Bridge to the 20 th century & gilded age
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Bridge to the 20 th century & gilded age

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Bridge to the 20 th century & gilded age Bridge to the 20 th century & gilded age Presentation Transcript

  • BRIDGE TO THE 20TH CENTURY
    The Gilded Age
  • SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD (1860’s & 1870’s)
    Different views
    Native Americans: land cannot be owned
    White settlers: owning land & a house, starting a business, etc… gave them status
    Reasons for push:
    1) Manifest Destiny
    2) Lure of Gold & Silver
    3) Homestead Act (1862)
    Gave 160 acres of land free to anyone who would live on and cultivate it for five years (1862-1900, 600,000)
  • HOW THEY MOVED WEST
    Pacific Railroad Act (1862)
    Gave government loans and huge tracts of land to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads
    Both companies hired many immigrants (including Chinese)
  • CLASHES WITH NATIVE AMERICANS
    Sand Creek Massacre
    November, 1864
    Sand Creek, Colorado
    John Chivington, militia colonel, attacked and killed around 200 Cheyenne
    Red River War (1874-1875)
    Kiowa & Comanche
    U. S. Army responded
  • CLASHES (contd)
    Little Bighorn (“Custer’s Last Stand”)
    Colonel George Armstrong Custer
    Seventh Cavalry
    Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse
    Sioux and Cheyenne combined force
    June 25, 1876  Montana
    Custer’s mistakes:
    1) underestimated the enemy (2,000-3,000)
    2) men were tired
    3) split his regiment (attacked w/200 men)
  • CLASHES (contd)
    Battle of Wounded Knee
    December, 1890
    After Sitting Bull’s death
    Seventh Cavalry
    Rounded up 350 Sioux & demanded that they give up their weapons
    One Sioux fired on the soldiers & the soldiers returned fire killing all
    Significance  Ended Indian Wars
  • ASSIMILATION
    Assimilation  a plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life to become part of white culture
    Dawes Act (1887)
    Meant to inspire Native Americans to own property
    Broke up reservations
    Distributed land to each head of family
    Result  lost land
    Education
    Off-reservation boarding schools
  • CATTLE INDUSTRY
    Great Plains & The West
    Buffalo eliminated
    Cattle ranching introduced
    Spanish brought horses and cattle w/them to the New World
    Railroads & Demand
    After CW, a large market for beef skyrocketed, especially in the cities, and the railroads made it possible to transport it there
    Sedalia, MO  1866, provided route to Chicago
    Abilene, Kansas  1867, trails & rail lines converge
    Chisholm Trail  major cattle route from San Antonio, TX through OK to KS
  • COWBOYS
    Btw 1866-1885, 55,000 cowboys
    Reality vs. Myth
    Reality
    Worked 10-14 hours per day (ranch), 18 hours (trail)
    Roundup (Spring), Long Drive (Summer)
    Most likely to die in a riding accident
    Two Legendary “Cowboys”
    James Butler “Wild Bill” Hickok
    CW scout & spy, marshal in Abilene, KS
    “Dead Man’s Hand”  shot and killed while holding two pair (aces and eights) in a poker game
    Martha Jane Cannary (“Calamity Jane”)
    Markswoman, dressed like a man, may have been scout for Custer
  • End of the “Wide-open West”
    Series of hardships hurt the cattle industry
    1883  drought
    January, 1887  worst blizzard in American history
    Ranchers turned to smaller herds of high-grade stock
    Care and feeding throughout the year
    Bought land for cattle to graze
    Barbed wire kept cattle from straying
    Joseph Glidden, 1874
    “Wide-open” to “fenced-in”
  • TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD
    1867
    Central Pacific  eastward from Sacramento
    Union Pacific  westward from Omaha
    Both hired CW veterans, Irish and Chinese immigrants, African Americans, and Mexican Americans
    May, 1869
    Both companies meet in Promontory, Utah
    East and West Coasts connected
  • GOVERNMENTAL ENCOURAGEMENT
    Examples of how the government encouraged settlement of the West & Great Plains?
    BOOMER SOONER
    KS Gov. John P. St. John
    1889  less than 24 hours, 2 million acres were settled
    Much of the land that was settled was possessed before it was officially open  settlers claimed it SOONER than they were supposed to  OK = Sooner State
    Morrill Land Grant Acts (1862 & 1890)
    Government gave federal land to states to help finance agricultural colleges (30,000 acres for every member of Congress)
    OSU, 1870
    Many of these colleges eventually developed other fields as well
  • FARMERS FACE PROBLEMS
    Deflation
    Less money in circulation
    Value of every dollar in circulation increases (Supply & Demand)
    Cost of goods & services (including crops) decreases
    Debt/Mortgages/Price Gouging
    Inflation
    More money in circulation
    Value of every dollar decreases (Supply & Demand)
    Cost of goods & services increased
  • FARMERS RESPOND
    Farmers’ Alliances
    4 million men & women, mostly in the South & West
    Oliver Kelley & The Grange (1867)
    Organized isolated farm families
    Fought the railroads
    Southern Alliance (largest)
    Colored Farmers’ National Alliance
    250,000 African Americans
  • POLITICAL RESPONSE
    • Populism
    • “movement of the people”
    • Populist Party (1892)
    • Economic Reforms
    • 1) increase in money supply
    • 2) graduated income tax
    • 3) federal loan program
    • 4) free silver or bimetallism
    • Political Reforms
    • 1) direct election of U. S. Senators
    • 2) single terms for president and vice-president
    • 3) secret ballot to end voting fraud
    • Labor Reforms
    • 1) eight-hour workday
    • 2) immigration restrictions
    • Much of these reforms eventually became the platform of the Democratic Party, and all but one were enacted. Which one was not?
  • DEPRESSION & BIMETALLISM
    1893 Panic
    Economy grew too fast & people overextended themselves w/debt & loans they could not pay back
    Depression, 1894
    1/5 of the workforce was unemployed
    Free Silver & Bimetallism
    Republicans & Democrats split over which metal should be the basis of the nation’s monetary system
    Populists favored bimetallism
    Government would give people either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
    Silver was more plentiful than gold, thus backing money w/both would make more currency available
  • ELECTION OF 1896
    William McKinley, (OH)
    Republican
    Favored gold standard
    Democratic Party decided to adopt bimetallism as part of platform
    William Jennings Bryan
    “Cross of Gold” speech @ Democratic convention wins him the nomination
    Populists nominate Bryan as well but different VP (Thomas E. Watson)
    Election of 1896
    McKinley had high funding & campaigned from his porch in Canton
    Bryan tried to make up for it by campaigning vigorously
    McKinley won the election and Populism collapsed
    Populism’s legacy
    Downtrodden could organize & have a political impact
    Many of their reforms were enacted in the 20th century
  • EXPANSION OF INDUSTRY
    Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)
    Reasons for industrial boom:
    1) Wealth of Natural Resources
    2) Explosion of Inventions
    3) Growth of Urban Population
  • NATURAL RESOURCES
    Black Gold
    (1859) Edwin L. Drake
    Used steam engine to drill for oil in Pennsylvania
    Started oil boom
    Kerosene & Gasoline
    Coal & Iron
    Bessemer process (1850)
    Transformed iron into steel by injecting air into the iron to remove carbon
    (1886) replaced with open-hearth process
    Uses for Steel
    Railroads, barbed wire, & farm machines
    Brooklyn Bridge (1883)
    Skyscrapers
  • INVENTIONS
    Electricity
    Thomas Edison (1880) & George Westinghouse
    Edison  power plants
    Westinghouse  applications
    (1890)
    Streetcars, printing presses, home appliances
    More convenient for power plants
    Telephone
    Alexander Graham Bell & Thomas Watson (1876)
  • RAILROAD INDUSTRY
    May, 1869
    Harsh conditions for workers
    (1888) 2,000 killed; 20,000 injured
    Railroad Time
    Professor C. F. Dowd’s proposition
    Earth (1884)  24 time zones
    U. S. (1883 & 1918)  4 time zones
  • EXPANSION
    New Towns & Markets
    Cities specialized in products
    Pullman, Illinois (1880)
    George M. Pullman
    Factory for manufacturing sleepers and railroad cars
    Provided for employees but also controlled them
    Strike (1894)
    Opportunists
    Credit Mobilier (1864)
    Construction company formed by stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad
    Donated shares to members of Congress in exchange for their blocking of legislation that would regulate the Union Pacific.
    VP Colfax, SOH Blaine, & Rep. James Garfield implicated
    Jim Crow
    1881, Tennessee became the first southern state to expand Jim Crow laws to the railroad industry
    Segregated railroad coaches
    Will lead to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896
  • THE GRANGE & THE RAILROADS
    Granger Laws
    State & local candidates & pressed for regulatory laws
    (1871) Illinois set up a commission to prohibit discrimination
    Munn v. Illinois (1877)
    Railroads challenged constitutionality of regulatory laws
    Supreme Court upheld Granger laws
    States gained right to regulate railroads
    Federal government’s right to regulate private industry for public’s interest established
    Interstate problem
    (1886) Supreme Court ruled that a state could not set rates on interstate commerce
    Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
    Reestablished the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities
    Set up ICC (finally gained power under TR, 1906)
    1893 & The Dawn of Big Business
    7 companies held sway over 2/3 of the nation’s railroads
  • AN AMERICAN STORY—ANDREW CARNEGIE
    “Rags to Riches”
    Scottish, came to America in 1848, at age 13
    Worked 12 hours a day, six days a week
    Hired as private secretary to Thomas A. Scott, local superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad
    Scott offered Carnegie stock
    By 1865, he was able to leave the Pennsylvania Railroad
    1873, entered the steel business
    By 1899, Carnegie Steel Company manufactured more steel than all the factories in Great Britain
  • SECRET TO CARNEGIE’S SUCCESS
    • Management
    • 1) Better products @ cheaper business costs
    • New techniques
    • Detailed accounting system allowed him to track the precise cost of each item and process
    • 2) Hired new talent
    • Encouraged competition to increase production and cut costs
    • Business Strategies
    • 1)Vertical Integration
    • 2) Horizontal Consolidation
  • VERTICAL VS. HORIZONTAL
    Vertical Integration
    Company’s avoidance of middlemen by producing its own supplies and providing for distribution of its product
    Coal & iron mines, ore freighters, steel factories, & railroad lines
    Horizontal Consolidation
    Merging of companies producing similar products
    1901, Carnegie Steel was producing 80% of the nation’s steel
  • SOCIAL DARWINISM
    Application of Charles Darwin’s theory to society and business
    Origin of Species, 1859
    Natural Selection  only the strongest survive
    Application to business and the economy
    Laissez Faire (“allow to do”)
    Free competition in the marketplace, like natural selection in biology, would ensure survival of the fittest (like Carnegie)
    Social Beliefs
    Reinforced Protestant work ethic—hard work is rewarded (poor must be lazy)
    Horatio Alger, 135 novels, reinforced “rags to riches” & “pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps”
  • GROWTH & CONSOLIDATION
    Oligopoly  only a few sellers provided a particular product
    Achieved through mergers
    Monopoly  complete control over one’s industry
    Achieved through holding company
    A corporation that did nothing but buy out the stock of other companies
    J. P. Morgan & United States Steel
    Trust
    Like a merger, but the stock of a company was turned over to a group of people (trustees) who ran the separate companies as one large corporation
    John D. Rockefeller & Standard Oil
  • ROCKEFELLER & ROBBER BARONS
    Rockefeller, Standard Oil, & Trusts
    Participants turned their stock over to trustees
    Trustees ran the separate companies as one large corporation
    Companies received certificates that entitled them to dividends on profits earned by the trust
    By 1880, Standard Oil controlled 90% of the refining business
    Price Wars
    Lower price until competition defeated and control of market gained, then raise prices to make up difference
    Robber Barons  name given to industrialists due to their ruthless business tactics
  • CONGRESS RESPONDS
    Sherman Antitrust Act
    1890
    First law to restrict monopolistic trusts and business combinations
    (extended by the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914)
    Language was vague/hard to enforce
    Point/Counterpoint, p. 260
  • WORKERS’ RESPONSE—UNIONS
    • Long Hours & Danger
    • 6-7 day workweeks, upwards of 12 hour shifts
    • 1888, railroad—2,000 killed; 20,000 injured
    • Women & children find jobs
    • Unionization
    • Knights of Labor (1868)
    • Individual workers
    • Strikes as last resort, preferred arbitration
    • American Federation of Labor (1886)
    • Samuel Gompers, craft unionism (skilled workers from different industries)
    • Collective bargaining & strikes
    • Industrial Unionism (1890’s)
    • Eugene V. Debs
    • All workers, skilled or unskilled from a particular industry
    • Socialism government control of business, property, and distribution of wealth  Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or Wobblies)
  • VIOLENT STRIKES
    Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (1877)
    Wages cut, riots throughout midwest to San Francisco
    John Garret requested that President Hayes help stop the riots
    Why?
    Homestead Strike (1892)
    Carnegie Steel Company’s Homestead plant, PA
    Armed guards from Pinkerton Detective Agency protected factory & scabs
    Pullman Strike (1894)
    ARU boycott of Pullman cars
    President Cleveland sent in federal troops
    Blacklisted
  • IMMIGRATION
    1870-1920, 20 million Europeans
    Before 1890
    1890’s
    European
    Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
    Ellis Island, New York
    Asian
    China & Japan
    Angel Island
    Restrictions
    Nativism
    Melting pot  mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs
    Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
    Banned entry to all Chinese except for students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials
    Repealed in 1943
    Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907-1908)
    Segregation in SF withdrawn in exchange for Japanese limits on emigration
  • URBANIZATION
    • Growth of cities
    • Twice as many Irish in NYC than in Dublin
    • World’s largest Polish population in Chicago, not Poland
    • Problems
    • Housing, transportation, water, sanitation, fire, & crime
    • Response
    • Minimum standards
    • Social Gospel Movement  salvation through service to the poor
    • Settlement Houses (community centers)
    • Jane Addams & Hull House (Chicago, 1889)
  • POLITICAL MACHINES
    Organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city and offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support
    Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco, etc…
    Structure  pyramid
    City Boss
    Controlled activities of party throughout city
    Controlled many important jobs (police, fire, sanitation department)
    Gave money to build parks, hospitals, schools
    Ward Boss
    Worked to secure the votes of his ward or precinct on election day
    Gave jobs to supporters in return for votes
    Precinct workers and captains
    Worked a particular block or neighborhood
    Reported to ward boss
    Importance of immigrants
  • GRAFT, KICKBACKS, & SCANDAL
    Election Fraud
    Fake names
    Philadelphia precinct  252 votes, 100 registered voters
    Graft & Kickbacks
    Grant favors to businesses in return for cash & bribes
    Grant a government contract to a business, instruct the business to overestimate the cost, and kickback the earnings to the machine
    Boss Tweed (William Marcy) & Tammany Hall
    New York City’s Democratic Political Machine
    Btw 1869-1871, $200 million
    NY County Courthouse cost taxpayers $11 million (actual cost $3 million)
    Thomas Nast cartoons turn public favor, indicted 1871 on 120 counts of fraud and extortion
  • Civil Service Replaces Patronage
    Patronage  giving government jobs to political supporters
    Where did this start?
    Reformers back merit based civil service
    Jobs in the govt. would go to the most qualified
    Presidents take the lead
    Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)
    Independents in his cabinet
    Investigated customhouses
    James Garfield (1881)
    Neither Stalwart nor reformer (Mugwump or Half-breed)
    Gave most jobs to reformers, assassinated
    Chester Arthur (1881-1885)
    Turned reformer after assuming the presidency
    PENDLETON ACT (1883)  bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through merit system (1901, 40%; 2009, 90%)
  • THE PRESIDENCY & TARIFFS
    Grover Cleveland (1885-1889, 1893-1897)
    First Democrat to win White House in 28 years
    Tried to lower tariff rates
    Defeated in 1888, by Benjamin Harrison
    Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)
    McKinley Tariff Act 1890  raised tariffs
    Cleveland’s second term
    Lowered McKinley Tariff Act (w/a bill passed without his signature)
    William McKinley (1897-1901)
    Raised tariffs
    S-A War, assassinated at Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt