The purpose of this PowerPoint is to supplement the airport specific training for construction personnel working on or adjacent to runways and taxiways addressing the Construction Safety Plan and airport ground vehicle/pedestrian procedures.
Vehicle and Pedestrian Requirements Related to Construction Activity
Definition of a Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD)
A Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD) is an unauthorized access or movement by a vehicle or pedestrian on the movement area without Air Traffic Control (ATC) clearance.
Definition of a Runway Incursion A V/PD Runway Incursion is any occurrence at an airport involving the incorrect presence of a vehicle or person on the protected area or a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft.
Definition of a V/PD Surface Incident A V/PD Surface Incident is any unauthorized access onto an active taxiway by a vehicle or pedestrian without ATC clearance.
The Air Operations Area (AOA) is the portion of the airfield inside the security fence where airport safety and security regulations apply. Air Operations Area (AOA)
The Movement Area is the portion of the airfield where aircraft operate under the control of the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT). The movement area includes runways and taxiways. Normally, the apron area is non-movement area, however, at some airports, a taxiway may be located adjacent to the apron area and be under the control of Air Traffic Control. Movement Areas – Towered Airports Non-movement area Movement Area
At airports where a taxiway is located adjacent to the apron area and under the control of the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), a non-movement area boundary marking will be installed on the apron to identify where pilots, vehicle operators and pedestrians must obtain ATCT clearance to proceed. Movement Areas – Towered Airports Non-movement area Movement Area Taxiway Non-movement area boundary marking Apron
The dashed line is on the movement area side of the marking, which is controlled by Air Traffic Control (ATC). Do NOT walk or drive across this line without ATC clearance. If you cross this line without clearance, you have committed a V/PD surface incident. Movement Areas – Towered Airports ATC Controlled Movement Area Non-movement area boundary marking Uncontrolled Non-movement Area
Runway safety area dimensions are based on the size and landing speed of the aircraft using the runway. Typically, for runways used by airlines, the runway safety area extends 250 ft from runway centerline and 1000 ft off each end. Runway Safety Area Runway 1000’ 250’ 1000’ Typical Runway Used by Airlines Runway Safety Areas
The runway safety area enhances the safety of airplanes which undershoot, overrun, or veer off the runway, and it provides greater accessibility for firefighting and rescue equipment during such incidents. (AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Appendix 8, Par 3a) Runway Safety Areas
Vehicles or unauthorized objects in runway safety areas compromise the integrity of the safety area in the event that an aircraft leaves the pavement. Runway Safety Areas
The purpose of the runway safety area is to minimize the damage to an aircraft that inadvertently leaves the runway. For this reason, it must remain “sterile” during aircraft operations. However, during some construction projects, it is necessary for work to be conducted in a portion of the runway safety area. In these situations, construction work may be conducted no closer than 200 feet from the runway centerline. If these conditions cannot be met, the runway must be closed to air carriers.
If construction equipment/vehicles operate within 200 feet of the runway centerline during air carrier operations, the airport operator is subject to FAA enforcement action for violation of Part 139.309(b)(4), 139.201(a), 139.329(b) or 139.329(e).
A A1 A To protect the runway and runway safety area, holding positions are installed at the boundary of the runway safety area on all taxiways that enter runways. Runway Safety Area Boundary 2 Typically 1000’ off each runway end Typically 250’ from runway centerline Runway Safety Areas A1 A1 A A A 20 - 2 A1
Runway holding positions on taxiways have both a holding position sign and holding position marking. A “Location Sign” identifies the taxiway you are on. At this location, you are on Taxiway Charlie. Holding Position Marking Holding Position Sign Runway 13-31 Runway Holding Positions
Runway holding position signs have a red background with white legend. The runway designations are arranged in the direction of the runway thresholds. Runway 19L is to the left and Runway 1R is to the right. Runway Holding Positions
Runway holding position markings consist of two solid lines and two dashed lines. The solid lines are the holding side of the marking. Holding side Runway Runway Holding Positions Holding Position Marking
Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD) Holding Point A vehicle operator or pedestrian crossing the holding position marking for an active runway without ATCT authorization, commits a V/PD runway incursion.
Certificated airports are in the process of installing enhanced taxiway centerlines to alert pilots and vehicle operators that they are approaching a runway holding position. These markings consist of dashes on both sides of the taxiway centerline, which start 150 feet prior to the hold position marking. These markings may or may not be installed at the airport you are working on. Enhanced Taxiway Centerline Marking Runway Holding Positions
Surface painted holding position signs may be located at some runway holding positions. Runway Holding Positions Surface Painted Holding Position Sign
If you become lost on the airfield movement area, absolutely do not cross a runway holding position. Runway Holding Position
Barricades are used to keep aircraft out of closed areas and to keep construction vehicles out of active movement areas. They look the same in both situations. Vehicle operators need to pay close attention when driving through or around barricades to make sure you are not entering an active movement area. Airport Construction Barricades
When construction activity is being conducted on a taxiway adjacent to an active runway, barricades are normally installed along the runway holding position marking. Do not drive through the barricades without ATCT clearance in this situation or you will be committing a V/PD Runway Incursion. Airport Construction Barricades
Construction personnel have become confused and exited construction areas in the wrong direction, resulting in a surface incident or runway incursion. Airport Construction Barricades
A cement truck working on Taxiway Charlie proceeded past the barricades on the taxiway and crossed Runway 15 to Taxiway Lima without authorization. The truck then reversed course and crossed Runway 15 back to Taxiway Charlie. A Cessna C525 on 1 mile final was issued a go around. V/PD Runway Incursion – March 2008
Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD) Driving or walking on an active taxiway without ATCT clearance is a V/PD Surface Incident.
Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD) Driving or walking on an active runway or runway safety area, without ATC clearance, is a V/PD Runway Incursion.
The Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) completes FAA Form 8020-24, Preliminary V/PD Deviation Report .
FAA Airports Division issues a Letter of Investigation to the airport operator.
The airport operator investigates the incident, initiates corrective actions as appropriate, and sends a report to the FAA Airports Division.
The FAA Airports Division investigates the incident, reviews the airport’s ground vehicle procedures, training program, records and incident report on the V/PD.
The Airport Certification Inspector determines appropriate action and issues a closeout letter, Warning Letter, Letter of Correction, or initiates civil penalty action as a result of the FAA’s investigation.
The Airport Certification Inspector completes FAA Form 8020-25, Investigation of V/PD Report .
Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)
What happens when a V/PD occurs. Construction personnel committing a V/PD will likely lose their authorization to be on the airport Air Operations Area , or as a minimum, be required to be retrained. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)
Your activity on the movement area is being observed. ATCT personnel are required to report any unauthorized access or operation on the movement area. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)
When being escorted on the movement area, all drivers must stay with the escort vehicle while being escorted. Examples of Construction Related V/PDs Construction Vehicle Runway Incursion, October, 2007 Two contractor vehicles (pick-up truck and front end loader) were observed by a Port Authority vehicle crossing Runway 17C at Taxiway ER without authorization. No conflicts reported. The vehicle operator told the Port Authority that they were being escorted around the south end of 17C and saw a shortcut, and decided to take it.
When being escorted on the movement area, drivers must not pass the escort vehicle at any time. Construction Vehicle Runway Incursion, November, 2007 An airport vehicle escorting 2 construction vehicles, was instructed to hold short of Runway 4/22 at A4 intersection. A CANADAIR CRJ2 on landing reported one vehicle partially past the hold short line as the CRJ2 passed A4 intersection. The vehicle stopped approximately 5-10 feet past hold line and closest proximity to runway edge line was 165 feet horizontal. Examples of V/PDs
When escorting personnel and vehicles on the movement area, do not leave them alone at any time. Construction Personnel Surface Incident, June 2009 Two personnel with a paint crew working on the apron, walked across the non-movement area boundary marking without ATC clearance resulting in a V/PD surface incident. The paint crew did not receive any ground vehicle/pedestrian training and was being escorted by a trained individual who left the paint crew alone when the V/PD occurred. Examples of V/PDs
This runway incursion by a construction vehicle almost resulted in a collision with an aircraft. Construction Vehicle Runway Incursion, December, 2007 Runway 16/34 is closed and under construction. Taxiway A has been temporarily converted into Runway 17/35. A construction vehicle (Chevy pick-up truck) originating from the closed runway, proceeded via Taxiway Delta to Runway 17 without any communications with the tower. The vehicle entered the runway at high speed, as a Beech BE99 was just passing Taxiway D on landing roll out Runway 17. The controller stated that it just missed the tail of the aircraft and the vehicle turned northbound on the runway. According to Arpt Mgr, the intersection is properly signed and marked and the contractor informed him that all were trained. Examples of V/PDs
June 11, 2009 – During an apron rehab project, the consultant Engineer’s Inspector was escorting a paint crew on the apron and adjacent Taxiway Alpha. The Engineer’s Inspector left the paint crew on the apron unescorted while he coordinated work activity with the FBO. During the time he was at the FBO, two of the paint crew walked across the non-movement area boundary marking without ATC clearance, resulting in a V/PD surface incident. V/PD Surface Incident
V/PD Surface Incident Taxiway Alpha crossing point with Flag personnel July 24, 2009 – After being cleared to proceed across active Taxiway Alpha by a flag person, a contractor employee turned right and drove down the active portion of Taxiway Alpha without ATC clearance. A different phase of the Taxiway Alpha reconstruction project went into effect July 20 th and the construction employee did not receive training for the new phase of the project. That portion of Alpha had previously been closed.
Construction personnel authorized adjacent to or on the movement area must be properly trained in the airport’s pedestrian and ground vehicle procedures or be escorted by a trained individual. Preventing V/PDs
AOA access control procedures must be in place where construction equipment and personnel enter the AOA. Preventing V/PDs
Vehicle operators must comply with the directions of flag personnel where construction equipment must cross an active portion of the movement area and procedures for flag personnel are in place. Preventing V/PDs
Construction activity provides a much higher risk of pedestrian and ground vehicle deviations due to a large number of personnel, who are not familiar with the airport, operating on or adjacent to movement areas. Watch for warning signs that may be posted adjacent to active movement areas. Preventing V/PDs
Construction vehicles normally drive through barricades to enter and leave construction sites. Sometimes barricades are installed close together to prevent vehicles from inadvertently entering an active portion of the movement area. Do not remove barricades to drive through. You may be entering an active movement area without clearance. Preventing V/PDs
Preventing V/PDs Sometimes fencing will be installed adjacent to the movement areas. Do not cross any fencing.
This construction warning sign was not moved back into place after the runway was reopened to prevent inadvertent entry into the runway safety area. Example of Problem – Construction
The sand bags weighing down this construction warning sign deteriorated to the point where they were no longer effective. Example of Problem – Construction
If you are authorized to drive on the movement area, always look carefully before crossing a runway, even when cleared by ATC. Controllers, pilots and vehicle drivers can make a mistake.
Other FAA Airport Certification Regulation Issues Related to Construction Activity
Barricades/Red Lights Barricades are used to mark closed pavement and keep aircraft from entering the closed area.
AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-8 b) states, “With taxiways, place an “X” at the entrance of the closed taxiway.” The use of an “X” provides a good visual reference of closed taxiways to pilots flying over the airport before landing. Barricades/Red Lights
A 2 Use a temporary “X” at the entrance to the runway exit from the runway. A1 A Installing the barricades 200’ from runway centerline would be more visible to pilots compared to locating them on the holdline. Temporary “X” Barricades/Red Lights A 20 - 2 A1 A1 A1 A
A 2 Installing barricades 200’ from the runway centerline would better identify the closed runway exit to pilots during both day and night conditions. However, barricades must be the low mass easily collapsible type if located in the runway safety area. A1 A 200’ Barricades/Red Lights A 20 - 2 A1 A1 A1 A
The barricades for this construction area are at the entrance to the closed taxiway in the far background. Additional barricades should have also been placed at the construction site in this situation. A pilot could have missed seeing the barricades if they approached the taxiway from the apron. This could also be a potentially dangerous situation for vehicle operators at night. Example of Problem – Construction
Example of Problem – Construction Be sure that the retroreflective stripes on barricades are facing in the right direction. The stripes at this location are facing the closed area.
Barricades/Red Lights Barricades used to mark construction areas or closed pavement must be as low as possible to the ground; low mass; easily collapsible upon contact with an aircraft or any of its components; and weighted or sturdily attached to the surface to prevent displacement from prop wash, jet blast, wing vortex, or other surface wind currents. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) This particular barricade is designed to be filled with water.
Railroad ties are not to be used on runways, which includes the runway safety area. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) Example of Problem – Construction
The use of concrete jersey barricades in the movement areas (adjacent to taxiways) is not acceptable. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) Barricades/Red Lights Non-movement Area Movement Area
Barricades/Red Lights Low profile, low mass barricades must be used to mark the boundary of construction areas that are adjacent to open taxiways.
Barricades/Red Lights Highway type barricades may be too high for use adjacent to movement areas.
Barricades/Red Lights Props on twin engine aircraft could hit taller highway type barricades. Is there a chance that this barricade could be hit by a prop?
Barricades/Red Lights Some aircraft have engines that are located fairly close to the ground, limiting the height of barricades used to mark construction areas adjacent to movement areas used by these aircraft. The possibility of engine ingestion is also a concern when placing barricades adjacent to taxi routes.
The taller type barricades should be okay where located some distance off an active taxiway to block off a closed taxiway. These barricades are more visible and may be better when used to mark closed taxiways or runway exits when set back from the active movement area. Barricades/Red Lights
The use of a temporary taxiway ending marker to supplement barricades is a good practice and highly recommended to mark closed taxiways. These markers are visible to pilots from a farther distance than the typical low profile type barricades. Taxiway Ending Marker
Barricades/Red Lights Use highly reflective barriers with flashing or steady-burning red lights to barricade taxiways leading to closed runways. Evaluate all operating factors when determining how to mark temporary closures that can last from 10 to 15 minutes to a much longer period of time. However, we strongly recommend that, even for closures of relatively short duration, major taxiway/runway intersections be identified with barricades spaced no greater than 20 feet apart. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b)
In accordance with AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports During Construction , Par 3-9a & 3-9b, yellow lights are no longer acceptable for lighting construction areas on movement areas and nonmovement areas. (Became effective October 2004) Example of Problem – Construction
Red lights for marking construction areas are required because of a problem with pilots confusing flashing yellow construction lights with in-pavement Runway Guard Lights. Barricades/Red Lights
This photo shows an example of a flashing red light that is visible 360 degrees. These type of red lights are recommended. Barricades/Red Lights
If you choose a flat light fixture rather than a 360 degree light, rotate one of the lights 90 degrees as shown in this photo. Barricades/Red Lights
Barricades, warning lighting, and reflectors must be adequate to keep aircraft out of construction areas during nighttime and low visibility conditions. Flashing red lights must be maintained operable at night. Barricades/Red Lights
Four of these barricades have been knocked over by jet blast and should have been better secured with sandbags. Example of Problem – Construction
Do not place equipment or materials in front of signs that are adjacent to active areas of the movement area. Pilot Visual Aids
Construction material and barricades are obstructing the runway holding position sign. Holding position sign is not visible Example of Problem – Construction
This newly installed holding position sign is blocked by the old sign, which should have been removed rather than covered. Example of Problem – Construction Problem Corrected
Pilot Visual Aids Holding position signs are required by Part 139.311(b)(ii) and are considered critical for safety. If a holding position is to remain open during construction activity and the holding position sign is removed, a temporary holding position sign must be provided and illuminated at night.
If necessary, signs can be temporarily installed on 2x4s and connected to the electrical system for nighttime operations. Pilot Visual Aids
Signs for closed areas should be covered or removed so as not to provide misleading or confusing information to pilots, especially at night. Pilot Visual Aids
Pilot Visual Aids Taxiway edge lights in closed areas should be covered if the lights cannot be turned off at night.
If taxiway centerline lights lead into a closed area, the light fixtures should be covered if the lights cannot be disconnected or turned off. Pilot Visual Aids
Singapore Airlines flight SQ006 to Los Angeles, crashed on takeoff from Taipei's Chang Kai Shek International Airport at 23:18 local time. The weather in the area was rapidly deteriorating due to an approaching typhoon. At 140 knots, the 747 impacted concrete jersey barricades and several pieces construction equipment, causing the aircraft to break into 3 parts and igniting a large post-crash fire. There were 83 fatalities (24 Americans) out of 179 passengers and crew. Singapore Airlines B-747-400 Construction Related Accident
Singapore Airlines B-747-400 Construction Related Accident The flight crew mistakenly attempted takeoff on Runway 5R instead of assigned Runway 5L. Runway 5R was closed for construction at the time of the accident, however , the runway was not barricaded at the takeoff end because that portion of the runway was being used as a taxi route.
Taxiway centerline lights leading to Runway 5R and poor visibility from the approaching typhoon were contributing factors causing the accident. Singapore Airlines B-747-400 Construction Related Accident
Example of a Good Practice Temporarily painting over or removing taxiway centerlines leading into closed movement areas is a good practice.
This taxiway centerline could lead a pilot into a closed area, the centerline should have been removed when the pavement was closed for an extended period of time. Also, the barricades should have red lights are spaced far too apart to provide safe delineation. Example of Problem – Construction
Here is the intersection after corrective action. However, the barricade lights are still yellow and the large gaps still exist. Centerline removed Taxiway ending marker installed Example of Problem – Construction
Marking Closed Runways Yellow X’s at each runway end are used to mark temporarily closed runways. If sand bags are used to weight down the yellow X, they should also be yellow.
This small closed runway X doesn’t even come close to meeting the FAA standards of 60 feet in AC 150/5340-1J, Standards for Airport Markings , Figure 30, and could easily be missed by a pilot. Example of Problem – Construction
This white closed runway X does not meet the FAA standards of yellow in AC 150/5340-1J, Standards for Airport Markings , Par 41a. The white X blends in with the designation marking and may not be seen by pilots. Example of Problem – Construction
Temporary X’s must be adequately secured. During and after high wind conditions, check temporary X’s for displacement. Example of Problem – Construction
AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety On Airports During Construction , Par 3-5a(1) Pavement markings for temporary closed portions of the runway should consist of yellow chevrons to identify pavement areas that are unsuitable for takeoff/landing. If unable to paint the markings on the pavement, construct them from any of the following materials: double-layered painted snow fence, colored plastic, painted sheets of plywood, or similar materials. Marking Temporary Runway Thresholds
This type of construction fence material is not acceptable for use as temporary chevrons. The open material does not adequately cover the runway markings for this relocated threshold. Example of Problem – Construction
Here is a temporary relocated threshold marking using white plastic material. However, white sandbags should have been used. The yellow and orange sandbags in this situation could be distracting to pilots. Marking Temporary Runway Thresholds
At this airport, construction limit signs are install at regular intervals along the entire length of the runway at the 200 feet from runway centerline to provide a reference point for construction personnel and airport operations personnel responsible for monitoring construction. Safety Areas
Here is an effective method of identifying construction limits and preventing inadvertent access into the runway safety area by installing a construction fence along the runway safety area. Safety Areas
Here is another method of identifying construction limits by installing a marker fence along the runway safety area to provide a reference point for construction personnel and airport operations personnel responsible for monitoring construction. Safety Areas
In some situations, taxiways may need to be temporarily closed or restricted to small aircraft only when adequate wingtip clearance is not available. Barricades also do not meet requirements of the AC. Taxiway Safety Areas
Construction activity and excavations may occur in taxiway safety areas where air carriers operate, if necessary, provided that the excavations are marked/lighted if needed, and a NOTAM is issued. Safety Areas
This construction equipment appears to be parked within the runway safety area, contrary to Part 139.309(b)(4) and AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports During Construction , Par 2-6. Example of Problem – Construction
Example of Problem – Construction Mounds of rubble/fill material are located in the runway safety area within 200 feet of the runway centerline, contrary to Part 139.309(b)(1) and AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports During Construction , Par 3-2.
This runway at a GA airport was open throughout the winter with surface variations in the safety area and fill material present on the edge of the runway from a PAPI project that was interrupted for winter weather. Example of Problem – Construction
These large light can holes are located in the runway safety area and were not covered up before opening the runway. Example of Problem – Construction
Piles of gravel or other stockpiled material cannot be located in runway safety areas. Example of Problem – Construction Stockpiled materials and equipment storage are not permitted within the RSA and OFZ of an operational runway. The airport operator must ensure that stockpiled materials and equipment adjacent to these areas are prominently marked and lighted during hours of restricted visibility or darkness. This includes determining and verifying that materials are stored at an approved location to prevent foreign object damage and attraction of wildlife. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-12)
Objects cannot be located in a safety area or object free areas (OFA). These large cable reels are not located in the taxiway safety area, however, they are located in the taxiway OFA and should have been removed after the construction activity. Example of Problem – Construction
If a silt fence must be installed in a safety area, wooden stakes or PVC piping must be used. Safety Areas
Using steel fence posts to install silt fences in safety areas is contrary to Part 139.309(b)(4). Example of Problem – Construction
This portable lighting equipment was left in the runway safety area, contrary to Part 139.309(b)(4) and AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports During Construction , Par 2-6. Example of Problem – Construction
This pickup should not be parked in the runway safety area. Construction vehicles, construction activity, equipment, construction material and potentially hazardous surface variations in the runway safety area is only permitted up to 200 feet of the runway centerline if necessary for the construction project. Example of Problem – Construction
There was no need for this construction vehicle to be parked in the runway safety area so instructions were issued to immediately move the vehicle out of the runway safety area. Example of Problem – Construction
Construction equipment should not be parked adjacent to movement areas that has the potential to be hit by a taxiing aircraft. Safety Areas Note: The pilot in this accident was taxiing on a closed taxiway.
LAX – September 27, 1999 This green truck was hit by a taxiing B-747 at 4:11 am. Note: The pilot in this accident was taxiing on a closed taxiway.
Prior to hitting the green truck, the B-747 hit this red truck, LAX – September 27, 1999
Post Construction - Paved Areas Paved areas must be free of Foreign Object Debris (FOD) and loose aggregate before the pavement is opened for aircraft operations.
This shingle apparently fell off a truck after painting activity and could be ingested into a jet engine, causing significant damage. Example of Problem – Construction
Post Construction - Paved Areas There should not be any pavement lips along new pavement. Turf areas should be close to level with the pavement to prevent turf damming and allow for settling.
The pavement lip at this location exceeds 3 inches and is not in compliance with FAA requirements. Example of Problem – Construction
Post Construction - Safety Areas Safety areas should be graded and free of potentially hazardous surface variations before opening the pavement for aircraft use.
This manhole installation in the taxiway safety area was supposed to have been installed at grade level. Example of Problem – Construction Safety areas in new construction areas should not have improperly installed facilities.
This concrete base was supposed to have been installed at grade level and provides a potentially hazardous surface variation in the runway safety area. Example of Problem – Construction
Rocks and fill material were left in the runway safety area after the construction work was completed, providing potentially hazardous surface variations. Example of Problem – Construction
These old culverts are unauthorized objects left in the runway safety area after the construction work was completed. Example of Problem – Construction