InteroperabilityLIS 688-Metadata Group 6: Krishawna Brown, Thomas Kozak, Whit Preston, and Alison Walsh May 1, 2011
Interoperability-Definition National Information Standards Organization (NISO)- “...the ability of multiple systems with different hardware and software platforms, data structures, and interfaces to exchange data with minimal loss of content and functionality. (NISO 2004).” Essentially, function must not be lost.
Interoperability-Definition (Continued) Some definitions emphasize what obstacles an interoperability initiative must overcome: “Metadata interoperability is a qualitative property of metadata information objects that enables systems and applications to work with or use these objects across system boundaries (Haslhofer & Klas, 2010, p. 7:14).”
The Importance of Metadata Interoperabilty Why important? “The ultimate goal for such systems is for the components to evolve independently yet be able to call on one another efficiently and conveniently (Paepcke et al., 1998).”
Issues of Interoperability Gail Hodge In regard to consistency, “… information collected by one organization for a particular purpose can be searched, exchanged, transferred, used, and understood by another organization for a different purpose” (Hodge, 2005, p. 39).
Interoperability Problems Several issues must be tackled: The machines must be able to communicate. The systems must also understand and process objects from another system. Finally, on the semantic level, structures must be put in place for correct interpretation of the objects, by humans or by machines.
Abstraction Levels Most Concrete Most Abstract Technical Syntactic Semantic Pragmatic Dynamic Conceptual Source: (Haslhofer & Klas, 2010)
Overall Categories of Interoperability Uniform standard -> In other words, multiple organizations agree on one standard to use. Application profiling/adaptation/modification -> Different modifications starting from one standard. Derivation -> Start with complex standard and simplify for different uses. Crosswalk/mapping -> Organizations use different standards, use crosswalks to move from one to another.
Overall Categories of Interoperability (Continued) Switching schema -> Hub-like structure: organizations using different schemas all crosswalk to one “central” schema, then back again. Lingua franca -> “set of core attributes” common to multiple schemas. More difficult interoperability using this method. Metadata framework/container -> Essentially a superschema, which contains elements from all the schemas used by participating organizations. Source: Chan, Lois Mai. (2005) Metadata interoperability: a study of methodology. Retrieved April 20, 2011 from http://white-clouds.com/iclc/cliej/cl19chan.htm
Conclusion The research: 2 main categories: Extremely technical Broad Each organization must assess what specific obstacles must be overcome while at the same time being able to incorporate: usability for the sake of practicality. flexibility and adaptability for the sake of creating the next schema.
References Chan, Lois Mai. (2005) Metadata interoperability: a study of methodology. Retrieved April 20, 2011 from http://white-clouds.com/iclc/cliej/cl19chan.htm Haslhofer, B. & Klas, W. (2010). A survey of techniques for achieving metadata interoperability. ACM Computing Surveys, 42(2), 7.1-7.37. doi:10.1145/1667062.1667064 Hodge, G. (2005). Metadata for electronic information resources: From variety to interoperability. Information Services & Use, 25, 35-45.
References (Continued) National Information Standards Organization. (2004). Understanding Metadata. Retreived April 20, 2011 from http://www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf Paepcke, A., Chang, C.C., Winograd, T., & García-Molina, H. (1998), “Interoperability for digital libraries worldwide”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 41 No. 4, pp. 33-42.