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  • 1. 1 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall1Operations andProductivityPowerPoint presentation to accompanyHeizer and RenderOperations Management, 10ePrinciples of Operations Management, 8ePowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl
  • 2. 1 - 2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline Global Company Profile: Hard RockCafe What Is Operations Management? Organizing to Produce Goods andServices Why Study OM? What Operations Managers Do
  • 3. 1 - 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline - Continued The Heritage of OperationsManagement Operations in the Service Sector Differences between Goods andServices Growth of Services Service Pay Exciting New Trends in OperationsManagement
  • 4. 1 - 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline - Continued The Productivity Challenge Productivity Measurement Productivity Variables Productivity and the Service Sector Ethics and Social Responsibility
  • 5. 1 - 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapteryou should be able to:1. Define operations management2. Explain the distinction betweengoods and services3. Explain the difference betweenproduction and productivity
  • 6. 1 - 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapteryou should be able to:4. Compute single-factorproductivity5. Compute multifactor productivity6. Identify the critical variables inenhancing productivity
  • 7. 1 - 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Hard Rock Cafe First opened in 1971 Now – 129 restaurants in over 40 countries Rock music memorabilia Creates value in the form of good foodand entertainment 3,500+ custom meals per day in Orlando How does an item get on the menu? Role of the Operations Manager
  • 8. 1 - 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWhat Is OperationsManagement?Production is the creation ofgoods and servicesOperations management (OM) isthe set of activities that createvalue in the form of goods andservices by transforming inputsinto outputs
  • 9. 1 - 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOrganizing to ProduceGoods and Services Essential functions:1. Marketing – generates demand2. Production/operations – createsthe product3. Finance/accounting – tracks howwell the organization is doing,pays bills, collects the money
  • 10. 1 - 10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOrganizational ChartsOperationsTellerSchedulingCheck ClearingCollectionTransactionprocessingFacilitiesdesign/layoutVault operationsMaintenanceSecurityFinanceInvestmentsSecurityReal estateAccountingAuditingMarketingLoansCommercialIndustrialFinancialPersonalMortgageTrust DepartmentCommercial BankFigure 1.1(A)
  • 11. 1 - 11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOrganizational ChartsOperationsGround supportequipmentMaintenanceGround OperationsFacilitymaintenanceCateringFlight OperationsCrew schedulingFlyingCommunicationsDispatchingManagement scienceFinance/accountingAccountingPayablesReceivablesGeneral LedgerFinanceCash controlInternationalexchangeAirlineFigure 1.1(B)MarketingTrafficadministrationReservationsSchedulesTariffs (pricing)SalesAdvertising
  • 12. 1 - 12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMarketingSalespromotionAdvertisingSalesMarketresearchOrganizational ChartsOperationsFacilitiesConstruction; maintenanceProduction and inventory controlScheduling; materials controlQuality assurance and controlSupply-chain managementManufacturingTooling; fabrication; assemblyDesignProduct development and designDetailed product specificationsIndustrial engineeringEfficient use of machines, space,and personnelProcess analysisDevelopment and installation ofproduction tools and equipmentFinance/accountingDisbursements/creditsReceivablesPayablesGeneral ledgerFunds ManagementMoney marketInternationalexchangeCapital requirementsStock issueBond issueand recallManufacturingFigure 1.1(C)
  • 13. 1 - 13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWhy Study OM?1. OM is one of three major functions ofany organization, we want to studyhow people organize themselves forproductive enterprise2. We want (and need) to know howgoods and services are produced3. We want to understand whatoperations managers do4. OM is such a costly part of anorganization
  • 14. 1 - 14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOptions for IncreasingContributionTable 1.1Sales $100,000 $150,000 $100,000 $100,000Cost of Goods – 80,000 – 120,000 – 80,000 – 64,000Gross Margin 20,000 30,000 20,000 36,000Finance Costs – 6,000 – 6,000 – 3,000 – 6,000Subtotal 14,000 24,000 17,000 30,000Taxes at 25% – 3,500 – 6,000 – 4,250 – 7,500Contribution $ 10,500 $ 18,000 $ 12,750 $ 22,500Finance/Marketing Accounting OMOption Option OptionIncrease Reduce ReduceSales Finance ProductionCurrent Revenue 50% Costs 50% Costs 20%
  • 15. 1 - 15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWhat OperationsManagers Do Planning Organizing Staffing Leading ControllingBasic Management Functions
  • 16. 1 - 16© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTen Critical DecisionsTen Decision Areas Chapter(s)1. Design of goods and services 52. Managing quality 6, Supplement 63. Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7design4. Location strategy 85. Layout strategy 96. Human resources and 10job design7. Supply-chain 11, Supplement 11management8. Inventory, MRP, JIT 12, 14, 169. Scheduling 13, 1510. Maintenance 17 Table 1.2
  • 17. 1 - 17© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Critical Decisions1. Design of goods and services What good or service should weoffer? How should we design theseproducts and services?2. Managing quality How do we define quality? Who is responsible for quality?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • 18. 1 - 18© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Critical Decisions3. Process and capacity design What process and what capacity willthese products require? What equipment and technology isnecessary for these processes?4. Location strategy Where should we put the facility? On what criteria should we base thelocation decision?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • 19. 1 - 19© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Critical Decisions5. Layout strategy How should we arrange the facility? How large must the facility be to meetour plan?6. Human resources and job design How do we provide a reasonablework environment? How much can we expect ouremployees to produce?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • 20. 1 - 20© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Critical Decisions7. Supply-chain management Should we make or buy thiscomponent? Who should be our suppliers and howcan we integrate them into our strategy?8. Inventory, material requirementsplanning, and JIT How much inventory of each itemshould we have? When do we re-order?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • 21. 1 - 21© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Critical Decisions9. Intermediate and short–termscheduling Are we better off keeping people onthe payroll during slowdowns? Which jobs do we perform next?10.Maintenance How do we build reliability into ourprocesses? Who is responsible for maintenance?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • 22. 1 - 22© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWhere are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Strategic issues Response time People/team development Customer service Quality Cost reduction Inventory reduction Productivity improvement
  • 23. 1 - 23© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOpportunitiesFigure 1.2
  • 24. 1 - 24© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCertifications APICS, the American Production andInventory Control Society American Society of Quality (ASQ) Institute for Supply Management (ISM) Project Management Institute (PMI) Council of Supply Chain ManagementProfessionals Charter Institute of Purchasing andSupply (CIPS)
  • 25. 1 - 25© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSignificant Events in OMFigure 1.3
  • 26. 1 - 26© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Heritage of OM Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776;Charles Babbage 1852) Standardized parts (Whitney 1800) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/Sorenson 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth1922) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming1950)
  • 27. 1 - 27© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Heritage of OM Computer (Atanasoff 1938) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957, Navy 1958) Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Globalization (1992) Internet (1995)
  • 28. 1 - 28© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallEli Whitney Born 1765; died 1825 In 1798, received governmentcontract to make 10,000 muskets Showed that machine tools couldmake standardized parts to exactspecifications Musket parts could be used in anymusket
  • 29. 1 - 29© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFrederick W. Taylor Born 1856; died 1915 Known as ‘father of scientificmanagement’ In 1881, as chief engineer forMidvale Steel, studied how taskswere done Began first motion and time studies Created efficiency principles
  • 30. 1 - 30© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTaylor’s Principles Matching employees to right job Providing the proper training Providing proper work methods andtools Establishing legitimate incentives forwork to be accomplishedManagement Should Take MoreResponsibility for:
  • 31. 1 - 31© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFrank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank (1868-1924); Lillian (1878-1972) Husband-and-wife engineering team Further developed workmeasurement methods Applied efficiency methods to theirhome and 12 children! Book & Movie: “Cheaper by theDozen,” “Bells on Their Toes”
  • 32. 1 - 32© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Born 1863; died 1947 In 1903, created Ford MotorCompany In 1913, first used moving assemblyline to make Model TUnfinished product moved byconveyor past work station Paid workers very well for 1911($5/day!)Henry Ford
  • 33. 1 - 33© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallW. Edwards Deming Born 1900; died 1993 Engineer and physicist Credited with teaching Japanquality control methods in post-WW2 Used statistics to analyze process His methods involve workers indecisions
  • 34. 1 - 34© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallContributions From Human factors Industrial engineering Management science Biological science Physical sciences Information technology
  • 35. 1 - 35© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallNew Challenges in OM Global focus Just-in-time Supply-chainpartnering Rapid productdevelopment,alliances Masscustomization Empoweredemployees, teamsToFrom Local or national focus Batch shipments Low bid purchasing Lengthy productdevelopment Standard products Job specialization
  • 36. 1 - 36© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCharacteristics of Goods Tangible product Consistent productdefinition Production usuallyseparate fromconsumption Can be inventoried Low customerinteraction
  • 37. 1 - 37© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCharacteristics of Service Intangible product Produced andconsumed at same time Often unique High customerinteraction Inconsistent productdefinition Often knowledge-based Frequently dispersed
  • 38. 1 - 38© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallIndustry and Services asPercentage of GDPServices ManufacturingAustraliaCanadaChinaCzechRepFranceGermanyHongKongJapanMexicoRussianFedSouthAfricaSpainUKUS90 −80 −70 −60 −50 −40 −30 −20 −10 −0 −
  • 39. 1 - 39© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallGoods and ServicesAutomobileComputerInstalled carpetingFast-food mealRestaurant meal/auto repairHospital careAdvertising agency/investment managementConsulting service/teachingCounselingPercent of Product that is a Good Percent of Product that is a Service100% 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100%| | | | | | | | |
  • 40. 1 - 40© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall120 –100 –80 –60 –40 –20 –0 – | | | | | | |1950 1970 1990 2010 (est)1960 1980 2000Employment(millions)Manufacturing and ServiceEmploymentFigure 1.4 (A)ManufacturingService
  • 41. 1 - 41© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallManufacturing Employmentand ProductionFigure 1.4 (B)40 –30 –20 –10 –0 – | | | | | | |1950 1970 1990 2010 (est)1960 1980 2000– 150– 125– 100– 75– 50– 25– 0Employment(millions)Index:1997=100Manufacturingemployment(left scale)Industrialproduction(right scale)
  • 42. 1 - 42© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDevelopment of theService EconomyFigure 1.4 (C)United StaCanFraIBritJapW. Germ1970 2010 (est)| | | | |40 50 60 70 80Percent
  • 43. 1 - 43© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOrganizations in Each SectorService Sector Example% of allJobsEducation,Legal, Medical,otherSan Diego Zoo, ArnoldPalmer Hospital25.8Trade (retail,wholesale)Walgreen’s, Wal-Mart,Nordstrom’s14.9Utilities,TransportationPacific Gas & Electric,American Airlines5.2Professional andBusinessServicesSnelling and Snelling, WasteManagement, Inc.10.7Table 1.3
  • 44. 1 - 44© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOrganizations in Each SectorService Sector Example% of allJobsFinance,Information,Real EstateCiticorp, American Express,Prudential, Aetna9.6Food, Lodging,EntertainmentOlive Garden, Motel 6, WaltDisney8.5PublicAdministrationU.S., State of Alabama, CookCounty4.6Total 78.8Table 1.3
  • 45. 1 - 45© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOrganizations in Each SectorOther Sectors Example% of allJobsManufacturingSectorGeneral Electric, Ford,U.S. Steel, Intel11.2ConstructionSectorBechtel, McDermott 8.1AgricultureSectorKing Ranch 1.4Mining Sector Homestake Mining 0.5Total 21.2Table 1.3
  • 46. 1 - 46© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallChanging ChallengesTraditionalApproachReasons forChangeCurrentChallengeEthics andregulationsnot at theforefrontPublic concern overpollution, corruption,child labor, etc.High ethical andsocialresponsibility;increased legaland professionalstandardsLocal ornationalfocusGrowth of reliable, lowcost communicationand transportationGlobal focus,internationalcollaborationLengthyproductdevelopmentShorter life cycles;growth of globalcommunication; CAD,InternetRapid productdevelopment;designcollaborationFigure 1.5
  • 47. 1 - 47© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallChanging ChallengesTraditionalApproachReasons forChangeCurrentChallengeLow costproduction,with littleconcern forenvironment;freeresources(air, water)ignoredPublic sensitivity toenvironment; ISO 14000standard; increasingdisposal costsEnvironmentallysensitiveproduction; greenmanufacturing;sustainabilityLow-coststandardizedproductsRise of consumerism;increased affluence;individualismMasscustomizationFigure 1.5
  • 48. 1 - 48© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallChanging ChallengesTraditionalApproachReasons forChangeCurrentChallengeEmphasis onspecialized,often manualtasksRecognition of theemployees totalcontribution; knowledgesocietyEmpoweredemployees;enriched jobs“In-house”production;low-bidpurchasingRapid technologicalchange; increasingcompetitive forcesSupply-chainpartnering; jointventures,alliancesLarge lotproductionShorter product lifecycles; increasing needto reduce inventoryJust-In-Timeperformance;lean; continuousimprovementFigure 1.5
  • 49. 1 - 49© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallNew Trends in OM Ethics Global focus Environmentally sensitive production Rapid product development Environmentally sensitive production Mass customization Empowered employees Supply-chain partnering Just-in-time performance
  • 50. 1 - 50© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProductivity ChallengeProductivity is the ratio of outputs (goodsand services) divided by the inputs(resources such as labor and capital)The objective is to improve productivity!Important Note!Production is a measure of outputonly and not a measure of efficiency
  • 51. 1 - 51© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFeedback loopOutputsGoodsandservicesTransformationThe U.S. economic systemtransforms inputs to outputsat about an annual 2.5%increase in productivity peryear. The productivityincrease is the result of amix of capital (38% of 2.5%),labor (10% of 2.5%), andmanagement (52% of 2.5%).The Economic SystemInputsLabor,capital,managementFigure 1.6
  • 52. 1 - 52© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallImproving Productivity atStarbucksA team of 10 analystscontinually look for waysto shave time. Someimprovements:Stop requiring signatureson credit card purchasesunder $25Saved 8 secondsper transactionChange the size of the icescoopSaved 14 secondsper drinkNew espresso machines Saved 12 secondsper shot
  • 53. 1 - 53© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallImproving Productivity atStarbucksA team of 10 analystscontinually look for waysto shave time. Someimprovements:Stop requiring signatureson credit card purchasesunder $25Saved 8 secondsper transactionChange the size of the icescoopSaved 14 secondsper drinkNew espresso machines Saved 12 secondsper shotOperations improvements havehelped Starbucks increase yearlyrevenue per outlet by $200,000 to$940,000 in six years.Productivity has improved by 27%,or about 4.5% per year.
  • 54. 1 - 54© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increasescan our standard of living improveProductivityProductivity =Units producedInput used
  • 55. 1 - 55© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProductivity CalculationsProductivity =Units producedLabor-hours used= = 4 units/labor-hour1,000250Labor ProductivityOne resource input  single-factor productivity
  • 56. 1 - 56© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMulti-Factor ProductivityOutputLabor + Material + Energy+ Capital + MiscellaneousProductivity = Also known as total factor productivity Output and inputs are often expressedin dollarsMultiple resource inputs  multi-factor productivity
  • 57. 1 - 57© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:=Old laborproductivity8 titles/day32 labor-hrs
  • 58. 1 - 58© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:8 titles/day32 labor-hrs=Old laborproductivity = .25 titles/labor-hr
  • 59. 1 - 59© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:8 titles/day32 labor-hrs=Old laborproductivity=New laborproductivity= .25 titles/labor-hr14 titles/day32 labor-hrs
  • 60. 1 - 60© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:8 titles/day32 labor-hrs=Old laborproductivity = .25 titles/labor-hr14 titles/day32 labor-hrs=New laborproductivity= .4375 titles/labor-hr
  • 61. 1 - 61© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:=Old multifactorproductivity8 titles/day$640 + 400
  • 62. 1 - 62© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:8 titles/day$640 + 400=Old multifactorproductivity= .0077 titles/dollar
  • 63. 1 - 63© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:8 titles/day$640 + 400=Old multifactorproductivity=New multifactorproductivity= .0077 titles/dollar14 titles/day$640 + 800
  • 64. 1 - 64© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:8 titles/day$640 + 40014 titles/day$640 + 800=Old multifactorproductivity=New multifactorproductivity= .0077 titles/dollar= .0097 titles/dollar
  • 65. 1 - 65© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMeasurement Problems1. Quality may change while thequantity of inputs and outputsremains constant2. External elements may cause anincrease or decrease inproductivity Precise units of measure may belacking
  • 66. 1 - 66© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProductivity Variables1. Labor - contributesabout 10% of theannual increase2. Capital - contributesabout 38% of theannual increase3. Management -contributes about 52%of the annual increase
  • 67. 1 - 67© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallKey Variables for ImprovedLabor Productivity1. Basic education appropriate for thelabor force2. Diet of the labor force3. Social overhead that makes laboravailable Challenge is in maintaining andenhancing skills in the midst of rapidlychanging technology and knowledge
  • 68. 1 - 68© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor SkillsAbout half of the 17-year-olds in the U.S. cannotcorrectly answer questions of this typeFigure 1.7
  • 69. 1 - 69© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallInvestment and Productivity1086420PercentincreaseinproductivityPercentage investment10 15 20 25 30 35
  • 70. 1 - 70© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallService Productivity1. Typically labor intensive2. Frequently focused on uniqueindividual attributes or desires3. Often an intellectual task performed byprofessionals4. Often difficult to mechanize5. Often difficult to evaluate for quality
  • 71. 1 - 71© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProductivity at Taco BellImprovements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment New water and energy saving grills
  • 72. 1 - 72© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProductivity at Taco BellImprovements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment New water and energy saving grillsResults: Preparation time cut to 8 seconds Management span of control increasedfrom 5 to 30 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day Stores handle twice the volume with halfthe labor Conserve 300 million gallons of water and200 million KwH of electricity each yearsaving $17 million annually
  • 73. 1 - 73© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallEthics andSocial ResponsibilityChallenges facingoperations managers: Developing and producing safe,quality products Maintaining a clean environment Providing a safe workplace Honoring stakeholder commitments
  • 74. 1 - 74© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.

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