Integrating GIS & Cost Analyses: Mapping School Transportation for Foster Youth Dr. Joan Pennell R.V. Rikard email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Professor & Center Director Research Manager Center for Family & Community Engagement http://www.cfface.org
Fostering Youth Educational Success (YES!) http://cfface.chass.ncsu.edu/Fostering_Yes/index.php Who are the Partner Organizations? What is Fostering YES? Cumberland County Department of A project to support foster youth Social Services, Public Schools, success in their school, home, and Mental Health, and County Court community. This project gives foster youth collaborate with North Carolina a say in their educational planning and State University. builds community capacity. Why is the Project Needed?Who funds the Project? Foster youth have frequent changes A U.S. Department of Health & Human in where they live and go to Services, Administration for Child and school, leading to increased grade- Families, Children’s Bureau grant supports level retentions. On average, foster the project. youth in Cumberland County attend six schools.
Trauma & Academic Performance• Foster youth traumatized by: – Child abuse and neglect – Removal and placement – Separation from school of origin & friends• Trauma leads to hyper arousal, lack of self-control, & learning disabilities• Enter care with histories of absences, truancy, expulsions, and school transfer• These problems compounded in care• Age out of care at risk of depression, homelessness, unemployment, & incarceration
Impact of School Changes• A positive school experience can offset trauma and promote wellbeing• Fostering Connections 2008 legislation mandates child welfare to strive for school stability• Foster youth experience educational instability--transfers, delays, disruptions, ostracism• Lose average of 4-6 months of educational progress for every school move
Purpose:1. Develop a pragmatic method to estimate transportation costs as well as maximizing revenue streams and strategic placement of foster youth.2. The method employs a set of focused cost models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to develop and inform strategic planning.
Data Sharing Strategy Foster Youth ID CCS School Performance Data DSS – GIS Data (School of Origin Address, School Placement Address, Foster Placement Adress)NOTE: Foster Youth ID is first three letters of last name, 4 digit birth year, 2 digit birth month, 2 digit birth date.For example: ABC20000131
Location: Cumberland County, NC
DataCumberland Match Cumberland County Process Public with 1st Schools DSS Placement Address N =278 N = 137 N =268
Data (cont.)Concern: is there a significant difference between youthwith and without first placement address?• Lack of demographic data (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity).• However, using grade level of youth as of July, 2011. With alpha at 0.05 and df-t: 263.7; p= 0.48579. No concern of significant difference.
MethodsWhat we know: 1. Hourly wage for Cumberland County Social Worker is $26.16. 2. The average weekly price of gasoline from July 2008 – July 2011 is $2.821What we don’t know: 1. Distance (in miles) and, 2. Duration (in minutes) to transport a foster youth.1. Energy Information Administrationhttp://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=EMM_EPMR_PTE_R1Y_DPG&f=W
Methods (cont.)Develop a Google Maps Application ProgrammingInterface (API) to calculate distance and duration
It is possible to generate a database of averagemiles and average minutes using a Google MapsAPI.
Foster Youth Transportation Cost per Placement Event$12,000.00 n = 106$10,000.00$8,000.00 n = 134 n = 58$6,000.00$4,000.00$2,000.00 $- First Second Third Placement Event
Limitations1. Limited demographic data,2. Limited educational data,3. Few explanatory variables,4. Cross sectional, and5. Only examine fiscal costs not human costsBUT….1. Some very stark findings,2. Emphasis on cost, time, and movement
ImplicationsCumberland County DSS automated datacollection system – Placement and Removalsand Family Planning Meetings.State of NC moving to data sharing system: NCEducational Stability Task Force.Adoption of metric to measure progress – forexample: Number of Retentions, Number ofSchool Moves.
ReferencesBateman, I. J., Garrod, G. D., Brainard, J. S., & Lovett, A. A. (1996). Measurement issues in the travel cost method: A geographical information systems approach. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47(1-4), 191–205. doi:10.1111/j.1477- 9552.1996.tb00684.xBoardman, A. E., Greenberg, D. H., Vining, A. R., & Weimer, D. L. (2001). Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Carlson, D., Reder, S., Jones, N., & Lee, A. (2006). Homeless student transportation project evaluation ( No. WA-RD 665.1). Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC). Retrieved from http://evans.washington.edu/files/665.1.pdf
ReferencesNational Working Group on Foster Care and Education. (2011, July). Education is the lifeline for youth in foster care. Research Highlights on Education and Foster Care. Retrieved from http://www.casey.org/Resources/Publications/pdf/EducationalOutcomesFactSh eet.pdfRay, A. (1984). Cost-benefit analysis: Issues and methodologies. World Bank.Stotland, J., McInerney, M., Feierman, J., Burdick, K., McNaught, K., & Kelly, K. (2011). Fostering Connections Implementation Toolkit (p. 140). Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/child/education/publications/t oolkit_combined_with_cover.authcheckdam.pdfWang, F. (2006). Quantitative methods and applications in GIS. CRC Press.Yuan, M. (2001). Representing complex geographic phenomena in GIS. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 28(2), 83–96.
Integrating GIS & Costs Analyses: Mapping School Transportation for Foster Youth Dr. Joan Pennell R.V. Rikard email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Professor & Center Director Research Manager Center for Family & Community Engagement http://www.cfface.org