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p305_pp03

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  • Lecture Notes: p. 45. Explanations of human behavior derived from demonology no longer hold much appeal within philosophy and the social sciences. Pā€˜.46. Free will is opposed by that of determinism which holds that Every event has a cause . Free will , or the power to make choices and engage in actions that originate with ourselves.
  • Lecture Notes: Behavioral Reasons for seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
  • Lecture Notes: Soft determinism ā€“ partly determined and partly free will
  • Lecture Notes: pp. 58-59
  • Transcript

    • 1. Criminal Justice 2011Class Name,Instructor NameDate, SemesterChapter 3:Free Will andMoral Responsibility
    • 2. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedMORAL RESPONSIBILITY• Culpability• Demonology• Determinism• Free Will2
    • 3. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCAUSALITYGANG INVOLVEMENT3needforidentityneedforidentityneedforsecurityneedforsecurityFamilyinfluencesFamilyinfluencesSocialinfluencesSocialinfluencesUnderachievementIn schoolUnderachievementIn schoolfamilyconflictfamilyconflictlowself-esteemlowself-esteemweakattachmentto parentsweakattachmentto parents
    • 4. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedHEDONISTIC IMMORALITY& DEVIANCE• Curiosity• Fun – exciting• Boredom• Relief from stress or pain• Building an identity• Avoid responsibility• Financial rewards4
    • 5. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedHEDONISTIC IMMORALITY& DEVIANCE• Obtain non-financial goods• Earn prestige• To fit in or stand out• Fulfill expectations• Live up to values• Power over others5
    • 6. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedBEHAVIORAL INFLUENCESBiological, psychological, and sociologicalbases of behavior•Internal Factors•External Factors•Psychological Determinism•Biological Determinism•Soft Determinism6
    • 7. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedTERRITORIALITY, CRITICAL MASS,& PRISON VIOLENCEIf humans react defensively and aggressively toinvasions of personal space:1.How much does territoriality and critical mass helpaccount for the problem of prison violence?2.What implications might this research have formaintaining control within prisons and jails?3.What implications are there for establishing humaneconditions within correctional settings?4.What conditions & moral responsibilities do policy-makers and prison administrators have for reducingovercrowding?7
    • 8. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedFREE WILL, DETERMINISM,& THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMCriminal Responsibility•Mens rea•Actus rea•CrimeMitigating circumstances•Justifications•ExcusesAggravating circumstances•Weapons•Others?8
    • 9. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedVACCINATING FOR SUBSTANCE USE• The vaccine is best suited for persons dependentupon cocaine who are ready to quit• Is it morally permissible to forcibly administer thevaccine to persons with cocaine dependencies?• In cases in which convicted criminals have cocainedependencies, could the vaccine be a componentof rehabilitation?• What moral concerns might be raised if one day webegan vaccinating infants for a variety of illegal drugsreducing the likelihood that they would one daybecome addicted to or dependent upon harmfulsubstances?9
    • 10. © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONSPolice officers typically are called upon toexercise discretion when on patrol. Given thechapter’s observations on choice and free will:1.In what ways or in what situations might the choices ofofficers be constrained?2.How does the concept of “soft determinism” help usunderstand mens rea and criminal responsibility?10