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Reading Next

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Team 2 provides an example of how reading research informed policy related to the formulation of the Reading Next Act.

Team 2 provides an example of how reading research informed policy related to the formulation of the Reading Next Act.

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  • 1. Example for Con Position
    John T. Guthrie
  • 2. READING NEXT:
    A VISION FOR ACTION AND RESEARCH IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL LITERACY
    Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C.
    Alliance for Excellent Education
    Carnegie Corporation
    2004
  • 3. Participants and Goals
    Andres Henriquez, Convener
    Donald Deshler, David Francis, John Guthrie, Michael Kamil, James McPartland, Panel
    Goals
    Speak to policy makers
    Use legislators’ schema:
    problem—solution
    Accessible language
    Concrete recommendations for action
  • 4. Messages ofReading Next
    Problems in adolescent literacy
    Reading is inadequate for schooling, workplace, higher education
    NAEP Grade 8 students;
    1994; 30% above proficiency
    2007; 31% above proficiency
  • 5. Messages of Reading Next
    Problems in adolescent literacy
    1000 students drop out of school PER DAY
    Lowest 25% in reading achievement are 20 times more likely to drop out
  • 6. Messages of Reading Next
    Solutions
    Elements of successful middle school literacy instruction
    Not a program; not a single bullet
  • 7. Messages of Reading Next
    Fifteen (15) elements of successful middle school literacy education
    Instructional improvements
    1. Direct, explicit comprehension instruction
    2. Embedded in content
    3. Motivation and self-directed learning
    4. Text-based collaborative learning
    5. Strategic tutoring
  • 8. Messages of Reading Next
    Fifteen (15) elements of successful middle school literacy education
    6. Diverse texts (electronic, others)
    7. Intensive writing
    8. A technology component
    9. Ongoing formative assessment of students
  • 9. Messages of Reading Next
    Fifteen (15) elements of successful middle school literacy education
    Infrastructure improvements
    10. Extended time for literacy
    11. Professional development
    12. Ongoing, summative assessment of students and programs
    13. Teacher teams
    14. Leadership
    15. Comprehensive and coordinated
  • 10. Research Evidence in Reading Next
    The evidence for these elements
    consists of 117 publications such as:
    Pearson, P. D., & Fielding, L. (1991). Comprehension instruction. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 815–60).White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Almasi, J. F. (1995).The nature of fourth graders’ sociocognitive conflicts in peer-led and teacher-led discussions of literature. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 314–351.
    Ivey, G., & Broaddus, K. (2001). “Just plain reading”: A survey of what makes students want to read in middle school classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 350–77.
    Konopak, B. C., Martin, S. H., & Martin, M.A. (1990). Using a writing strategy to enhance sixth grade students’ comprehension of content material. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22, 19–37.
  • 11. Research Evidence THAT COULD HAVE BEEN in Reading Next
    Alvermann, D. E., (2002). Effective literacy instruction for adolescents. Journal of Literacy Research, 34, 189-208.
    Duffy, G., (2002). Visioning and the development of outstanding teachers. Reading Research and Instruction,41,331-344.
    Kamil, M., Borman, G., Dole, J., Kral, C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices. Institute of Education Sciences. USDE.
    Scribner, S., & Cole, M. (1981).The psychology of literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 12. Research Basefor Reading Next
    Presuppositions to our knowledge base
    We emphasize the commonalities of the cultural-historical and the scientific perspectives.
    Evidence is optimal when the inferences from ethnographies and experiments converge and complement.
  • 13. Research Basefor Reading Next
    Cultural-historical: Activity theory
    Michael Cole, Sylvia Scribner, Alexei Leont'ev
    Literacy is a form of culturally grounded cognition.
    Effective literacy practices are in the cultural milieu.
    Cognitive systems are adapted to environmental affordances.
    Literacy is shaped by the beliefs, goals, and behaviors of individuals in interaction with others .
    Tactics: Case Studies; Ethnographies; Semiotic studies; more
  • 14. Research Basefor Reading Next
    Scientific perspective: Strategic, engaged reading
    Literacy is best learned in rich content domains.
    Teaching cognitive strategies benefits learners.
    Students’ commitment to literacy expands their authentic practices.
    Teachers who scaffold processes and practices foster learning
    Tactics: Correlational; experiments; systematic classroom observations
  • 15. Research Basefor Reading Next
    Cultural-historical and Scientific perspectives are consistent with Reading Next:
    (2) literacy instruction embedded in content,
    (3) self-directed learning,
    (4) text-based collaborative learning,
    (6) diverse texts (electronic),
    (10) extended time for literacy.
  • 16. Consequences of Reading Next
    Eight (8) Striving Reader awards
    totaling $142M from 2006-2007,
    met criteria for successful inst.
    Reading Next had more than
    1,000,000 downloads by May 2009
  • 17. Limitations of Reading Next
    Did children’s proficiency improve?
    Was teachers’ capacity enhanced?
    Were schools more successful?
    Did the field of adolescent literacy learn?
    Unknown
    Not the goals of Reading Next
    Congressional Action
  • 18. Conclusions from Reading Next
    1. Literacy researchers
    (including 2 NRC members)
    2. Wrote explicit guidance for policy
    3. Drawing on a base of knowledge
    4. Delivered to policy makers
    5. In a partnership with political activists
    6. Positive result of $142 M for adolescent literacy
    7. Positive result of congressional recognition
  • 19. Conclusion
    READING NEXT
    is
    evidence in opposition
    to the resolution
    of this debate