ASEAN, Asian Regionalism and Institutional Globalism
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ASEAN, Asian Regionalism and Institutional Globalism

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A presentation on the differences in approach to creating a more cooperative political and fiscal framework for globalism arising from Regional identity.

A presentation on the differences in approach to creating a more cooperative political and fiscal framework for globalism arising from Regional identity.

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ASEAN, Asian Regionalism and Institutional Globalism ASEAN, Asian Regionalism and Institutional Globalism Presentation Transcript

  • Forging Alliances: Asian Regionalism As The Next Step Towards Institutional Globalism Ryan Brack Prof. Stephen Noerper NYU Center for Global Affairs Summer Institute 07/30/07
    • “ East Asia will likely be the next region to define its economic and political interests on a transnational basis, either with China at the helm of an East Asian community and Japan somewhat marginalized, or (less likely) with China and Japan managing to contrive some form of partnership…”
    • “ In effect, a tri-partite division of the United States, the European Union, and East Asia is emerging, with India, Russia, Brazil and perhaps Japan preferring to act as swing states according to their national interests.”
    • ~ Zbigniew Brzezinki, Second Chance
  • Agenda
    • Who is ASEAN?
    • Why ASEAN Matters
    • ASEAN Systems Theory
    • Regional Bandwagon
    • Approach: Realism v. Liberalism
  • Who is ASEAN?
    • Indonesia (1967)
    • Malaysia
    • Philippines
    • Singapore
    • Thailand
    • Brunei (1984)
    • Vietnam (1995)
    • Laos (1997)
    • Myanmar (1997)
    • Cambodia (1999)
  • Who is ASEAN?
    • AEM:  ASEAN Economic Ministers
    • AMM:  ASEAN Ministerial Meeting 
    • AFMM:  ASEAN Finance Ministers Meeting 
    • SEOM:  Senior Economic Officials Meeting
    • ASC:  ASEAN Standing Committee
    • SOM:  Senior Officials Meeting
    • AFDM:  ASEAN Finance and Central Bank Deputies Meeting
    • Supporting these ministerial bodies are 29 committees of senior officials and 122 technical working groups.
    • SOURCE: Energy Policy and Planning Office, Ministry of Energy. Royal Thai Government
  • Who is ASEAN?
    • 1961 - Association of Southeast Asia , Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand.
    • 1967 - ASEAN Declaration signed by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand (Bangkok)
      • Reaction to communism in Vietnam and within own borders
    • 1971 - Declaration on Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality (Kuala Lumpur)
    • 1976- Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (Bali)
    • 1976 – Bali Concord I , jumpstarts organization and turns from ideological to economic focus (Bali).
    • 1992 - Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT), framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
    • 1993- ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
    • 1995- Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (Bangkok)
    • 1997/9 - ASEAN plus Three created to improve existing ties to China, Japan, South Korea
    • 2003 - Bali Concord II , “The ASEAN Security Community is envisaged to bring ASEAN’s political and security cooperation to a higher plane to ensure that countries in the region live at peace with one another and with the world at large in a just, democratic and harmonious environment.”
    • 2005 - East Asia Summit , ASEAN plus Three, India, Australia, New Zealand, Russia (observer)
    • 2006 - ASEAN granted ‘observer status’ at the UN General Assembly, ASEAN names UN ‘dialogue partner’.
    • 2007 - Draft Charter, 40th Anniversary
  • Who is ASEAN?
    • 567 million people
    • (8.5% of world population)
    • Disparities exist
    • (landmass, population, growth, total GDP, GDP/capita)
    • Source: ASEAN Secretariat, ASEAN Key Indicators , http://www.aseansec.org/13100.htm
  • Who is ASEAN?
    • Source: ASEAN Secretariat, ASEAN Statistical Pocketbook 2006 , http://www.aseansec.org/13100.htm
    • Diverse economic industries
      • Agriculture
      • Manufacturing
        • Low-tech
        • High-tech
      • Services
    • Much work to be done
      • Many below poverty line
      • Integrated into economic system
    • Largest Christian population in Asia (The Philippines)
    • Largest Muslim population in the world (Indonesia)
  • Why ASEAN Matters: Globalization 1.0
    • Steward Nations
    • (Colonial powers and the colonized)
    Spain England France
  • Why ASEAN Matters: Globalization 2.0
    • Independent Nations
    • (United Nations Trusteeship)
    • Global Framework
    Why ASEAN Matters: Globalization 2.0 League of Nations/ United Nations Association of Nations
  • Why ASEAN Matters: Globalization 3.0
    • Regional Framework
    AU ASEAN EU Association of Nations
  • Why ASEAN Matters: Globalization 3.0
    • Global Framework
    AU ASEAN EU Association of Regions/Nations United Nations AU ASEAN EU
  • Why ASEAN Matters: Globalization 3.0
    • Global Framework
    Association of Regions/Nations Regional Global National
  • ASEAN Systems Theory: Architecture
    • A REGIONAL MANAGER KNOWS…
    • Regional Manager’s Systems Theory
      • Local = local identity
      • Regional = nexus
      • HQ = institutional identity
    • Small, Medium, Large
      • Company united by brand
      • Brand informed by customers
      • Regional managers know what local stores want and how to implement HQ directives
    ASEAN
  • ASEAN Systems Theory: Architecture
    • “ The world today does not have enough international institutions that can confer legitimacy on collective action, and creating new institutions that will better balance the requirements of legitimacy and effectiveness will be the prime task for the coming generation.
    • “… there is a great deal of global governance in the world today that exists outside the orbit of the United Nations and its allied agencies.
    • “… An appropriate agenda for American foreign policy will be to promote a world populated by a large number of overlapping and sometimes competitive international institutions, what can be labeled multi-multilateralism.
    • ~Francis Fukuyama, America At The Crossroads
    • Regional Manager’s Systems Theory
      • Local = local identity
      • Regional = nexus
      • HQ = institutional identity
  • ASEAN Systems Theory: Time (rate of change)
    • A BRUNCH CHEF KNOWS…
    • Emulsification
      • If you cook butter and eggs too quickly, they won’t bond
    • Making hollandaise
    • Chef’s Systems Theory
      • Eggs = identity
      • Butter = institution
  • ASEAN Systems Theory: Time (rate of change)
    • “ Democracy historically has emerged through a prolonged process of enhancement of human rights, first from the economic and then to the political, first among some privileged classes and then on a wider scale. That process in turn entails the progressive appearance of the rule of law, and the gradual imposition of legal and later constitutional rules over the structures of power.”
    • “ In contrast, when democracy is rapidly imposed in traditional societies not exposed to the progressive expansion of civil rights and the gradual emergence of the rule of law, it is likely to precipitate intensified conflict, with mutually intolerant extremes colliding in violence…The result has not enhanced prospects for stability but intensified social tensions. The best such efforts are likely to produce is a fervent but intolerant populism, ostensibly democratic but in fact a tyranny of the majority.”
    • ~ Zbigniew Brzezinki, Second Chance
    • Emulsification
      • If you cook butter and eggs too quickly, they won’t bond
  • ASEAN Systems Theory: Historical Models
    • Ch’ing Dynasty
      • Ti-Yong
      • “ Chinese learning as the base, Western learning for use”
    • Japan
    • Wakon, Yosei
      • “ Japanese spirit, Western technique”
    • Korea
    • Hwahon, Yangjae
  • Regional Bandwagon: ASEAN Plus Three
    • Indonesia
    • Malaysia
    • Philippines
    • Singapore
    • Thailand
    • Brunei
    • Vietnam
    • Laos
    • Myanmar
    • Cambodia
    • + China, Japan, S. Korea
  • Regional Bandwagon: A Comparison
    • EU
    • 4,325,675
    • 496,198,605
    • 12,025,415
    • 24,235
    • ASEAN
    • 4,400,000
    • 567,000,000
    • 2,172,000
    • 4,044
    • ASEAN+3
    • 14,474,479
    • 2,067,857,361
    • 17,588,000
    • 7,456
    Organization Sq. km Population GDP PPP (mill.) GDP/capita (US$)
    • USA
    • 9,631,418
    • 300,000,000
    • 12,980,000
    • 43,500
  • Regional Bandwagon: East Asia Summit (AES)
    • Indonesia
    • Malaysia
    • Philippines
    • Singapore
    • Thailand
    • Brunei
    • Vietnam
    • Laos
    • Myanmar
    • Cambodia
    • + China, Japan, S. Korea
    • + India, Australia, NZ
    • + Russia
  • Regional Bandwagon: ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) SOURCE: ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), US Department of State, http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/4177.htm , accessed 07/26/07 ARF includes: ASEAN10 Japan, North Korea, South Korea, China, India, Russia, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, United States, Canada, European Union
  • Regional Bandwagon: Asia Pacific Economic Council (APEC)
    • Australia
    • Brunei
    • Canada
    • Indonesia
    • Japan
    • Malaysia
    • New Zealand
    • Philippines
    • Singapore
    • South Korea
    • Thailand
    • United States
    • China
    • Hong Kong
    • Chinese Taipei
    • Mexico
    • Papua New Guinea
    • Chile
    • Peru
    • Russia
    • Viet Nam
    • India (requesting membership)
  • Liberalism v. Realism: ASEAN or APEC? Singapore MP, Lee Hsien Loong US President, George W. Bush May 4, 2007 BUSH: “…today, I talked to Prime Minister Lee about America's desire to stay in close contact with not only Singapore, but our partners in what we call the ASEAN nations -- those would be Southeast Asian nations. To this end, the Prime Minister has invited me, and I've accepted an invitation to go back to Singapore to talk to our partners and friends about trade and security, and we'll do so on my way to the APEC meetings in Australia. So thanks for the invitation in September.”
  • Liberalism v. Realism: ASEAN or APEC?
    • 40 th Anniversary
    • Charter
      • Final Draft - September (Philippines)
      • Signed - November (Singapore)
    • Bush publicly commits but…
      • Bush won’t attend
      • Rice won’t attend (2 nd time in 3 years)
      • Negroponte will (Former Ambassador to Phillippines)
    • Motives
      • Focus domestic issues? (Iraq debate in September)
        • Bush attending APEC mtg. in Sydney
      • ASEAN gaining too much traction?
        • US not key player
        • Japan as proxy is peripheral player
        • China also peripheral but ‘soft-power’ helping it make deep regional inroads
      • APEC as preferred vehicle
    • Home-grown regionalism?
  • Realism v. Liberalism: APEC or ASEAN?
    • REALIST APPROACH
    • Push dominant regional positions
      • APEC
      • US - Philippines
      • US - Japan
    • Economic leverage
      • Currency revaluation
      • Trade litigation, WTO
    • Political leverage
      • ASEAN Charter ‘illegitimate’ re: Myanmar human rights
      • Highlight ‘lack of democracy’
    • LIBERAL APPROACH
    • Utilize soft-power through secondary regional positions
      • Encourage formal Regional Association
      • Appoint US Ambassador to ASEAN
    • Economic institutions
      • Asian Monetary Fund
      • Asian Monetary Unit (2020)
    • Political institutions
      • Engage through existing structures
      • Highlight creation/modification of regional body and its stability
  • Realism v. Liberalism: APEC or ASEAN?
    • REALIST APPROACH
    • “… it would be possible to start building a coalition of democratic states in East Asia that would initially include the United States, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and perhaps India, first as an integrated economic zone and perhaps later as a fledgling security pact. At the present juncture, Japan would not favor a new multilateral organization that included China, while most of the ASEAN countries would oppose a free-trade area that excluded it.”
    • ~ Francis Fukuyama, America at The Crossroads
    • LIBERAL APPROACH
    • “ The essence of liberal democratic politics is the construction of a rich, complex social order, not one dominated by a single idea…The goal is liberal democracy not as it was practiced in the nineteenth century but as it should be practiced in the twenty-first century.”
    • “ China’s rulers believe that premature democratization in a country as vast, poor, and diverse as China will produce chaos.”
    • ~Fareed Zakaria, The Future of Freedom
    • “ East Asia will likely be the next region to define its economic and political interests on a transnational basis, either with China at the helm of an East Asian community and Japan somewhat marginalized, or (less likely) with China and Japan managing to contrive some form of partnership…”
    • “ In effect, a tri-partite division of the United States, the European Union, and East Asia is emerging, with India, Russia, Brazil and perhaps Japan preferring to act as swing states according to their national interests.”
    • ~ Zbigniew Brzezinki, Second Chance
  •