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French Colonies of North America
 

French Colonies of North America

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    French Colonies of North America French Colonies of North America Presentation Transcript

    • French Colonies of North America Rebecca Wasmund
    • American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia
      • Spain colonized the southern latitudes of North America, which had a desirable climate for producing lucrative crops.
      • Spanish colonists did not want to allow other countries to colonize these lucrative areas.
      • Spain was powerful, and their head start in colonizing North America gave them an obvious advantage.
      • French explorers wishing to colonize North America were forced to do so in the less-desirable northern latitudes.
      • France wasn’t able to successfully colonize North America until the 17th century.
      • Between 16th and 17th centuries, they established a frequent presence in the northern latitudes, by St. Lawrence Valley.
      • Most lucrative good was furs, which they acquired from the Indians in exchange for metals and alcohol.
      • Brought furs back to France to sell and make a profit.
    • American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia
      • Trade had many devastating effects on the Indians, but virtually no negative effects for the French (or other Europeans)
      • Indians drank to reproduce “spiritual trances” that they used experience by fasting, and quickly became addicted and violent while drunk.
      • Eventually Indians traded furs for European firearms, and used these against their fellow natives.
    • American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia
      • The Five Nation Iroquois were devoted to war and well-suited to pursuing it.
      • Would conduct “condolence rituals”, where war captives were given to bereaved as gifts - meant to replace dead.
      • If the individual was a woman or child, they were often adopted and assimilated into the tribe.
      • Otherwise, they were tortured brutally, eventually killed, and their body was cooked into a stew that whole group would eat.
    • American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia
      • Jesuit priests found most success as missionaries with the Huron people.
      • They built missions, but also learned the native languages and assimilated themselves with the native people in order to further their cause.
      • Hurons grudgingly accepted the Jesuits - some even were baptized - because to turn the away would mean they would have to sacrifice their alliance and trading relationship with the French colonists.
    • America Colonies 16 - French America
      • Spain’s missions in Florida destroyed - French founded new colony named Louisiana.
      • Both Louisiana and New France were very sparsely populated - colonists depended upon Indians.
      • In Europe - pretended to govern Indians, but in reality they had no control over them.
      • French needed the Indians more than the Indians needed the French.
      • Britain colonized North America far more rapidly than France did.
      • France tried hard to recruit more inhabitants, in several ways:
        • Grants of seigneurie for men who would finance colonists
        • Filles du roi - female orphans, France paid for their passage to the colonies and provided a dowry.
      • Even so, many people didn’t remain in New France, and population grew slowly.
    • American Colonies 16 - French America
      • Several reasons why people did not want to stay in, or emigrate to, New France:
        • French peasants actually owned their land (unlike English peasants), and were hesitant to leave it.
        • Many French who wanted to move would move to areas with warmer climates, like Spain or the West Indies - not Canada.
        • France forbade religious dissidents from emigrating.
        • New France had poor reputation: cold, immoral, etc.
    • American Colonies 16 - French America
      • New France governed by 3 officials: military governor-general, intendant, and a bishop.
      • Unlike British colonies, no local governments.
      • France needed Indian alliances, which they kept close by giving frequent gifts as called for by Indian customs.
      • Some French married Indian women, and mixed race intermediaries (“metis”) were born.
      • French and their Indian allies defeated the violent Iroquois - in early 18th century Iroquois and French made peace.
      • Upper North America then belonged to French and Indian allies.
      • French took this for granted and stopped the elaborate ceremonies and present-giving.
      • Without the French constantly trying to settle disputes, violence once again erupted between Indian tribes.
    • American Colonies 16 - French America
      • French colonized Louisiana despite a failed first expedition.
      • Goal was to strategically dominate North America’s interior.
      • Mostly colonized by military and convicted criminals.
      • Conditions were poor, many early colonists died of starvation and new diseases.
      • French government strategically maintained Lousiana colony despite the fact that it cost them money.