History, Science, and Trade Rebecca Wasmund History 140
What is History? <ul><li>History is a collection of events - a story - that are all important. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts of ...
What is History? - Viewpoint <ul><li>3 sources to prove a historical event: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have evidence from ...
The Journey of Man - Spencer Wells <ul><li>Enrolled in college at age 16 - graduated in 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>His Geno...
The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey <ul><li>The “old” (less accepted) theory is the multi-regional model - says that pri...
Catastrophe! <ul><li>Theory from David Keys - not a historian, but incorporates data from many sources </li></ul><ul><li>D...
Catastrophe! - Effects <ul><li>Eruption had devastating results on climate - several accounts around the world detailing l...
America Before Columbus <ul><li>“ The Pristine Myth” - many believe that Indians left America virtually untouched </li></u...
Amazonia pre 1492 <ul><li>Originally believed that the Amazon rainforest could not support a society, and therefore though...
The World in 1492 <ul><li>Many misconceptions: knowledge that the world is round (and not flat) did not originate with Col...
The World & Trade <ul><li>Trade and connections made Europe the superior nation due to their superior connections </li></u...
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History, Science, and Trade

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History, Science, and Trade

  1. 1. History, Science, and Trade Rebecca Wasmund History 140
  2. 2. What is History? <ul><li>History is a collection of events - a story - that are all important. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts of history are all verifiable </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to prove some parts of history due to lack of records or reliable witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Historical facts can be proved by two types of sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary - someone who was a direct witness to the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary - someone who was not a direct witness, but they use other sources (primary and/or secondary) to construct their statement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nobody can simply decide whether a factual historical event took place - must be proved </li></ul><ul><li>Will always be blank spots in history </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is History? - Viewpoint <ul><li>3 sources to prove a historical event: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have evidence from reliable witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts must be logically possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There must be observable causes and effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another important element of history is viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Viewpoint means that different people can interpret the same historical events and facts in different ways - even facts can hold different meanings for different people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the “why” of historical events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viewpoint determined by many things: environment, faith, education, status, age, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary facts mean little - facts and events in the broader context of historical periods are much more meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of history is important - knowledge builds empathy, which results in tolerance. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Journey of Man - Spencer Wells <ul><li>Enrolled in college at age 16 - graduated in 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>His Genographic Project has taken him to more than 3 dozen countries </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary research for history of man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced understanding of Y chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater ability to trace human migration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Journey of Man - international book and documentary detailing his travels and findings </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey <ul><li>The “old” (less accepted) theory is the multi-regional model - says that primitive humans left Africa millions of years ago and ended up in areas of Europe, Africa, and Asia, where modern humans evolved </li></ul><ul><li>Wells’ work confirms newer (more accepted) theory, the Out of Africa model </li></ul><ul><li>Out of Africa model says that all modern humans evolved in Africa, eventually migrated to other areas beginning 60,000 years ago - beginning with Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Wells’ research focuses on male humans because of the presence of the Y chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female history is in mitochondrial DNA, which is less useful/accurate for research purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies of the Y chromosome have concluded that all people evolved from one common male ancestor in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Out of Africa model shows that humans didn’t migrate to the Americas until approximately 15,000 years ago - much more recent than originally thought. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Catastrophe! <ul><li>Theory from David Keys - not a historian, but incorporates data from many sources </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered unusual new tree ring growth around 535 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely due to extreme cold weather and long winters for several years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Such a phenomenon could be attributed to one of three causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large volcanic eruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 km+ asteroid hitting earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 km+ comet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can’t be asteroid or comet - no crater large enough to prove such a theory </li></ul><ul><li>Must be volcano - Krakatoa </li></ul>
  7. 7. Catastrophe! - Effects <ul><li>Eruption had devastating results on climate - several accounts around the world detailing long winters, strange, apocalyptic weather </li></ul><ul><li>Hard winters had variety of effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less food (too cold, crops failed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastating plague - plague virus spreads rapidly in cold weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of necessary livestock (notably horses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed to have possibly led to the downfall of large civilizations - most notably the Roman empire </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in formation of new civilizations, such as England, and formation of revolutionary new beliefs and faiths (Islam) </li></ul><ul><li>Changed course of history forever - can always happen again, and would undoubtedly change course of history again </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomeration of so many sources leads many to believe that Keys’ hypothesis “is not unreasonable”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. America Before Columbus <ul><li>“ The Pristine Myth” - many believe that Indians left America virtually untouched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived symbiotically with the land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These assumptions are incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>Originally thought there were approximately 1 million people living in the Americas when Colombus arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Actual number appears to be closer to 100 million people </li></ul><ul><li>This means that roughly 95% of the population was decimated by disease brought by visiting Europeans (no immunity) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Amazonia pre 1492 <ul><li>Originally believed that the Amazon rainforest could not support a society, and therefore thought that the rainforest was pristine pre-Columbians </li></ul><ul><li>Disproved - archeologists found not just one town, but a network of towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 19 villages in 15 square miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Villages share same design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by system of highways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was a complex society - originally thought there was no such complex society possible in this area at that time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered land to meet their needs by clearing some areas and preserving others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Area is “last poorly known archeological regions on the face of the Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>Found bridges, man-made ponds and ditches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of complex civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also evident of sophisticated (for that time) knowledge of math, sciences </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The World in 1492 <ul><li>Many misconceptions: knowledge that the world is round (and not flat) did not originate with Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>In 1492 Europe was comprised by various small, unconnected states </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans ended up more advanced than other societies </li></ul><ul><li>This is because Western Europe was full of rivalries that resulted in the area being far more interconnected than any other region </li></ul><ul><li>Connections mean that new inventions and discoveries traveled through these areas rapidly </li></ul>
  11. 11. The World & Trade <ul><li>Trade and connections made Europe the superior nation due to their superior connections </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs have always been important to trade - commercially valuable, foundation of world economy </li></ul><ul><li>Spain cleared huge plantations and employed slaves in the Americas to grow crops there exclusively </li></ul><ul><li>Certain new discoveries were extremely valuable - almost laughable today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesoamerica (Mayans and Aztecs) participated in large-scale intraregional trade </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoamerican trade destroyed upon arrival of Spaniards - who sought to trade globally </li></ul>

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