Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Torrefaction
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Torrefaction

1,361

Published on

2011 …

2011
Chicago
Torrefaction

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,361
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
51
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Torrefaction Quality Controlbased on logistic & end-user requirementsRobin Zwart, Jaap Kiel, Fred Verhoeff and Jan PelsEnergy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN)
  • 2. Content • ECN and torrefaction • Lab-scale torrefaction tests Different types of wood and waste streams with different shapes • Production of BO2 pellets The BO2 technology and the Patrig pilot plant • Performance and quality control Milling and densification behavior, yields, composition • Conclusions and outlook Market acceptance, scale-up & demonstration of technology2
  • 3. ECN and torrefaction Frontrunner in torrefaction  ECN has 20 years experience in biomass co-firing R&D, identified the potential of torrefaction in this framework and played a pioneering role in adapting torrefaction to bioenergy applications since 2002  ECN’s torrefaction technology has been proven on pilot-scale and together with industrial partners is taken to demonstration and commercial market introduction  ECN conducts contract R&D for industry to assess the torrefaction potential of specific feedstock, produce test batches and optimise product quality4
  • 4. ECN and torrefaction Torrefaction reactors20 l batch reactor 50 - 100 kg/hr pilot • Main product groups: moving bed reactor solids, permanent gases, organics, lipids, water • Permanent gases: CO, CO2, CH4, CxHy, … • Organics:5kg/hr auger reactor acetic acid, methanol, furaldehyde, hydroxyaceton, hydroxybutanon, phenol, formic acid, propionic acid, … 5
  • 5. TorTech project: Public ECN report ECN-E--11-039 PhD thesis M. van der Stelt (TUe, 2010) Lab-scale torrefaction tests Torrefaction behavior of a variety of biomass streams BAGASSE20 l batch reactor Raw ~250°C/~30 min ~280°C/~30 min GRASS SEED HAY Raw ~250°C/~30 min ~280°C/~30 min5kg/hr auger reactor 6
  • 6. Lab-scale torrefaction tests Torrefaction behavior of a variety of biomass streams ROAD SIDE GRASS20 l batch reactor Raw ~255°C/~30 min ~295°C/~30 min STRAW Raw ~260°C/~30 min ~270°C/~30 min5kg/hr auger reactor 7
  • 7. Lab-scale torrefaction tests Torrefaction behavior of a variety of biomass streams PINE20 l batch reactor Raw ~275°C/~30 min Raw ~320°C/~30 min SPRUCE Raw ~285°C/~30 min Raw ~290°C/~30 min5kg/hr auger reactor 8
  • 8. Lab-scale torrefaction tests Torrefaction reactions overall exothermal 300 250 Temperature (°C) 200 Ambient Surface 150 Shifted middleutlet Middle 100 Results from8 Torgas outlet single-particle N2 inlet 50 8 testing 5 N2 inlet 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 7 Time (min) 6 1. Thermal ceramic bricks 2 2 2. Screws 3 1. Thermal ceramic bricks 3. Glass sphere cut by the middle 2. Screws 4. Woody ball 1 4 3. Glass sphere cut by the mi 5. Themocouples and their inlet 4. Woody ball 6. Gas inlet-outlet 5. Themocouples and their in 6. Gas inlet-outlet 7. Steel ball with double tube to act as inlet and outlet of gases 1 7. Steel ball with double tube 8. Gas heater 8. Gas heater 9
  • 9. Lab-scale torrefaction tests Torrefaction behavior of a variety of waste streams REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF)20 l batch reactor Raw ~245°C/~30 min ~265°C/~30 min DRY STABILATE SOME COMMENTS Raw ~250°C/~30 min Thermal run away5kg/ hr auger reactor = Meltdown Inhomogenity Waste in = Waste out 10
  • 10. Lab-scale torrefaction tests Devolatilization of chlorine compounts GAS COMPOSITIONSOLID COMPOSITION11
  • 11. 1,600 1,400 Lab-scale torrefaction tests 1,200Grindability of a variety of torrefied biomass streams Power consumption consumption (kJ/kg) 1,000 Coal AU GS01 GS01(250,29) RG01 ST01 ST01(259,29) BE BE(264,34) WI PI01(268,30) PI01(277,30) SP(289,29) Power (kJ/kg) 1,600 800 800 1,400 600 600 1,200Power consumption (kJ/kg) 1,000 400 400 800 200 200 600 - 400 - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 200 Average particlevolume based) average particle size (mm, size (mm) - 12 - 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
  • 12. Lab-scale torrefaction tests grass Bagasse Beech Grass seed hay Willow Road side Larch Straw Pine 35 LHV of a variety of RDF Spruce torrefied biomass streams Trockenstabilat 33 Bagasse Grass seed hay Road side grass Straw Lower heating value [MJ/kg d.a.f.] Beech Willow Larch Pine 31 Spruce RDF Trockenstabilat35 2933 2731 2529 2327 2125 1923 1721 1519 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 30017 Temperature [°C]15 13 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300
  • 13. Production of BO2 pellets The BO2 technology Support fuel Flue gas Torrefaction gas Combustion Gas recycleBiomass BO2-pellets Pre-drying Torrefaction Cooling Pelletisation DP Flue gas Heat exchange Flue gas Features conventional drying and pelletisation combined with dedicated moving bed technology with direct heating High energy efficiency (> 90%) / Cost effective / IP is patent protected 14
  • 14. 1 - 10 tonne Production of BO2 pellets test batches Patrig pilot plant Torrefaction 50 - 100 kg/hr feeding Pelletisation Pre-drying Conditions: Cooling and storage –––––––––––––– 220 - 300°C 30 - 60 minutes15
  • 15. Performance and quality control Torrefied biomass pellets in perspective Wood chips Wood Torrefied Charcoal Coal pellets wood pellets Moisture content (wt%) 30 – 45 7 – 10 1–5 1–5 10 – 15 Calorific value (LHV, MJ/kg) 9 – 12 15 – 17 18 – 24 30 – 32 23 – 28 Volatile matter (wt% db) 70 – 75 70 – 75 55 – 65 10 – 12 15 – 30 Fixed carbon (wt% db) 20 – 25 20 – 25 22 – 35 85 – 87 50 – 55 Bulk density (kg/l) 0.20 – 0.25 0.55 – 0.65 0.65 – 0.80 0.18 – 0.24 0.80 – 0.85 3 Vol. energy density (GJ/m ) 4.5 – 6.0 8 – 11 15 – 19 6.0 – 6.4 18 – 24 Hygroscopic properties Hydrophilic Hydrophilic Moderately Hydrophobic Hydrophobic Hydrophobic Biological degradation Fast Fast Slow None None Milling requirements Special Special Standard Standard Standard Product consistency Limited High High High High Transport cost High Medium Low Medium Low16
  • 16. Lower LHV acceptable Performance and quality control Less transport gas Bulk density versus heating value 2 3 +20% 6 +40% +30% 4 -30% 5 117
  • 17. Performance and quality control Vattenfall tests at CHP Reuter West18
  • 18. Performance and quality control Vattenfall tests at CHP Reuter West19
  • 19. Performance and quality control Vattenfall tests at CHP Reuter West20
  • 20. Performance and quality control Vattenfall tests at CHP Reuter West21
  • 21. Biomass Conclusions and outlook Product quality optimization Torrefaction  Pilot, demo and 1st commercial plants produce kg to tonne scale batches allowing representative Densification logistics & end-use performance testing by industry  Many coal-fired power plants want to be early adaptors and perform successful co-firing trials Logistics testing (e.g. RWE, Vattenfall, CEATI consortium) End-use testing  Product quality optimisation requires a systematic iterative approach (2 iterative loops)  For this purpose, European torrefaction Validated and optimised developers, combustion and gasification solid biofuel technology providers and end-users have joined forces in the EU-FP7 project SECTOR22
  • 22. Conclusions and outlook Scale-up & demonstration torrefaction technology  Vattenfall supports ECN in upscaling torrefaction technology The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and Vattenfall in June 2010 agreed on a partnership for upscaling ECN’s BO2 technology. This marked an important step towards the commercial application of ECN’s BO2 technology for upgrading biomass into high-quality solid fuel.  ECN closes deal with Andritz OY The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and Andritz OY in June 2011 agreed on a partnership for developing and commercialising torrefaction technology. Andritz has acquired the exclusive right to use the patents and knowledge of the ECN torrefaction technology. ECN will also provide Andritz with technical support, starting with the joint development of a demonstration plant.23
  • 23. More information Robin Zwart phone +31 224 56 4574 mobile +31 6 3073 6496 e-mail zwart@ecn.nl internet www.ecn.nl Production of tonne-scale test batches at ECN for industrial trials24

×