Period 8 group 4


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The Exile

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Period 8 group 4

  1. 1. Chapter 8: The Exile <br />Jackie Bonner, Olivia DeRogatis, Megan Kelly, Jennie Kelly, Meg Kyle, and Sean Monahan<br />
  2. 2. The story of the Exile..<br />The Second Book of Kings and covers the following prophetic books:<br />The Books of Zephaniah, Nahum, and Habakkuk<br />The Book of Jeremiah<br />The Book of Lamentations<br />The Book of Baruch<br />The Book of Ezekiel<br />Second Isaiah<br />
  3. 3. Judah’s Slippery Slope: Heading for Disaster <br />The reform initiated by Hezekiah did not last long<br />His wicked son Manasseh replaces him<br />Manasseh bows to the Assyrian Empire’s gods and puts pagan shrines in the Temple<br />His son, who succeeds him, is assassinated, but his grandson Joshua grows to be king and one of Judah’s great reformer <br />King Joshua finds the Book of Law while repairing the Temple in about <br />After reading it, he is appalled that Judah has abandoned the Law of God so shamelessly.<br />He then issues many reforms in an attempt to bring back to Judah<br />However, these reforms do not last long, as Joshua killed as Joshua killed in battle with Egypt’s pharaoh in 609 B.C.<br />
  4. 4. Judah’s Slippery Slope: Continued <br />His reforms are undone, as his son Jehoiakim, another terrible king, takes the throne as a puppet of Egypt<br />Joshua’s zeal for the Covenant has left a deep and lasting impression on some of his followers<br /> The Deuteronomists begin assembling Israel’s ancient texts of history<br />The prophets : Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and, above all, the great Jeremiah call Judah to hope and repentance, inspiring the Deuteronomists<br />
  5. 5. Zephaniah: The Remnant<br />Zephaniah’s 3 short chapters tell of “the Day of the Lord,” a time of judgment for not only enemies of Judah but for the unfaithful of Judah and Jerusalem as well <br /> - People will be judged for their deeds, not their religious beliefs - the unfortunate and impoverished, the “humble of the land,” will become the remnant, a new kind of “chosen” from whom God will build the new Israel <br /> • Remnant meant the people who would remain with God and be chosen by Him on the judgment day • these ideas of the poor and humble being those who would be chosen by God were new and shocking<br />
  6. 6. Nahum: Nineveh Will Fall<br />A little-known prophet, who spoke during Joshua’s reign<br />His book opens while Joshua’s reform is in full swing - jubilant, as it appears that Assyria will soon be destroyed by Babylon • gloats over his visions of their bloody downfall - calls Judah to hope as all looks well • little does he know that it will be corrupted again<br />
  7. 7. Habakkuk: Why, God, Why?<br />Probably a prophet in the Jerusalem Temple during the detestable Jehoikim’s reign<br />Had a great way with words and writes his book after having a vision in the Temple<br />Complains to God that he has prayed endlessly for Judah to be punished for its corruption, yet his prayer has not been heard<br />God replies that Judah will be punished by the Chaldeans<br />This exchange between God leaves the prophet praising Him and humbled by his own ignorance of divine ways<br />The idea of questioning God for why this evil is occurring in Judah and why He was not answering Habakkuk’s prayers, was first introduced in this book.<br /> - it was a bold step forward in the people’s understanding of God<br />
  8. 8. Jeremiah: Persecuted for God’s Sake <br />Jeremiah was about twenty years old when God called to him during Josiah’s reign.<br />Jeremiah preached God’s message not only through his words and oracles but also through his own life suffering.<br />He was despised and persecuted by the people he was trying to save, and also struggling with God.<br />The Book of Jeremiah is a combination of poetry, prose, and biographical. <br />
  9. 9. Jeremiah’s Visions<br />Jeremiahhadtwo visions: <br />1.) He sees a branch of an almond tree that symbolized that God was watching to see if Judah and Jerusalem will change.<br /> 2.) He sees a boiling cauldron tipped on a hearth in the north that meant that God will summon kingdoms from the north to be poured out over Judah if it does not change. <br />
  10. 10. Jerusalem, Your Time is Coming!<br />After Josiah is killed in a battle with Egypt, the Egyptians choose his son Jehoiakim to be king of Judah.<br />He sides with Egypt in its struggle against the king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar II, for control of the reign around the eastern Mediterranean. <br />Through Jeremiah God warns that Judah and Jerusalem will get the punishment their crimes deserve.<br />Judahites feel confident that God would never permit Jerusalem or the house of David to be destroyed.<br />
  11. 11. The Temple: No Guarantee of Safety <br />God tells Jeremiah to preach in the Temple and he warns his listeners that even the Temple does not ensure God’s presence.<br />Unless they stop oppressing aliens, shedding innocent blood and worshiping idols they will be lost.<br />Outraged priests and court prophets start a riot and call for Jeremiah’s death.<br />Jeremiah escapes alive. <br />After Jeremiah demonstrates that God will smash the city, he is accused of blasphemy and is beaten and put in stocks overnight.<br />Jeremiah feels tricked and claims he will never mention God’s name again but soon realizes that his enemies have failed and shouts “The Lord is with me!” <br />
  12. 12. The First Exile <br />King Jehoiak, king of Jerusalem, withheld information from the Babylons, causing a war. <br />Jerusalem was attacked but not destroyed.<br />Jeremiahs explains how exile isn't for annihilation, but for purification, so the exiled can return to the role God choose for them.<br />
  13. 13. The First Exile Continued.<br />King Jehoiakim’s son, Zedekiah, became king. He was afraid to follow Jeremiahs advice. <br />King Zedekiah took part in Babylon's revolt against Jeremiahs advice.<br />Jeremiah was accused of treason and was imprisoned, beaten, and thrown into jail to die.<br />Jeremiah continued to talk to God, and God revealed his plan to make a New Covenant.<br />
  14. 14. The New Covenant <br />The new covenant was not just practices, but also a moral code. <br />After Jerusalem is destroyed in 587BC Jeremiah stayed with the remaining Judahites to give them Gods message on how to be safe, the refuse to listen to Jeremiah. <br />After this Jeremiah disappeared and many believe he was murdered in Egypt.<br />
  15. 15. Lamentations: Judah Grieves<br />The Book of Lamentations is a collection of 5 hymns of grief composed shortly after the fall of Jerusalem<br />Each chapter is a separate poem, its thought each is written by a different author.<br />The Book of Lamentations helped Judah by giving it a way to grieve – recalling its agony, lamenting, and asking for healing. <br />
  16. 16. Chapters <br />Chapters 1, 2, and 5, are funeral laments for the lost Jerusalem.<br />The 3rd chapter tells of the authors suffering and hope that one day God will bring it to an end.<br />The 5th chapter is the voice of the people admitting their guilt, expressing their hope and praying for restoration. <br />
  17. 17. Ezekiel: From Hearts of Stone to Hearts of Flesh<br />After Jerusalem fell, Ezekiel was one of those deported to Babylon. <br />Like Jeremiah, he confronted the hard hearts of the people and let them know that God was loosing patience with them. <br />
  18. 18. An Awesome Call<br />Ezekiel’s life of prophecy begins with being called through a strange vision.<br />He sees a bright light in a chariot drawn by four winged creatures. <br />A voice instructs him to tell the people of the Lords displeasure with them and it bids him to eat a scroll. <br />When he eats the scroll, it tastes as sweet as honey<br />
  19. 19. A New Heart and a New Spirit Within<br />Once Jerusalem was captured, Ezekiel's role with the people changes. <br />He now becomes a counselor, a teacher, and an inspirer to the disheartened exiles. <br />Despite Ezekiel's hopeful words, the exiles feel lifeless. <br />Ezekiel has a vision of a valley filled with dry bones. <br />Ezekiel is told to call forth breath for the bones; he does and suddenly an array of living people are before him. <br />
  20. 20. The Vision of a New Jerusalem<br />The last chapters of Ezekiel are a vision of the return to Jerusalem, the rebuilding of the Temple, and the return of the glory of God. <br />After years of his message of repentance being ignored, Ezekiel became the herald of Israel's hope. <br />
  21. 21. Who was the Second Isaiah?<br />A prophet toward the end of the Babylonian Exile<br />Inspired by the 1st Isaiah<br />Chapters 40-55 of the book of Isaiah<br />
  22. 22. Life in Babylon <br />Exiles had certain religious freedoms<br />Built homes, planted gardens, developed businesses<br />Many became prosperous<br />Jews weren’t allowed to build a temple or practice religious rituals publically<br />Jews tried not to fall to Babylonian practices<br />Preserved the Torah carefully<br />Gathered to worship secretly, read scriptures, and pray<br />Focused more on God and community rather than the temple itself<br />
  23. 23. Tensions and Compromises<br />People wondered if God forgot them<br />Jews argued through generations about religious practices<br />People could’ve fell to Babylonian practices<br />Jews faithfulness to God varied<br />Even the faithful Jews were content with staying in Babylon<br />Showed that the temple wasn’t necessary for worship<br />
  24. 24. Consolation and Hope<br />Cyrus, Persian King, freed the exiles<br />The exiles needed inspiration to go back to Judah<br />Only a fraction of the Jews returned<br />These chapters are called the Book of Consolation<br />4 songs of mysterious salvation to people through a servant’s suffering<br />
  25. 25. Cyrus: The Anointed Liberator<br />2nd Isaiah foresees the day when God summons Cyrus to overthrow Babylon<br />Exile ends with a new Exodus<br />Cyrus doesn’t know God, but God calls him by name<br />Cyrus doesn’t resort to rape and genocide<br />Allows conquered people to return home as long as they worshipped his God<br />Shows us a universal God<br />
  26. 26. Comfort of God’s People<br />God offers comfort and shows the exiles the way home<br />Isaiah shares hope with the people through many hope filled passages<br />These passages are the Songs of the Suffering Servants<br />
  27. 27. The Songs of The Suffering Servants<br />Innocent man who suffers greatly<br />Suffers in order to save the people from their sins<br />Christians see in him a prophetic image of Christ<br />There are 4 Songs<br />
  28. 28. Song 1: Song 2:<br />God speaks of a chosen one<br />This person has been given God’s spirit to bring justice to the nations<br />Act toward the bruised reed : Israel<br />The speaker is the prophet<br />Simile of a sharp edge sword that God had hidden in a quiver<br />Called from his mother’s womb to restore Israel as a light to the nations so that salvation can reach the ends of the Earth<br />
  29. 29. Song 3: Song 4:<br />The servant is the subject to insults and derision<br />Endures abuse, hoping God will help him<br />Tormenters wear out, and God prevails<br />Suffering servant is an embodiment of Israel and seems inhuman<br />Suffering for the nation’s wrongdoing<br />Since he has poured out himself from death, he won pardon for the sins of many<br />
  30. 30. The way of salvation<br /> Israel will bring salvation to the whole world.<br />Jesus as the suffering servant<br />Suffering servant<br />Songs are used in the good Friday liturgy.<br />
  31. 31. Tenderness of God<br />God inspired a passage in scripture to insure that he will never forget Israel.<br />Come to the Feast<br /><ul><li>A joyful poem in second Isaiah invites people to a great feast: to enjoy rich food of God’s life.
  32. 32. Closes with hymn of joy.</li></li></ul><li> Fruits of the exile<br />Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Second Isaiah guided Israel through its time of purification in exile to: call people to a deeper relationship with god and ultimately make Judaism a religion.<br />Pointed to the transforming and saving power of suffering, rather than its being simply a punishment for sin.<br />Judaism was no longer tied to one particular place. It spread and became a “light to all nations.” <br />