French Colonies of North America


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French Colonies of North America

  1. 1. French Colonies of North America Rebecca Wasmund
  2. 2. American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>Spain colonized the southern latitudes of North America, which had a desirable climate for producing lucrative crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish colonists did not want to allow other countries to colonize these lucrative areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain was powerful, and their head start in colonizing North America gave them an obvious advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>French explorers wishing to colonize North America were forced to do so in the less-desirable northern latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>France wasn’t able to successfully colonize North America until the 17th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 16th and 17th centuries, they established a frequent presence in the northern latitudes, by St. Lawrence Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Most lucrative good was furs, which they acquired from the Indians in exchange for metals and alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought furs back to France to sell and make a profit. </li></ul>
  3. 3. American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>Trade had many devastating effects on the Indians, but virtually no negative effects for the French (or other Europeans) </li></ul><ul><li>Indians drank to reproduce “spiritual trances” that they used experience by fasting, and quickly became addicted and violent while drunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Indians traded furs for European firearms, and used these against their fellow natives. </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>The Five Nation Iroquois were devoted to war and well-suited to pursuing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Would conduct “condolence rituals”, where war captives were given to bereaved as gifts - meant to replace dead. </li></ul><ul><li>If the individual was a woman or child, they were often adopted and assimilated into the tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise, they were tortured brutally, eventually killed, and their body was cooked into a stew that whole group would eat. </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>Jesuit priests found most success as missionaries with the Huron people. </li></ul><ul><li>They built missions, but also learned the native languages and assimilated themselves with the native people in order to further their cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurons grudgingly accepted the Jesuits - some even were baptized - because to turn the away would mean they would have to sacrifice their alliance and trading relationship with the French colonists. </li></ul>
  6. 6. America Colonies 16 - French America <ul><li>Spain’s missions in Florida destroyed - French founded new colony named Louisiana. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Louisiana and New France were very sparsely populated - colonists depended upon Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe - pretended to govern Indians, but in reality they had no control over them. </li></ul><ul><li>French needed the Indians more than the Indians needed the French. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain colonized North America far more rapidly than France did. </li></ul><ul><li>France tried hard to recruit more inhabitants, in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants of seigneurie for men who would finance colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filles du roi - female orphans, France paid for their passage to the colonies and provided a dowry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even so, many people didn’t remain in New France, and population grew slowly. </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Colonies 16 - French America <ul><li>Several reasons why people did not want to stay in, or emigrate to, New France: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French peasants actually owned their land (unlike English peasants), and were hesitant to leave it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many French who wanted to move would move to areas with warmer climates, like Spain or the West Indies - not Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France forbade religious dissidents from emigrating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New France had poor reputation: cold, immoral, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. American Colonies 16 - French America <ul><li>New France governed by 3 officials: military governor-general, intendant, and a bishop. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike British colonies, no local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>France needed Indian alliances, which they kept close by giving frequent gifts as called for by Indian customs. </li></ul><ul><li>Some French married Indian women, and mixed race intermediaries (“metis”) were born. </li></ul><ul><li>French and their Indian allies defeated the violent Iroquois - in early 18th century Iroquois and French made peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper North America then belonged to French and Indian allies. </li></ul><ul><li>French took this for granted and stopped the elaborate ceremonies and present-giving. </li></ul><ul><li>Without the French constantly trying to settle disputes, violence once again erupted between Indian tribes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Colonies 16 - French America <ul><li>French colonized Louisiana despite a failed first expedition. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to strategically dominate North America’s interior. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly colonized by military and convicted criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions were poor, many early colonists died of starvation and new diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>French government strategically maintained Lousiana colony despite the fact that it cost them money. </li></ul>