mellon (Secretary of the Treasury)<br />Reduced the national debt by 1/3 by 1923<br />Bad<br />Ohio Gang<br />Harding’s friends from back home<br />Albert B. Fall (Secretary of the Interior)<br />
  10. 10. Teapot Dome Scandal<br />Oil-rich lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming & Elk Hills, California<br />Albert Fall had these lands transferred to the Interior Department<br />Secretly leased the lands to two private oil companies (received $325,000 in bonds and cash)<br />Harding’s goodwill tour<br />Set out on a trip from D.C. to Alaska in the summer of 1923<br />Knew his administration had been labeled as corrupt & wanted to talk to normal people<br />Returning from Alaska to San Francisco became ill and died on August 2, 1923<br />Body had to be transported back across the country<br />Calvin Coolidge became president<br />
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  12. 12. Business in the 1920’s<br />Automobile industry<br />Car Wars<br />Ford v. General Motors<br />Henry Ford v. Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.<br />Time of prosperity<br />Coolidge & Hoover led pro-business administrations<br />Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth<br />Changes<br />Paved roads<br />New houses—garages <br />Gas stations, repair shops, underwater tunnels (Holland Tunnel, 1927)<br />Urban sprawl  spread of cities  people can live further away from jobs<br />Akron, OH; Detroit, Dearborn, Flint, & Pontiac, MI<br />
  13. 13. Car Wars<br />Ford Motor Company<br />Henry Ford<br />Assembly line & standardization<br />“The way to make automobiles is to make one automobile like another automobile, to make them all alike—just like one pin is like another pin when it comes from a pin factory…”<br />“build a car for the great multitude”<br />Model T<br />1908, $850<br />1925, $290<br />Increased output and improvement of production led to reduced prices<br />Ford believed that every $ chopped off the price led to a thousand new buyers<br />Early 1920’s, FMC produced over 50% of all the automobiles in the world<br />Very basic, all the same style & color (black)<br />1919, Henry Ford bought all of the outstanding shares of FMC and took it private<br />“first-mover advantages”<br />Competition from GM will lead to the development of the Model A<br />1927, more luxurious than the Model T, available in different colors, covered roof<br />1933, new models every year<br />
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  15. 15. Car Wars<br />General Motors<br />Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.<br />Graduated from MIT<br />1918 United Motors & General Motors merger, Sloan made VP<br />Sensed the desire for different models and “status symbols”<br />Designed different lines at progressively higher prices to imply higher social status<br />“a car for every purse and purpose”<br />Chevrolet  competed w/Ford’s Model T<br />Pontiac<br />Oldsmobile<br />Buick<br />Cadillac<br />Beginning in 1925, and continuing for 61 years, GM’s profit performance exceeded Ford’s<br />
  16. 16. Prosperity?<br />New advertising<br />Installment plan<br />Way of paying for goods over an extended period of time, without putting too much money down at the time of purchase<br />Over-extend themselves<br />Relevance to today?<br />
  17. 17. Societal Changes in the 1920’s<br />North<br />-Urban<br /> -NYC, Chicago, Philadelphia<br /> -museums, plays, sporting events, nightclubs<br /> -immigrants<br /> -many different religions (Catholicism, Judaism, Protestantism, etc…)<br />South & West<br />-Rural<br />-small towns<br />-Fundamentalism<br /> -Protestant movement grounded in a literal interpretation of the Bible<br /> -Bible was inspired by God and therefore all of its stories were true down to every detail<br />
  18. 18. Societies Clash in the 1920’s<br />Prohibition<br />Reformers had long considered alcohol a prime cause of corruption<br />Fundamentalists (Anti-Saloon League)<br />Woman’s Christian Temperance Union<br />18th Amendment (ratified 1919, enacted 1920)<br />Prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages<br />Repealed by 21st Amendment (1933)<br />Failed<br />Government didn’t budget enough men or money to enforce<br />Speakeasies hidden saloons and nightclubs<br />Bootleggers liquor smugglers<br />Organized crime  Al Capone<br />Scopes Trial (“Monkey Trial”), July 1925<br />March 1925, TN passed nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach Darwin’s theory of evolution<br />ACLU promised to defend any teacher who would challenge the law<br />John T. Scopes, biology teacher in Dayton, TN taught evolution & was arrested<br />Scopes was obviously guilty but the trial became more about the debate between the role of fundamentalism and science in society<br />ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes<br />William Jennings Bryan served as a special prosecutor<br />National press cover the trial (Chicago’s WGN covered it live)<br />Case turned when Darrow called Bryan as an expert witness on the Bible<br />Darrow caught Bryan in ambiguity<br />Scopes found guilty, fined $100<br />
  19. 19. Changes for Women in the 1920’s<br />19th Amendment (ratified 1920)<br />Equality vs. double standard<br />Flapper<br />Young woman of the ‘20’s that embraced the new fashions and attitudes of the day<br />New work opportunities<br />All types of jobs (traditional and non-traditional)<br />By 1930, 10 million women were in the workforce<br />Marriage changes<br />
  20. 20. Schools & Media in the ‘20’s<br />Schools<br />Enrollments increased<br />1926, 4 million Americans attended high school<br />Expanded education<br />Broad range of students (immigrants)<br />Vocational training<br />Media<br />Expanded news coverage<br />Many media publications (newspapers & magazines) originated in the ‘20’s<br />Time, Reader’s Digest, New York Daily News, etc…<br />Radio<br />Most powerful communications medium to emerge in the ‘20’s<br />Made news available instantly<br />
  21. 21. Heroes and Entertainment<br />Charles Lindbergh<br />First to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic<br />Sports heroes<br />Babe Ruth<br />Jack Dempsey<br />Knute Rockne & Notre Dame<br />Movies<br />1925, fourth largest industry in nation<br />Hollywood & silent films<br />Charlie Chaplin<br />1928, Disney’s Steamboat Willie<br />Theater, Music, & Art<br />Literature<br />Sinclair Lewis  first American to win Nobel Prize in literature (Main Street, Babbitt)<br />F. Scott Fitzgerald  coined term “Jazz Age” for the 1920’s, wrote The Great Gatsby<br />Ernest Hemingway  WWI vet, A Farewell to Arms<br />
  22. 22. Harlem Renaissance<br />Literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture led by well-educated, middle class African Americans<br />Harlem, NYC  world’s largest black urban community in the ‘20’s<br />The Great Migration<br />Race riots in the North<br />NAACP<br />W. E. B. Du Bois<br />James Weldon Johnson  antilynching legislation <br />Explored and celebrated their African heritage<br />Langston Hughes<br />Movement’s best-known poet<br />Everyday lives of working-class African Americans<br />Incorporation of jazz and the blues<br />
  23. 23. Roaring Twenties<br />Economic prosperity<br />New ideas<br />Changing values<br />Personal freedom<br />Art, literature, and music<br />