• Save
360_ch01
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

360_ch01

on

  • 732 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
732
Views on SlideShare
732
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Using this and subsequent slides, you might go through in more detail the decisions of Operations Management. While greater detail is provided by these slides than the earlier one, you may still decide to have the students contribute examples from their own experience.

360_ch01 360_ch01 Presentation Transcript

  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 11 Operations andProductivityPowerPoint presentation to accompanyPowerPoint presentation to accompanyHeizer and RenderHeizer and RenderOperations Management, 10eOperations Management, 10ePrinciples of Operations Management, 8ePrinciples of Operations Management, 8ePowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 2OutlineOutline Global Company Profile: Hard RockCafe What Is Operations Management? Organizing to Produce Goods andServices Why Study OM? What Operations Managers Do
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 3Outline - ContinuedOutline - Continued The Heritage of OperationsManagement Operations in the Service Sector Differences between Goods andServices Growth of Services Service Pay Exciting New Trends in OperationsManagement
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 4Outline - ContinuedOutline - Continued The Productivity Challenge Productivity Measurement Productivity Variables Productivity and the Service Sector Ethics and Social Responsibility
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 5Learning ObjectivesLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapterWhen you complete this chapteryou should be able to:you should be able to:1. Define operations management2. Explain the distinction betweengoods and services3. Explain the difference betweenproduction and productivity
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 6Learning ObjectivesLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapterWhen you complete this chapteryou should be able to:you should be able to:4. Compute single-factorproductivity5. Compute multifactor productivity6. Identify the critical variables inenhancing productivity
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 7The Hard Rock CafeThe Hard Rock Cafe First opened in 1971 Now – 129 restaurants in over 40 countries Rock music memorabilia Creates value in the form of good foodand entertainment 3,500+custom meals per day in Orlando How does an item get on the menu? Role of the Operations Manager
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 8What Is OperationsWhat Is OperationsManagement?Management?ProductionProduction is the creation ofgoods and servicesOperations management (OM)Operations management (OM)is the set of activities thatcreate value in the form ofgoods and services bytransforming inputs intooutputs
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 9Organizing to ProduceOrganizing to ProduceGoods and ServicesGoods and Services Essential functions:1.1. MarketingMarketing – generates demand2.2. Production/operationsProduction/operations – createsthe product3.3. Finance/accountingFinance/accounting – tracks howwell the organization is doing,pays bills, collects the money
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 10Organizational ChartsOrganizational ChartsOperationsTellerSchedulingCheck ClearingCollectionTransactionprocessingFacilitiesdesign/layoutVault operationsMaintenanceSecurityFinanceInvestmentsSecurityReal estateAccountingAuditingMarketingLoansCommercialIndustrialFinancialPersonalMortgageTrust DepartmentCommercial BankFigure 1.1(A)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 11Organizational ChartsOrganizational ChartsOperationsGround supportequipmentMaintenanceGround OperationsFacilitymaintenanceCateringFlight OperationsCrew schedulingFlyingCommunicationsDispatchingManagement scienceFinance/accountingAccountingPayablesReceivablesGeneral LedgerFinanceCash controlInternationalexchangeAirlineFigure 1.1(B)MarketingTrafficadministrationReservationsSchedulesTariffs (pricing)SalesAdvertising
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 12MarketingSalespromotionAdvertisingSalesMarketresearchOrganizational ChartsOrganizational ChartsOperationsFacilitiesConstruction; maintenanceProduction and inventory controlScheduling; materials controlQuality assurance and controlSupply-chain managementManufacturingTooling; fabrication; assemblyDesignProduct development and designDetailed product specificationsIndustrial engineeringEfficient use of machines, space,and personnelProcess analysisDevelopment and installation ofproduction tools and equipmentFinance/accountingDisbursements/creditsReceivablesPayablesGeneral ledgerFunds ManagementMoney marketInternationalexchangeCapital requirementsStock issueBond issueand recallManufacturingFigure 1.1(C)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 13Why Study OM?Why Study OM?1. OM is one of three major functions ofany organization, we want to studyhow people organize themselves forproductive enterprise2. We want (and need) to know howgoods and services are produced3. We want to understand whatoperations managers do4. OM is such a costly part of anorganization
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 14Options for IncreasingOptions for IncreasingContributionContributionTable 1.1Sales $100,000 $150,000 $100,000 $100,000Cost of Goods – 80,000 – 120,000 – 80,000 – 64,000Gross Margin 20,000 30,000 20,000 36,000Finance Costs – 6,000 – 6,000 – 3,000 – 6,000Subtotal 14,000 24,000 17,000 30,000Taxes at 25% – 3,500 – 6,000 – 4,250 – 7,500Contribution $ 10,500 $ 18,000 $ 12,750 $ 22,500Finance/Marketing Accounting OMOption Option OptionIncrease Reduce ReduceSales Finance ProductionCurrent Revenue 50% Costs 50% Costs 20%
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 15What OperationsWhat OperationsManagers DoManagers Do Planning Organizing Staffing Leading ControllingBasic Management FunctionsBasic Management Functions
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 16Ten Critical DecisionsTen Critical DecisionsTen Decision Areas Chapter(s)1. Design of goods and services 52. Managing quality 6, Supplement 63. Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7design4. Location strategy 85. Layout strategy 96. Human resources and 10job design7. Supply-chain 11, Supplement 11management8. Inventory, MRP, JIT 12, 14, 169. Scheduling 13, 1510. Maintenance 17 Table 1.2
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 17The Critical DecisionsThe Critical Decisions1. Design of goods and services What good or service should weoffer? How should we design theseproducts and services?2. Managing quality How do we define quality? Who is responsible for quality?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 18The Critical DecisionsThe Critical Decisions3. Process and capacity design What process and what capacity willthese products require? What equipment and technology isnecessary for these processes?4. Location strategy Where should we put the facility? On what criteria should we base thelocation decision?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 19The Critical DecisionsThe Critical Decisions5. Layout strategy How should we arrange the facility? How large must the facility be to meetour plan?6. Human resources and job design How do we provide a reasonablework environment? How much can we expect ouremployees to produce?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 20The Critical DecisionsThe Critical Decisions7. Supply-chain management Should we make or buy thiscomponent? Who should be our suppliers and howcan we integrate them into our strategy?8. Inventory, material requirementsplanning, and JIT How much inventory of each itemshould we have? When do we re-order?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 21The Critical DecisionsThe Critical Decisions9. Intermediate and short–termscheduling Are we better off keeping people onthe payroll during slowdowns? Which jobs do we perform next?10.Maintenance How do we build reliability into ourprocesses? Who is responsible for maintenance?Table 1.2 (cont.)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 22Where are the OM Jobs?Where are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Strategic issues Response time People/team development Customer service Quality Cost reduction Inventory reduction Productivity improvement
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 23OpportunitiesOpportunitiesFigure 1.2
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 24CertificationsCertifications APICS, the American Production andInventory Control Society American Society of Quality (ASQ) Institute for Supply Management (ISM) Project Management Institute (PMI) Council of Supply Chain ManagementProfessionals Charter Institute of Purchasing andSupply (CIPS)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 25Significant Events in OMSignificant Events in OMFigure 1.3
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 26The Heritage of OMThe Heritage of OM Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776;Charles Babbage 1852) Standardized parts (Whitney 1800) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/Sorenson 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth1922) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming1950)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 27The Heritage of OMThe Heritage of OM Computer (Atanasoff 1938) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957, Navy 1958) Material requirements planning (Orlicky1960) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Globalization (1992) Internet (1995)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 28Eli WhitneyEli Whitney Born 1765; died 1825 In 1798, received governmentcontract to make 10,000 muskets Showed that machine tools couldmake standardized parts to exactspecifications Musket parts could be used in anymusket
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 29Frederick W. TaylorFrederick W. Taylor Born 1856; died 1915 Known as ‘father of scientificmanagement’ In 1881, as chief engineer forMidvale Steel, studied how taskswere done Began first motion and time studies Created efficiency principles
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 30Taylor’s PrinciplesTaylor’s Principles Matching employees to right job Providing the proper training Providing proper work methods andtools Establishing legitimate incentives forwork to be accomplishedManagement Should TakeManagement Should TakeMore Responsibility for:More Responsibility for:
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 31Frank & Lillian GilbrethFrank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank (1868-1924); Lillian (1878-1972) Husband-and-wife engineering team Further developed workmeasurement methods Applied efficiency methods to theirhome and 12 children! Book & Movie: “Cheaper by theDozen,” “Bells on Their Toes”
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 32 Born 1863; died 1947 In 1903, created Ford MotorCompany In 1913, first used moving assemblyline to make Model TUnfinished product moved byconveyor past work station Paid workers very well for 1911($5/day!)Henry FordHenry Ford
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 33W. Edwards DemingW. Edwards Deming Born 1900; died 1993 Engineer and physicist Credited with teaching Japan qualitycontrol methods in post-WW2 Used statistics to analyze process His methods involve workers indecisions
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 34Contributions FromContributions From Human factors Industrial engineering Management science Biological science Physical sciences Information technology
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 35New Challenges in OMNew Challenges in OM Global focus Just-in-time Supply-chainpartnering Rapid productdevelopment,alliances Masscustomization Empoweredemployees, teamsToToFromFrom Local or national focus Batch shipments Low bid purchasing Lengthy productdevelopment Standard products Job specialization
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 36Characteristics of GoodsCharacteristics of Goods Tangible product Consistent productdefinition Production usuallyseparate fromconsumption Can be inventoried Low customerinteraction
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 37Characteristics of ServiceCharacteristics of Service Intangible product Produced andconsumed at same time Often unique High customerinteraction Inconsistent productdefinition Often knowledge-based Frequently dispersed
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 38Industry and Services asIndustry and Services asPercentage of GDPPercentage of GDPServices ManufacturingAustraliaCanadaChinaCzechRepFranceGermanyHongKongJapanMexicoRussianFedSouthAfricaSpainUKUS90 −80 −70 −60 −50 −40 −30 −20 −10 −0 −
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 39Goods and ServicesGoods and ServicesAutomobileComputerInstalled carpetingFast-food mealRestaurant meal/auto repairHospital careAdvertising agency/investment managementConsulting service/teachingCounselingPercent of Product that is a Good Percent of Product that is a Service100% 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100%| | | | | | | | |
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 40120 –100 –80 –60 –40 –20 –0 –| | | | | | |1950 1970 1990 2010 (est)1960 1980 2000Employment(millions)Manufacturing and ServiceManufacturing and ServiceEmploymentEmploymentFigure 1.4 (A)ManufacturingServiceService
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 41Manufacturing EmploymentManufacturing Employmentand Productionand ProductionFigure 1.4 (B)40 –30 –20 –10 –0 – | | | | | | |1950 1970 1990 2010 (est)1960 1980 2000– 150150– 125125– 100100– 7575– 5050– 2525– 00Employment(millions)Index:1997=100Index:1997=100Manufacturingemployment(left scale)IndustrialIndustrialproductionproduction(right scale)(right scale)
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 42Development of theDevelopment of theService EconomyService EconomyFigure 1.4 (C)United StatesCanadaFranceItalyBritainJapanW. Germany1970 2010 (est)| | | | |40 50 60 70 80Percent
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 43Organizations in Each SectorOrganizations in Each SectorService SectorService Sector ExampleExample% of all% of allJobsJobsEducation,Legal, Medical,otherSan Diego Zoo, ArnoldPalmer Hospital25.8Trade (retail,wholesale)Walgreen’s, Wal-Mart,Nordstrom’s14.9Utilities,TransportationPacific Gas & Electric,American Airlines5.2Professional andBusinessServicesSnelling and Snelling, WasteManagement, Inc.10.7Table 1.3
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 44Organizations in Each SectorOrganizations in Each SectorService SectorService Sector ExampleExample% of all% of allJobsJobsFinance,Information,Real EstateCiticorp, American Express,Prudential, Aetna9.6Food, Lodging,EntertainmentOlive Garden, Motel 6, WaltDisney8.5PublicAdministrationU.S., State of Alabama, CookCounty4.6Total 78.8Table 1.3
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 45Organizations in Each SectorOrganizations in Each SectorOther SectorsOther Sectors ExampleExample% of all% of allJobsJobsManufacturingSectorGeneral Electric, Ford,U.S. Steel, Intel11.2ConstructionSectorBechtel, McDermott 8.1AgricultureSectorKing Ranch 1.4Mining Sector Homestake Mining 0.5Total 21.2Table 1.3
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 46Changing ChallengesChanging ChallengesTraditionalApproachReasons forChangeCurrentChallengeEthics andregulationsnot at theforefrontPublic concern overpollution, corruption,child labor, etc.High ethical andsocialresponsibility;increased legaland professionalstandardsLocal ornationalfocusGrowth of reliable, lowcost communicationand transportationGlobal focus,internationalcollaborationLengthyproductdevelopmentShorter life cycles;growth of globalcommunication; CAD,InternetRapid productdevelopment;designcollaborationFigure 1.5
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 47Changing ChallengesChanging ChallengesTraditionalApproachReasons forChangeCurrentChallengeLow costproduction,with littleconcern forenvironment;freeresources(air, water)ignoredPublic sensitivity toenvironment; ISO 14000standard; increasingdisposal costsEnvironmentallysensitiveproduction; greenmanufacturing;sustainabilityLow-coststandardizedproductsRise of consumerism;increased affluence;individualismMasscustomizationFigure 1.5
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 48Changing ChallengesChanging ChallengesTraditionalApproachReasons forChangeCurrentChallengeEmphasis onspecialized,often manualtasksRecognition of theemployees totalcontribution; knowledgesocietyEmpoweredemployees;enriched jobs“In-house”production;low-bidpurchasingRapid technologicalchange; increasingcompetitive forcesSupply-chainpartnering; jointventures, alliancesLarge lotproductionShorter product lifecycles; increasing needto reduce inventoryJust-In-Timeperformance;lean; continuousimprovementFigure 1.5
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 49New Trends in OMNew Trends in OM Ethics Global focus Environmentally sensitive production Rapid product development Environmentally sensitive production Mass customization Empowered employees Supply-chain partnering Just-in-time performance
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 50Productivity ChallengeProductivity ChallengeProductivity is the ratio of outputs (goodsand services) divided by the inputs(resources such as labor and capital)The objective is to improve productivity!The objective is to improve productivity!Important Note!Production is a measure of outputonly and not a measure of efficiency
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 51Feedback loopOutputsGoodsandservicesTransformationThe U.S. economic systemtransforms inputs to outputsat about an annual 2.5%increase in productivity peryear. The productivityincrease is the result of amix of capital (38% of 2.5%),labor (10% of 2.5%), andmanagement (52% of 2.5%).The Economic SystemThe Economic SystemInputsLabor,capital,managementFigure 1.6
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 52Improving Productivity atImproving Productivity atStarbucksStarbucksA team of 10 analystsA team of 10 analystscontinually look for wayscontinually look for waysto shave time. Someto shave time. Someimprovements:improvements:Stop requiring signatureson credit card purchasesunder $25Saved 8 secondsper transactionChange the size of the icescoopSaved 14 secondsper drinkNew espresso machines Saved 12 secondsper shot
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 53Improving Productivity atImproving Productivity atStarbucksStarbucksA team of 10 analystsA team of 10 analystscontinually look for wayscontinually look for waysto shave time. Someto shave time. Someimprovements:improvements:Stop requiring signatureson credit card purchasesunder $25Saved 8 secondsper transactionChange the size of the icescoopSaved 14 secondsper drinkNew espresso machines Saved 12 secondsper shotOperations improvements havehelped Starbucks increase yearlyrevenue per outlet by $200,000 to$940,000 in six years.Productivity has improved by 27%,or about 4.5% per year.
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 54 Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increasescan our standard of living improveProductivityProductivityProductivity =Units producedInput used
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 55Productivity CalculationsProductivity CalculationsProductivity =Units producedLabor-hours used= = 4 units/labor-hour1,000250Labor ProductivityLabor ProductivityOne resource input  single-factor productivity
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 56Multi-Factor ProductivityMulti-Factor ProductivityOutputLabor + Material + Energy+ Capital + MiscellaneousProductivity = Also known as total factor productivity Output and inputs are often expressedin dollarsMultiple resource inputs  multi-factor productivity
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 57Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:=Old laborproductivity8 titles/day32 labor-hrs
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 58Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:8 titles/day32 labor-hrs=Old laborproductivity = .25 titles/labor-hr
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 59Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:New System:8 titles/day32 labor-hrs=Old laborproductivity=New laborproductivity= .25 titles/labor-hr14 titles/day14 titles/day32 labor-hrs32 labor-hrs
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 60Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:New System:8 titles/day32 labor-hrs=Old laborproductivity = .25 titles/labor-hr14 titles/day32 labor-hrs=New laborproductivity= .4375 titles/labor-hr
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 61Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:New System:=Old multifactorproductivity8 titles/day$640 + 400
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 62Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:New System:8 titles/day$640 + 400=Old multifactorproductivity= .0077 titles/dollar
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 63Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:New System:8 titles/day$640 + 400=Old multifactorproductivity=New multifactorproductivity= .0077 titles/dollar14 titles/day14 titles/day$640 + 800$640 + 800
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 64Collins Title ProductivityCollins Title ProductivityStaff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/dayPayroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/dayOld System:Old System:14 titles/day Overhead = $800/dayNew System:New System:8 titles/day$640 + 40014 titles/day$640 + 800=Old multifactorproductivity=New multifactorproductivity= .0077 titles/dollar= .0097 titles/dollar
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 65Measurement ProblemsMeasurement Problems1.1. QualityQuality may change while thequantity of inputs and outputsremains constant2.2. External elementsExternal elements may cause anincrease or decrease inproductivity Precise unitsPrecise units of measure may belacking
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 66Productivity VariablesProductivity Variables1.1. LaborLabor - contributesabout 10% of theannual increase2.2. CapitalCapital - contributesabout 38% of theannual increase3.3. ManagementManagement -contributes about52% of the annualincrease
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 67Key Variables for ImprovedKey Variables for ImprovedLabor ProductivityLabor Productivity1. Basic education appropriate for thelabor force2. Diet of the labor force3. Social overhead that makes laboravailable Challenge is in maintaining andenhancing skills in the midst of rapidlychanging technology and knowledge
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 68Labor SkillsLabor SkillsAbout half of the 17-year-olds in the U.S. cannotAbout half of the 17-year-olds in the U.S. cannotcorrectly answer questions of this typecorrectly answer questions of this typeFigure 1.7
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 69Investment and ProductivityInvestment and Productivity1086420PercentincreaseinproductivityPercentage investment10 15 20 25 30 35
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 70Service ProductivityService Productivity1. Typically labor intensive2. Frequently focused on uniqueindividual attributes or desires3. Often an intellectual task performed byprofessionals4. Often difficult to mechanize5. Often difficult to evaluate for quality
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 71Productivity at Taco BellProductivity at Taco BellImprovements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment New water and energy saving grills
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 72Productivity at Taco BellProductivity at Taco BellImprovements: Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment New water and energy saving grillsResults: Preparation time cut to 8 seconds Management span of control increasedfrom 5 to 30 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day Stores handle twice the volume with halfthe labor Conserve 300 million gallons of water andConserve 300 million gallons of water and200 million KwH of electricity each year200 million KwH of electricity each yearsaving $17 million annuallysaving $17 million annually
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 73Ethics andEthics andSocial ResponsibilitySocial ResponsibilityChallenges facingChallenges facingoperations managers:operations managers: Developing and producing safe,quality products Maintaining a clean environment Providing a safe workplace Honoring stakeholder commitments
  • © 2011 Pearson1 - 74All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.