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Rikard pennell aea_2012_final

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  • 1. Integrating GIS & Cost Analyses: Mapping School Transportation for Foster Youth Dr. Joan Pennell R.V. Rikard jpennell@ncsu.edu rvrikard@ncsu.edu Professor & Center Director Research Manager Center for Family & Community Engagement http://www.cfface.org
  • 2. Fostering Youth Educational Success (YES!) http://cfface.chass.ncsu.edu/Fostering_Yes/index.php Who are the Partner Organizations? What is Fostering YES? Cumberland County Department of A project to support foster youth Social Services, Public Schools, success in their school, home, and Mental Health, and County Court community. This project gives foster youth collaborate with North Carolina a say in their educational planning and State University. builds community capacity. Why is the Project Needed?Who funds the Project? Foster youth have frequent changes A U.S. Department of Health & Human in where they live and go to Services, Administration for Child and school, leading to increased grade- Families, Children’s Bureau grant supports level retentions. On average, foster the project. youth in Cumberland County attend six schools.
  • 3. Trauma & Academic Performance• Foster youth traumatized by: – Child abuse and neglect – Removal and placement – Separation from school of origin & friends• Trauma leads to hyper arousal, lack of self-control, & learning disabilities• Enter care with histories of absences, truancy, expulsions, and school transfer• These problems compounded in care• Age out of care at risk of depression, homelessness, unemployment, & incarceration
  • 4. Impact of School Changes• A positive school experience can offset trauma and promote wellbeing• Fostering Connections 2008 legislation mandates child welfare to strive for school stability• Foster youth experience educational instability--transfers, delays, disruptions, ostracism• Lose average of 4-6 months of educational progress for every school move
  • 5. Purpose:1. Develop a pragmatic method to estimate transportation costs as well as maximizing revenue streams and strategic placement of foster youth.2. The method employs a set of focused cost models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to develop and inform strategic planning.
  • 6. Data Sharing Strategy Foster Youth ID CCS School Performance Data DSS – GIS Data (School of Origin Address, School Placement Address, Foster Placement Adress)NOTE: Foster Youth ID is first three letters of last name, 4 digit birth year, 2 digit birth month, 2 digit birth date.For example: ABC20000131
  • 7. Location: Cumberland County, NC
  • 8. DataCumberland Match Cumberland County Process Public with 1st Schools DSS Placement Address N =278 N = 137 N =268
  • 9. Data (cont.)Concern: is there a significant difference between youthwith and without first placement address?• Lack of demographic data (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity).• However, using grade level of youth as of July, 2011. With alpha at 0.05 and df-t: 263.7; p= 0.48579. No concern of significant difference.
  • 10. MethodsWhat we know: 1. Hourly wage for Cumberland County Social Worker is $26.16. 2. The average weekly price of gasoline from July 2008 – July 2011 is $2.821What we don’t know: 1. Distance (in miles) and, 2. Duration (in minutes) to transport a foster youth.1. Energy Information Administrationhttp://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=EMM_EPMR_PTE_R1Y_DPG&f=W
  • 11. Methods (cont.)Develop a Google Maps Application ProgrammingInterface (API) to calculate distance and duration
  • 12. It is possible to generate a database of averagemiles and average minutes using a Google MapsAPI.
  • 13. First Placement
  • 14. Second Placement
  • 15. Third Placement
  • 16. Foster Youth Transportation Cost per Placement Event$12,000.00 n = 106$10,000.00$8,000.00 n = 134 n = 58$6,000.00$4,000.00$2,000.00 $- First Second Third Placement Event
  • 17. Limitations1. Limited demographic data,2. Limited educational data,3. Few explanatory variables,4. Cross sectional, and5. Only examine fiscal costs not human costsBUT….1. Some very stark findings,2. Emphasis on cost, time, and movement
  • 18. ImplicationsCumberland County DSS automated datacollection system – Placement and Removalsand Family Planning Meetings.State of NC moving to data sharing system: NCEducational Stability Task Force.Adoption of metric to measure progress – forexample: Number of Retentions, Number ofSchool Moves.
  • 19. ReferencesBateman, I. J., Garrod, G. D., Brainard, J. S., & Lovett, A. A. (1996). Measurement issues in the travel cost method: A geographical information systems approach. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47(1-4), 191–205. doi:10.1111/j.1477- 9552.1996.tb00684.xBoardman, A. E., Greenberg, D. H., Vining, A. R., & Weimer, D. L. (2001). Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Carlson, D., Reder, S., Jones, N., & Lee, A. (2006). Homeless student transportation project evaluation ( No. WA-RD 665.1). Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC). Retrieved from http://evans.washington.edu/files/665.1.pdf
  • 20. ReferencesNational Working Group on Foster Care and Education. (2011, July). Education is the lifeline for youth in foster care. Research Highlights on Education and Foster Care. Retrieved from http://www.casey.org/Resources/Publications/pdf/EducationalOutcomesFactSh eet.pdfRay, A. (1984). Cost-benefit analysis: Issues and methodologies. World Bank.Stotland, J., McInerney, M., Feierman, J., Burdick, K., McNaught, K., & Kelly, K. (2011). Fostering Connections Implementation Toolkit (p. 140). Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/child/education/publications/t oolkit_combined_with_cover.authcheckdam.pdfWang, F. (2006). Quantitative methods and applications in GIS. CRC Press.Yuan, M. (2001). Representing complex geographic phenomena in GIS. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 28(2), 83–96.
  • 21. Integrating GIS & Costs Analyses: Mapping School Transportation for Foster Youth Dr. Joan Pennell R.V. Rikard jpennell@ncsu.edu rvrikard@ncsu.edu Professor & Center Director Research Manager Center for Family & Community Engagement http://www.cfface.org