Post WWII

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Post WWII

  1. 1. The “Iron Curtain” • 1945, Stalin disallows free and open elections in Poland and left a pro- Soviet, communist government in charge – Satellite nations • Countries dependant upon and dominated by the Soviet Union – Mainly in Eastern Europe – 1946, Winston Churchill, “Iron Curtain” speech » p. 609
  2. 2. The Cold War Begins • Truman Doctrine – Containment • Devised by George F. Kennan • Effort to block the Soviets’ attempts to spread their influence – Contain communism and disallow its spread to new territories – 1947 • Asked for $400 million dollars in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey to stop Communist takeovers • Marshall Plan – Western Europe in economic chaos – June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall • U.S. program for reconstruction of post-WWII Europe through massive aid to former enemy and allied nations – Nations that accepted aid had to remove trade barriers – Attempt to avoid depression (WWI) and communist takeovers – 1952, Western Europe was recovering ($17 billion) – Chart p. 610 • Cold War – State of hostility short of direct military confrontation that developed between the U.S. and Soviet Union between 1945-1989
  3. 3. Reunification Attempts in Germany • 1948 – U.S., U.K., and France decided to unify three western zones (including western zones of Berlin) • Soviets cut off western Berlin from West Germany – Berlin Airlift » May, 1949 blockade lifted • April 4, 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Defensive military alliance • Ten Western European nations and U.S. – Belgium, Denmark, France, U.K., Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal
  4. 4. Buildup to Korean War • National Security Act, 1947 – Created • Department of Defense • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • Permanent peacetime draft, 1948 • National Security Council – NSC-68, 1949 » Detailed Soviet’s plans for worldwide domination and encouraged buildup of nation’s military • China fell to communism, 1949 – Mao Tse-Tung and Joseph Stalin sign a pact linking the two nations into one communist bloc, 1950 • Korea – Had been Japanese colony until end of WWII (1945) – Japanese troops north of the 38th parallel surrendered to Soviets – Japanese troops south of the 38th parallel surrendered to Americans – Two governments established (1948, Soviets & Americans left)
  5. 5. The Korean War– “The Forgotten War” • June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea – Supplied by Soviets and Chinese • Truman sought United Nations Security Council help – Security Council & U.S. Congress authorized “police action” of military force to liberate South Korea (war not officially declared) • General Douglas MacArthur – Commanded U.S., U.N., and South Korean troops – Counterattack pushed North Koreans past 38th parallel, September 1950 – Chinese push MacArthur back across 38th parallel, November 1950 • MacArthur wanted reinforcements and to extend the war into China – MacArthur vs. Truman » MacArthur removed, April 1951 • July 1953, armistice – Demilitarized Zone established
  6. 6. • Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower, president 1953-1961 – Appointed Earl Warren (former governor of CA) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 1953 • Warren Court turned out to be one of the most liberal in history – Civil Rights Issues • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – Thurgood Marshall (NAACP lawyer, first AA on Supreme Court) – 14th Amendment – Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate facilities were inherently unequal” • Rosa Parks, 1955 – Bus boycott, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., 1956 – Little Rock 9, 1957 – Foreign Policy • John Foster Dulles (SOS) • Brinkmanship  U.S. would force aggressor nations to the brink of nuclear war and thus force them to back down in wake of U.S. superiority – “massive retaliation,” arms race, & MAD • Middle East – U.S. support for Israel – Eisenhower Doctrine  U.S. would defend Middle East against any attack by a communist country – Postwar Economic Boom • Consumer spending more than the 1920’s • Middle class, suburbs, and Interstate Highway Act • Baby Boom
  7. 7. JFK • John F. Kennedy, president 1961-1963 – All four presidential debates televised (first time) – Cuba • Fidel Castro, 1959 • Bay of Pigs, April 1961 – CIA operatives and Cuban exiles captured immediately » Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, Berlin Wall 1961 • Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962 – Castro and Khrushchev formed alliance – U.S. spy plane found Soviet medium and long-range nuclear missiles in Cuba – Naval blockade of Cuba » “We are eyeball to eyeball and the other fellow just blinked” » Khrushchev offered to remove missiles in exchange for U.S. promise never to invade Cuba and U.S. removal of missiles from Turkey – New Frontier • Domestic policy promising equality, employment, and aid to the poor • Race to the Moon – Feb. 20, 1962 John Glenn orbited the earth three times – July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong became first person to set foot on moon – Assassination • November 22, 1963 • Dallas, Texas • Lee Harvey Oswald – Killed by Jack Ruby • Warren Commission  Oswald acted on his own

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