Read a longer section of the quote. Then explain that Hillock’s review of over 500 studies supports the inquiry-bases, literacy practices approach we advocate.
Note that an audio-recording of your most formal teaching moments would quickly convince you that you do not speak perfect SE, even in this context. Standard English, like any standard form of any living language – is an abstract ideal or model for writing, but not something people actually speak.
Read slide, then explain:Delpit is not suggesting that language variation somehow be eliminated, but instead that students be taught to code-switch; to learn effective us of SE as one of several equally valuable variations for use in accessing power structures.
Shouting back to many forms – literally shouting at authority figures such as police. These were practices for survival. These girls would have had difficulty accessing power in their own community had they approached daily life through SE.
Once students begin to understand how language variation works and that language is not static, they can begin to de-center Standard English.
Mcte standards pp
Teaching to Exceed theEnglish Language ArtsCommon Core StandardsRichard Beach, University of MinnesotaAmanda Haertling Thein, University of IowaOnline handouthttp://tinyurl.com/cwndbp3Resource website:http://englishccss.pbworks.com
Strengths of the CCSS Not mandating content to be taught ◦ Versus the Profile of Learning Emphasis on informational texts/argumentative writing Connection to social studies and science
Limitations of the CCSS Formalist approach to reading/writing instruction ◦ Teaching structures of essay/literature versus responses/experiences
Implemenation: Publishers use of―Text-dependent questions‖ ―The Standards strongly suggest that a majority of questions posed to children be based on the text under consideration…, not rely on students’ different knowledge backgrounds.‖ –Authors of the Common Core Standards in ELA/Literacy
Publisher’s ad: ―Give them informational and narrative books they can’t put down— with text-dependent questions for every title! Every book in the following sets comes with a Text-Dependent Comprehension Card to help students respond to 4 levels of text-dependent questions on new Common Core and state assessments. Saves prep time
Literature/informational textsPrior knowledge: Before reading All Quiet on the Western Front, my honors-level sophomores read three pieces on morality and ethics, written by Pema Chödrön, Thomas Jefferson, and Machiavelli—all of whom propose certain ethical standards to live by. As we then read All Quiet, the moral dilemmas came into sharp focus as students considered how Erich Maria Remarque created his own ethical code. They read Taliban propaganda and then the Declaration of Independence. We looked at how people use that power, both legitimately and illegitimately.
Grade level standards based on―progressions‖: Literature 6th grade. Interpret the figurative and connotative meanings of words and phrases as they are used in a text. 7th grade. Interpret the figurative and connotative meanings of words and phrases as they are used in a text and describe in detail a specific word choice and its impact on meaning and tone. 8th grade. Explain the comparisons an author makes through metaphors, allusions, or analogies in a text and analyze how those comparisons contribute to meaning.
Literacy practice frameworkFraming eventsConstructing and enacting identitiesRelating to and collaborating with othersConstructing texts or objectsSynthesizing and connecting textsCritiquing and representing issuesFormulating effective arguments onissuesCritiquing systems Re-designing/transforming systems
9 th/10th grade argumentativewritingarguments which they: 1. Write a. Introduce a precise claim, distinguish it from alternate or opposing claims, and provide an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop a claim and counterclaim fairly, supplying evidence for each, while pointing out the strengths of their own claim and the weaknesses of the counterclaim. c. Use precise words, phrases, and clauses to make clear the relationships between claims and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claims and counterclaims. d. Sustain an objective style and tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the specific discipline as well as to the audience’s knowledge of the issue.
Negotiating identities/adoptingperspectives: Online role-play Issue: Access to information on blocked websites Students adopt pro-con roles ◦ construct a persona ◦ employ rhetorical appeals ◦ support their position with reasons ◦ identify and refute counter-arguments ◦ revise or modify one’s own positions
Using a Ning as the platform for online role-play:
Using Diigo sticky notes to share annotations onrelated research http://grou.ps/cwhybrid2010t1/talks/5160010/4
Threaded discussion allows students easily followdiscussion
Role construction: Adoptingdifferent perspectivesEmoGirl: Critique of schoolInternet policies I think the internet usage policies are ridiculous. The policies are almost impossible to find. I spent half an hour trying to find them and Im a young, computer savvy person.
―Strict Father‖ cultural model:Charles Hammerstein III The issue with sites like YouTube is that it is a helpful site when used correctly, but the ratio of students who would use it to the students who would abuse it would greatly favor the later of the two. R-rated sites are not ok because they usually contain information and content that may be considered offensive. The internet policies are very clear, if your grandmother would not appreciate it, then you probably shouldnt be doing those kind of things at school.
Issues from literatureElizabeth Barniskis, Edina High School:―Huck or Chuck?: Using Online Role-Play and Ning to Negotiate Race in theHigh School English Classroom ~MCTE Journal‖
―Same-sex classrooms enhancelearning‖ 1. Divide up table: half pro/half con 2. Adopt roles: teachers, students, administrators, counselors, parents, etc. 3. Adopt a pro or con position and voice your opinions with supporting reasons Share positions (State role and positions) http://todaysmeet.com/M
Making sense of the CCSS, literacypractices and:LANGUAGE, GRAMMAR, AND USAGE
English teachers and red ink: English teachers ought to teach ―proper grammar,‖ spelling, and mechanics, right? The primary job of an English teacher is to teach student to speak and write in Standard English, isn’t it? The answers are not so simple!
In this part of the session I’ll talkabout: Current theory and research on language variation, vernacular dialects, and English language learning What the CCSS ask of English teachers with regard to the teaching of language, grammar, and usage How you can meet and exceed these standards as you acknowledge and build upon students’ language and literacy practices
Direct instruction of traditionalschool grammar Student learning through direction instruction of traditional school grammar has been extensively studied with absolutely clear results: ◦ The study of traditional school grammar (i.e., the definition of parts of speech, the parsing of sentences, etc.) has no effect on raising the quality of student writing…In some cases a heavy emphasis on mechanics and usage (e.g. , marking every error) results in significant losses in overall quality. ◦ - Hillocks, 1984, p. 160
What do the CCSS call for? At first glance they seem at advocate for a traditional approach: ◦ Anchor standards state that students should ―demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.”
What do the CCSS call for? However, in the CCSS ―key points‖ section they explain that: ◦ “The standards recognize that students must be able to use formal English in their writing and speaking but that they must also be able to make informed, skillful choices among the many ways to express themselves through language.” This caveat is also seen in standards that state that students should: ◦ “Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to more fully
In other words: While the CCSS place a high value on Standard English, they also suggest that students must be able to understand and use language variation within the English language as well as other languages that students might speak in their homes and communities across different academic and social contexts.
How does language variationwork? In order for students to understand how language functions, they need to consider how it varies and changes Example of English as spoken in U.S.: ◦ Regional differences; generational differences – how do they occur?
Is there one, correct, formal,―standard‖ English? People often assume so Variations (AAVE, Chicano English, etc.) must then be informal or even improper or incorrect. People who see themselves as speaking standard English – typically those who are white and middle class – tend to hold negative views of people who speak vernacular Englishes. Teachers often have lower expectations of students who speak such variations.
These ideas have been widelydebunked by linguists andliteracy scholars.Standard dialects are not linguisticallybetter by any objective measure; they aresocially preferred simply because they arethe language variations uses by thosewho are most powerful and affluent insociety. In addition, although schools oftenrefer to Standard English as if it were asingle dialect, there are numerousregional standard dialects.- Godley, et. al., 2006
Do SE speakers actually speakSE? James Gee (1996) argues that ALL English speakers (and speakers of any language) speak a range of informal variations of English that vary in their faithfulness to SE across social contexts. As a teacher you almost certainly speak a different variation of English in your classroom than you do at home with friends or family
Language as social practice -Pennycook (2010) In no one really speaks standard forms of languages, than how do language actually function? ◦ Languages are not systems that are used more or less formally in various social contexts ◦ Instead, social contexts themselves drive language use and construction. ◦ We use language to achieve social goals – for instance to construct identities or build relationships.
Language as social practice -Pennycook (2010) Language is not a system that is changed or distorted by social contexts, but shifts with social needs Example ―friend‖ and ―unfriend‖ ◦ The construction and use of these terms developed within ―bundles‖ of social practices that are a necessary part of social networking Abbreviations such as ―lol‖ and ―btw‖ ◦ Not simple formal or careless means of communication ◦ Logical and useful variations that developed as part of the social practice of texting
So why teach Standard Englishat all? Students need to learn about the concept of SE, what it looks like, and its gatekeeping role in allowing so people access to power while denying it to others SE is part of ―codes of powers‖ that we should not deny any of our students from accessing and understanding (Delpit, 2006).
Delpit (2006) To act as if power does not exist is to ensure the power status quo remains the same. To imply to children…that is doesn‟t matter how you talk or how you write is to ensure their ultimate failure. I prefer to be honest with my students. I tell them that their language and cultural style is unique and wonderful but that there is a political power game that is also being played, and if they want to be in on that game there are certain games
―Englishes,‖ not English (Kirkland,2010) Teachers should acknowledge and teach the power of SE The should also consider ways that other variations provide access to particular kinds of status and social power Example: working class girls (Jones, 2006) ◦ Used regional variation and discourse ―to shout back at a mainstream society that judged them harshly‖ (122)
Activity: Consider the variation in your own language use, even within your role as an English teacher Working with a partner role-play 3 scenarios. Describe your goals for one of your English courses to your principal, a parent, and a student. Take turns being the ―teacher.‖ The other partner listens and examines: ◦ Word choice, grammar/usage, affect, and tone ◦ Information that is included/omitted ◦ Consistency of language with SE in each scenario
Debrief: What did you notice about language variation in this activity? What social practices was your language linked to in each scenario? What kinds of social access might you gain through your use of language variation in each scenario?
How can we help studentsunderstand language variation? Show students that SE is not a static system ◦ Close examination of language in Shakespeare – functional shifts such as using a word commonly used as a noun as a verb leading to changes in the word’s use in everyday speech. ◦ Show students the same poem written in Old English, Middle English, and Modern English.
How can we help studentsunderstand language variation?Some words or phrases becomelinguistic fads; others fall into disuse or“misuse.” Rules of taste change, andthe pronunciations, uses, conjugations,and spellings of words are altered overtime to adjust to new contexts,speakers, purposes, and audiences.We call this adaptability „survival of thefittest‟ when we discuss other kinds ofevolution; it is evidence of theresilience of language and not a matterfor concern (Zuidema, 2005, p. 672).
Grammar vs. Usage (Zuidema,2005): Grammar – internal patterns that a given language naturally follows Usage – rules of taste Confusion between the two leads people to see the English language as more rules oriented than it is. ◦ Examples: ―ain’t‖ or ending a sentence in a preposition. Neither are grammatically incorrect from a linguistic standpoint, on from the standpoint of particular tastes.
De-centering StandardEnglish Translating Tupac Shakur’s ―Just Me Against the World‖ from a variation of AAVE to SEThough each passage…has the sameliteral meaning, the original, non-StandardEnglish passage inevitably holds far moreemotional and rhetorical power…viadifferent translations of the same text, mystudents experienced firsthand howmeaning can be list when we insist on arigid form of English for making meaning
Examining linguistic prejudice Wilson (2001) suggests asking students to look at ways that particular regional, racial, cultural, and generational variations of English are stigmatized, stereotyped and linked to particular identities in popular culture and media. ◦ Viewing sitcoms – how dialects delineate character types ◦ Record evidence of language prejudice in cartoons, newspapers or magazine
Students examining their ownvariations Role playing activity in which students describe a car accident to parents, friends, and an insurance agent (Hagemann, 2001) ◦ Depending on the audience [students] chose different words, added/deleted particular details, used a different tone, etc. (p. 78). Ask students to list all of the variations they hear and speak in everyday life (―dinner table,‖ ―church,‖ ―military,‖ ―school,‖ etc.) (Flynn, 2011).
Constructing and enactingidentities through languagevariation: Helping students understand how identities are constructed through use of language as social practice. ◦ Challenge and rethink their status quo uses of language as they impact their ability to access particular kinds of power.
Seeing links between identity andlanguage in the classroom: Acknowledge and allow students to use home languages and variations in class whenever possible Choose texts that use non-standard dialects to provide students a means of exploring identity and language
Collaborating with others inexploring language: Provides multiple perspectives on social practices related to language use Student-centered, dialogic discussion (Godley & Minnici, 2008) of language use: ◦ African American students identified nuances and variation in the use of AAVE across neighborhoods in their city. ◦ Emphasized distinct identities within an African American community rather than a linguistic identity constructed primarily in opposition to White identities (p. 336). ◦
Conducting ethnographies oflanguage use: Students collaborate in studying language oral and written language use as it is linked to roles, relationships, norms, beliefs, and social practices in a particular community. ◦ Athletic teams ◦ Sororities/fraternities ◦ Car body shop ◦ Church communities Students learn how language is used to establish shared knowledge and define identities within a group
Synthesizing and connectingacross languages and dialects:Once your students learn to: ◦ Frame all language as inherently variable ◦ Understand language use as a social practices used to construct identities ◦ And, explore multiple perspectives on language use through collaborative discussion and inquiry… they will be ready to synthesize what they’ve learned and make connections that will lead them to acquisition on new language variations
Knowledge of home language orvariation can help students gainproficiency in Standard English: Comparison or ―contrastive analysis‖ (Godley & Minnici, 2008) of language Learning to notice and pay attention to features in their home language as they seek to understand particularities of SE ◦ Negation in AAVE or Southern U.S. dialects (―ain’t‖ vs. ―is not‖) Students learn to determine effectiveness of language choices for particular audiences
Key point: Students need to understand that you are not asking them to give up their home languages: ◦ Our goal as teachers should be ―expanding‖ rather than ―erasing‖ a student’s linguistic repetoire (Hagemann, 2001). Students need to know about ―code- switching‖ (Depit, 2006) – using different languages, discourses, and variations in different contexts. ◦ Examples on code-switching can be found in literature (A Lesson Before Dying, To Kill a Mockingbird, etc.)
In sum: The CCSS for language and usage convey two key ideas: ◦ They ask that teachers help students gain proficiency in SE in both written and oral forms ◦ They ask that teachers ensure that students understand the contextual nature of language and usage and are prepared to communicate appropriately and effectively across social contexts Both of these standards can be met and exceeded by literacy practices that help students understand language variation and the role of SE within that variation.
Using Diigo social bookmarkingfor sharing annotations1. Add Diigo to your iPad or computertoolbar2. Find an online text3. Highlight sections of the text4. Click on the icon to add a Sticky Noteresponse5. Have other students add their responses
Diigo annotations: Pro-conreadings: benefits of energy fromwind power th 7 grade students iMelanie Swandby’s ◦ Lighthouse School Community Charter School, Oakland, California Students posed questions for each other ◦ ―What does that mean, virtually free?‖ ◦ What are some things that use energy or power?‖
Students responding to eachother’s annotations
Dialogic interactions throughannotations―There is a bad and good thing about this. Bad is it kills birds passing by. Good it makes energy cleaner.‖ ―Tarnished with wind turbines? Arent wind turbines supposed to be a good thing? Why are they complaining about the turbines? it doesnt even look bad.‖
Use of annotations for summarywriting I am perplexed in choosing if wind energy is a good courses or bad source. While, wind energy is a good source because it’s renewable and needs nothing more but construction, it can also cause irritation and attention of some people. Wind turbines are loud, noisy, and risky. Even though, it doesn’t cause any greenhouse gases in the air, wind turbines are harmful to wildlife and space. More birds die by getting hit by wind turbines which is very dangerous to our wildlife.
Digital concept mapping iPad apps: iBrainstorm, MindMeister for Ipad,, Sundry Notes, Idea Sketch, Total Recall, inShare, iMindMap MindNode, iThoughtsHD, Popplet Lite http://tinyurl.com/3o6a3wy Hierarchical/logical relationships between key concepts
5 th Grade Students: PoppletLite for Concept Mapping 5th grade students in Laura Kretschmar’s class at Lighthouse Community Charter School, Oakland, C alifornia Lesson on rare earth metals to address the question, ―What is gold?‖
Objective: Understand personal experience, opinions andattitudes about modern society through techniques ofnarrative storytelling within a multi-media product thatincorporates photos from a variety of sources. The finalproduct must present a thorough narrative of yourexperience. Use photos and/or drawings from your ownlife. Use text bubbles that convey both dialog andthoughts. You may use and cite additional sources thatyou find to give more information about current events.
VoiceThread: Multiple audiencesshare responses to the sameimages
5th Graders: VoiceThread forStudying Dinosaurs Extinction of the dinosaurs: ◦ supernova, volcanoes, or an asteroid. ◦ Volcanoes http://voicethread.com/share/2454743/ ◦ Supernova http://voicethread.com/share/2544219/ ◦ Asteriod http://voicethread.com/share/2545658/
Students ShowMe’s: Genetics:dominant vs. recessive traits ―If a brown eyed and a blue eyed parent had a baby, what color eyes would the baby have?‖ http://www.showme.com/sh/?h=ibbycYS Mother and father birds and baby bird http://www.showme.com/sh/?h=RNKspgu Pea plant genetics http://www.showme.com/sh/?h=GC6q3nM
Screencasting: Students or youcreate how-to tutorials for peers VoiceThread, ExplainEverything, Screenchomp, ShowMe, Educreastions Snapguide http://tinyurl.com/ctkslx8 ◦ Students:
Screencasting: feedback VoiceThread, ExplainEverything, Scre enchomp, ShowMe, Educreastions Video response to writing: Jing ◦ http://tinyurl.com/3kkw4am Speeches/drama: Formative Feedback for Learning http://formativefeedbackapp.blogspot. com
Publishing Multimodal Writing ePub: Mac Pages (soon to be on iPad Pages) Apple iBooks Author (requires OS Lion): iBooks