Collective Bargaining Rv


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Collective Bargaining Rv

  1. 1. EDA 6870 Collective Bargaining Dr. Richard Voltz Eastern Illinois University Spring 2009
  2. 2. Dr. Richard Voltz <ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] .org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homepage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://web. mac . com/rvoltz/EIU/EIU .html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home – 217-483-9551 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell – 217-741-0466 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Check website for class cancellation due to weather </li></ul>
  3. 3. School Finance <ul><li>State, Local and Federal Financing for Illinois Public Schools </li></ul>
  4. 4. Keys for Success <ul><li>Keep good notes of classroom lectures and discussions. Most information for exams will come from class. You are responsible for related reading assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Attend each and every class. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare papers as directed by instructor and syllabus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn in papers stapled in upper left hand corner only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of paper must be personal reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete assignments on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction is based on practical application. </li></ul><ul><li>It is recommended that students keep notes for future use if the student plans to be an administrator. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor is main source of information but students should still read, research and think on their own. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Practical Classroom Rules <ul><li>You need to think like an administrator. You are being prepared to be an administrator. </li></ul><ul><li>Information provided by this instructor is based on research, study and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>References are made to the instructor’s practical experience and may not be applicable in other school districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones should be silenced or on vibrate and you can use smartphone technology to help you with concepts for this class </li></ul><ul><li>When writing papers make sure you spend 1/3 of the paper describing how you would use this information as an administrator. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Course Requirements Assignment Points Possible Class Attendance and Participation 75 Simulated Bargaining Paper 50 Exam I 100 Journal Article 50 Exam II 100 Journal Presentation 25 Interview Assignment 50 Total 450
  7. 7. Illinois district proposes allowing public to view teacher contract negotiations. <ul><li>Illinois' Northwest Herald (1/31/08, Musick) reports that in Illinois, &quot;District 158 could become the first school district in the region and perhaps in the state to allow the public to watch teachers' contract negotiations, if teachers agree to an open-meeting policy endorsed by board members.&quot; On Wednesday, Board President Shawn Green said that &quot;board members, teachers and residents all would benefit from public negotiations.&quot; While representatives from the board and teachers union &quot;could retreat to private rooms to discuss contract details among themselves,&quot; the &quot;heart of negotiations would take place in public.&quot; According to Jim Russell of the Illinois Association of School Boards, &quot;such a plan could work, but not without challenges.&quot; Russell noted, &quot;Collective bargaining is a really sensitive issue. You're not just talking about wages. You're also talking about hours and terms and working conditions.&quot; Meanwhile, Gail Purkey, spokeswoman for the Illinois Federation of Teachers, &quot;said open meetings could slow negotiations.&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 8. Historical Development <ul><li>Refusal to confer and negotiate has been one of the most prolific causes of strife. This is such an outstanding fact in the history of labor disturbances that it is a proper subject of judicial notice. Charles Evans Hughes </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983 the Illinois General Assembly sent a public education collective bargaining Bill to then Gov. Jim Thompson, who signed the Bill into law effective January 1, 1984. The Illinois Education Labor Relations Act requires public educational institutions, under specified conditions, to bargain collectively with employees regarding salary and terms & conditions of employment. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Prior to the passage of the IELRA several Illinois school boards bargained with its employees, as it was not against the law to do so, though strikes were. Many more school boards participated in a “meet and confer” process, and still others simply set salaries and established terms and conditions of employment unilaterally. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the IELRA unresolved disagreements between school boards and employees were resolved in the courts. With the passage of the IELRA, the Illinois Labor Relations Board was established. The IELRA’s function is to oversee the administration of the IELRA and review labor disputes thus defraying numerous disagreements otherwise referred to the courts. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Unions cause A Better Bargain by Frederick Hess <ul><li>Massive inefficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Stifle innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent changes to promote student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Insist on lockstep salary schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward longevity over excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote rigid work rules and schedules </li></ul>
  11. 11. A Better Bargain by Frederick Hess <ul><li>Strikes have decreased from 241 in 1975 to 15 in 2004 while public school teachers rose from 2.2M to 3.1M </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some states bar strikes and mandate binding arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Big cities want consensus </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Unions want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit demands on workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safeguard senior teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want to be responsible for student learning </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Contracts now include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage of teacher workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># of minutes with students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># of lesson plans or preps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some say PD must go to senior teachers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Getting rid of teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-existent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In big cities principals must take transfers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even teachers agree we keep “poor” teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing salary schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No research says it is better for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurts districts in attracting better students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unions oppose “hiring bonuses” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Labor law in public education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collective bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative role has shifted from discretionary activities to duties that are ministerial in nature. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Public Employee Labor Relations <ul><li>Industrial private sector were given rights in 1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector delay due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concept of government is and should be supreme power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concept of illegality of delegation of sovereign power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private sector unionism took all the union time and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public employees were not dissatisfied with their working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changed because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>government pressure to reduce tax pressure caused layoffs and down turn in economic benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unions saw opportunity for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of New York and NY School Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of Wisconsin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Kennedy 1962 executive order gave federal employees right to bargain </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Private v Public <ul><li>Before 1932 courts tended to favor industrial management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts made injunctions to suppress strikes, picketing, and boycotts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers could discriminate against union members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1932 Congress enacted Norris-LaGuardia Act which prevented federal courts from issuing injunctions against union activities occurring as the result of labor disputes. </li></ul><ul><li>States followed suit except for placing national health or safety in peril. </li></ul><ul><li>1935 National Labor Relations Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose was to encourage collective bargaining as a means of promoting industrial peace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established National Labor Relations Board as a regulatory body to prosecute and remedy unfair labor practices, also placed burden on both sides to bargain in good faith. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Amended to Labor Management Relations Act in 1947 (Taft-Hartley Act) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More limitations were placed on union activities through more definitive regulation of unfair labor practices by the union. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further amended in 1959 to curb union abuses </li></ul><ul><li>Heart of collective bargaining is the right to strike . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most states do not allow public employees to strike. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences between public and private </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher salaries in public mean higher taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public employees have many more due process rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due process against arbitrary state action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal market pressures do not exist in public schools like in business. Public schools cannot lock out employees, go out of business, or raise prices. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Right to Bargain Collectively <ul><li>Legal aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to organize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority of school board to bargain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The authority of the school board to submit to binding arbitration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee right to join a labor union </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AFSCME v. Woodward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court held that employees have a right to join labor unions and also may file suit for damages and injunctive relief under the Civil Rights Act of 1871. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norwalk Teachers Association V Board of Education (1951); Supreme Court of Connecticut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers may organize and bargain collectively but cannot strike </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Teachers’ Unions <ul><li>Today – Huge money raised annually by the NEA and AFT for political purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEA is most powerful educational lobbying group in Springfield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unions are closely associated with the Democratic Party </li></ul><ul><li>1959 – Wisconsin legislature passed the first law granting teachers’ unions the authority to bargain collectively </li></ul>
  21. 21. Right to Strike <ul><li>Statutes prohibiting public employees’ right to strike do not violate the state or federal constitutional mandates of equal protection. (New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court has ruled that public school teachers have no inherent right to strike. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal postal workers in 1970 could not strike </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public and courts view strikes differently now. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Actual Strike Experience <ul><li>Teachers strike to gain power, gain money and fringe benefits and to express dissatisfaction with administration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown in communication with administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of trust of administration and board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers really are underpaid compared to like geographic districts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public supports teachers initially </li></ul><ul><li>Board publishes teacher salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers publish Superintendent salary </li></ul><ul><li>Public gets tired of kids at home, finds out that teachers make more than most citizens, realize that teachers only work nine months and change their support to Board </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement occurs </li></ul>
  23. 23. ILCS 5/2 DEFINITIONS Educational employee (b) <ul><li>Any individual, excluding supervisors, managerial, confidential, short term employees, students . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Includes both teachers and educational support personnel (ESPs) </li></ul>
  24. 24. ILCS 5/2 DEFINITIONS Supervisory employees (g) <ul><li>Any individual having authority in the interests of the employer to hire, transfer, suspend, layoff, recall, promote, discharge, reward or discipline other employees within the appropriate bargaining unit and adjust their grievances, or to effectively recommend such action . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Devote a preponderance of their employment time </li></ul>
  25. 25. ILSC 5/2 DEFINITIONS Confidential Employee (n) <ul><li>In the regular course of his or her duties, assists and acts in a confidential capacity to persons who formulate, determined and effectuate management policies with regard to labor relations </li></ul><ul><li>Access to information relating to effectuation or review of the employer’s collective bargaining policies </li></ul>
  26. 26. ILCS 5/2 DEFINITIONS Managerial employee <ul><li>An individual who is engaged predominantly in executive and management functions </li></ul><ul><li>Charged with the responsibility of directing the effectuation of such management policies and practices </li></ul>
  27. 27. ILCS 5/2 DEFINITIONS Short-term employee (q) <ul><li>Employed for less than two consecutive calendar quarters during a calendar year </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have a reasonable expectation that he or she will be rehired by the same employer for the same service in a subsequent calendar year </li></ul>
  28. 28. ILCS 5/3 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS <ul><li>Unions have the right to: </li></ul><ul><li>Organize, form, join, or assist in employee organizations or engage in lawful concerted activities </li></ul><ul><li>Other activities such as mutual aid and protection or bargain collectively through representatives of their own free choice . . . or refrain from any or all such activities </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Secondary picketing is not a bargaining right </li></ul>
  29. 29. ILCS 5/4 EMPLOYER REQUIREMENTS Must bargain with regard to policy matters directly affecting wages, hours and terms and conditions of employment as well as the impact thereon upon request by employee representatives
  30. 30. ILCS 5/7 RECOGNITION OF EXCLUSIVE BARGAINING REPRESENTATIVES <ul><li>Appropriateness of a unit, the IELRB shall decide in each case, in order to ensure employees the fullest freedom in exercising the rights guaranteed by this Act </li></ul><ul><li>Historical pattern of recognition, community of interests, including employee skills and functions, degree of functional common supervision, wages, hours and other working conditions </li></ul>
  31. 31. ILCS 5/7 RECOGNITION OF EXCLUSIVE BARGAINING REPRESENTATIVE <ul><li>Employer shall voluntarily * recognize . . . if that organization appears to represent a majority of employees in the unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post notice for 20 school days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send notification to the IELRB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any dispute regarding majority status of a labor organization shall be resolved by the IELRB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* If the union has a majority of the proposed bargaining unit members sign dues deduction authorization cards, the school board is required to voluntarily recognize the union as the exclusive bargaining agent – no election required </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. ILCS 5/7 RECOGNITION OF EXCLUSIVE BARGAINING REPRESENTATIVE <ul><li>Election of the employees in the unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have 30% or more of the employees in the bargaining unit wishing to be represented for collective bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IELRB investigates the petition if it has reasonable cause to suspect that a question of representation exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must conduct hearing within 90 days after the date the petition has been filed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. ILCS 5/10 DUTY TO BARGAIN <ul><li>Performance of the mutual obligations of the employer and union to meet at reasonable times and confer in good faith bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Execute a written contract incorporating any agreement reached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or require the making of a concession </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. ILCS 5/10 DUTY TO BARGAIN <ul><li>Collective bargaining agreement shall contain a grievance resolution procedure ending in binding arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of strikes for the duration of the agreement </li></ul>
  35. 35. ILCS 5/12 IMPASSE PROCEDURES <ul><li>In the event of no agreement: </li></ul><ul><li>90 days prior to the scheduled start of the school year, the IELRB must be notified of the status of negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>45 days prior to start of school, either party may petition the IELRB to initiate mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing prohibits the use of individuals or organizations such as FMCS or AAA to provide mediation services </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. ILCS 5/12 IMPASSE PROCEDURES <ul><li>15 days prior to scheduled start of school, IELRB shall invoke mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be waived by the parties </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. ILCS 5/12 IMPASSE PROCEDURES <ul><li>Mediation is mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Fact-finding or interest arbitration is permissive </li></ul>
  38. 38. Third-Party Intervention Recommends Publicizes Enforces Mediator X Fact-Finder X X Interest arbitrator X X X
  39. 39. ILCS 5/13 STRIKES <ul><li>Educational employees in a school district organized under Article 34 of the School Code shall not engage in a strike except under the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are represented by an exclusive bargaining representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation has been used without success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 10 days have elapsed after a notice of intent to strike has been given by the exclusive bargaining representative to the educational employer, the regional superintendent and the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Board </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. ILCS 5/13 STRIKES 4. The collective bargaining agreement between the educational employer and educational employees, if any, has expired 5. The employer and the exclusive bargaining representative have not mutually submitted the unresolved issues to arbitration. If, however, in the opinion of an employer the strike is or has become a clear and present danger to the health or safety of the public, the employer may initiate in the circuit court of the county in which such danger exists an action for relief which may include, but is not limited to injunction
  41. 41. ILCS 5/14 UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES <ul><li>Educational employers, their agents or representatives are prohibited from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Interfering, restraining or coercing employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed under this Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Dominating or interfering with the formation, existence or administration of any employee organization </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. ILCS 5/14 UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES <ul><ul><li>3. Discriminating in regard to hire or tenure of employment or any term or condition of employment to encourage or discourage membership in any employee organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Discharging or otherwise discriminating against an employee because he or she has signed or filed an affidavit, authorization card, petition or complaint or given any information or testimony under IELRA </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. ILCS 5/14 UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES <ul><ul><li>7. Violating any of the rules and regulations promulgated by the Board regulating the conduct of representation elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Refusing to comply with the provisions of a binding arbitration award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Expending or causing the expenditure of public funds to any external agent, individual, firm, agency, partnership or association in any attempt to influence the outcome of representational elections </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. CAN YOU DO IT? <ul><li>Since the District has received the notice to strike, the Board would like to publish all the teacher’s salaries in the newspaper; over the District’s website; and distribute flyers throughout the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Since past experiences have shown nothing happens during the summer months (June and July), the members of the Board’s bargaining team would like to suspend negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>During a teacher’s strike, the Board would like to pay any teacher who crosses the picket and additional $100.00 per day. </li></ul><ul><li>During a teacher’s strike, the Board would like to pay all replacements $400.00 per day. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>The adversarial, bi-lateral industrial model </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of power </li></ul>The Politics of School Bargaining
  46. 46. <ul><li>Mid-term bargaining and board policy </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions – What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Winning and losing </li></ul><ul><li>Defining successful negotiations </li></ul>The Politics of School Bargaining
  47. 47. Working Conditions <ul><li>Divide into groups of two or three and define working conditions for teachers </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Human Element <ul><li>Reacting responsibly to unions </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Human Relations and Labor Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector vs. public sector bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Three keys to success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Describe a person in the union that you know is a leader. </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics do these leaders have? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they perceived as leaders? </li></ul>
  50. 50. Climate vs. Culture <ul><li>Climate is the short term, changeable aspects of the school’s physical and psychological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is the long-term deeply embedded beliefs of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Share some of your experiences with culture. </li></ul>
  51. 51. How do we change culture? <ul><li>Is it hard? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it bad that culture is hard to change, why or why not? </li></ul>
  52. 52. How do you argue? <ul><li>The average COLA for 2008 was 0.1%, yet the Board bargained a 4% raise with its unions </li></ul><ul><li>The vertical and horizontal step increases are in fact an increase (raise) in salary </li></ul><ul><li>Not all the days during a strike should be made up </li></ul><ul><li>You gave the administrative staff a 5% increase, yet you are willingly to give the support staff a 3% increase </li></ul><ul><li>The Board consistently moves $100,000 in GSA to the building fund, yet are asking the union to accept a salary freeze </li></ul>
  53. 53. How Bargaining Works Ground Rules <ul><li>How often to meet </li></ul><ul><li>What is the length of each session </li></ul><ul><li>How many people attend </li></ul><ul><li>Observer status </li></ul><ul><li>Joint or separate press releases </li></ul><ul><li>Caucusing guidelines </li></ul>
  54. 54. How Bargaining Works Ground Rules <ul><li>Who produces the final draft </li></ul><ul><li>Where and when to hold the meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Set prior agenda </li></ul><ul><li>What timelines & procedures will be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Who keeps the records and minutes </li></ul>
  55. 55. How Traditional Bargaining Works Initial Proposal <ul><li>Who makes first proposal? </li></ul><ul><li>The union for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board of Education already has what the union wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give something to the union that they may not want or thought about </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. How Interest Based Bargaining Works Initial Proposal <ul><li>Both parties share their initial interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openly in front of each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They talk about each of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The danger is that there is no scope to the interest and it seeks its own level, or else it needs to be framed in a narrow fashion </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. How Bargaining Works School Board’s Counterproposal <ul><li>Should include what employer wants </li></ul><ul><li>Not just a reaction to the employee proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Should be written as a document and dated </li></ul><ul><li>You can delete items already in the contract </li></ul>
  58. 58. How Bargaining Works Definition of terms <ul><li>Past practice </li></ul><ul><li>Status Quo </li></ul><ul><li>Good faith bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargain with an open mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long or frequent meetings may not be enough to satisfy the labor board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not mean an agreement must be reached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require the employer or union to agree to a proposal </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Excel Salary Schedule <ul><li>Sample salary schedule </li></ul>
  60. 60. Compulsory Interest Arbitration <ul><li>Either party may request arbitration and decision of arbitrator is final on both parties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters in Wyoming, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon and Minnesota in public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom used in Illinois public education </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Scope of Bargaining <ul><li>Mandatory subjects of bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permissive subjects of bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation, creation of new jobs, make changes in job duties, create new job classifications, to eliminate jobs, combine jobs (to improve efficiency of operation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlawful subjects of bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum, decisions to hire, promote, award tenure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionable but negotiable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher work period, change in number of class periods per day, length of workday, pay for unused sick leave, sick leave bank, in-service education, disciplinary actions against employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In states in which collective bargaining is required, school boards must bargain in good faith to the point of impasse. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Collective and Individual Rights <ul><li>Public employee collective bargaining is a creature of precedents arising from the common law of the courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial and administrative law judgments are made because statutes cannot prescribe each and every element. </li></ul><ul><li>Management has the general right to manage school operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School board must bargain in good faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unions have the right to represent employees, to bargain at the table, to enforce the contract, to grieve, to arbitrate, and to ensure union security. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees have rights to organize freely, engage in meaningful negotiations, press grievances and execute written agreements. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Constitutional Rights of Individuals <ul><li>Employees have the right to join unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Boards can reduce teacher pay for days on strike. </li></ul><ul><li>School district cannot dismiss teacher for union activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal to require all employees to pay union “fair share” dues. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Collective Bargaining <ul><li>Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act is a state law which regulates the recognition of exclusive bargaining relationships between school boards and employees. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found at back of Illinois School Code, Chapter 115, Educational Labor Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IELR Board is a seven member board appointed by the Governor, serve six year terms </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining meetings are not subject to open meetings act. </li></ul><ul><li>Any school employee except for management </li></ul><ul><li>The powers and duties of the School Board generally include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulating, adopting, and modifying District policies, at its sole discretion, subject only to mandatory collective bargaining agreements ; </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Negotiator’s Responsibilities <ul><li>The following employees must file a &quot;Statement of Economic Interests&quot; as required by the Illinois Governmental Ethics Act: (5 ILCS 420/) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superintendent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Principal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of any department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any employee responsible for negotiating contracts, including collective bargaining agreement, in the amount of $1,000 or greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any employee having supervisory authority for 20 or more employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any employee in a position that requires an administrative or a chief school business official endorsement </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act (1984) <ul><li>Purpose of this act is to promote orderly and constructive relationships between all educational employees and their employers. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to regulate labor relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designation of educational employee representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation of wages, hours and working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Granted right to organize and choose freely their representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Requires employers to negotiate and bargain with exclusive bargaining agent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized agents of an exclusive bargaining representative, upon notifying the Building Principal's office, may meet with a school employee (or group of employees) in the school building before and after the employee's work day and during the employee's duty-free lunch period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish procedures to provide for the protection of fights of employees </li></ul>
  67. 67. Definitions from IELR Act <ul><li>Educational employer means the governing body of a public school district. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational employee means any individual, excluding supervisors, managerial, confidential, short term employees, or student. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee organization means an organization of any kind in which membership includes educational employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive representative means the labor organization which has been designated by the IELRB. </li></ul><ul><li>Board means the ILRB. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Superintendent means the ESR Super. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Supervisor means any individual having authority in the interests of the employer to hire, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair labor practice means any practice prohibited by the act. </li></ul><ul><li>Wages means salary or other forms of compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential employee means an employee in the regular course of duties assists and acts in a confidential capacity to persons who formulate, determine and effectuate management policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term employee is employed for less than two consecutive calendar quarters. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Confidential Employee <ul><li>Illinois Appellate Court rules that Technology Coordinator is a “confidential employee” within the meaning of the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act. (2/9/01) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union wanted new position of technology coordinator included in its “wall to wall” unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the employee in question have unfettered access ahead of time to information pertinent to the review or effectuation of pending collective-bargaining policies? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee had access because duties involved repairing and maintaining such information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Employee Rights <ul><li>Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Join </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in employee organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in lawful concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Have the right to refrain from all activities </li></ul>
  71. 71. Employer Rights <ul><li>Do not have to bargain over matters of inherent managerial policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions of the employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of its services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of new employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction of employees </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Statutory Obligations <ul><li>Must bargain with representatives of duly recognized employee bargaining units. </li></ul><ul><li>Must bargain wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment, as well as their impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot force agreement, but once an agreement is reached it must be reduced to writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreement must include a grievance procedure that terminates in binding arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement must contain language to prohibit strikes for the duration of the agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Do not have to bargain matters of inherent managerial policy such as budget, organizational structure, selection of new employees, direction of employees </li></ul><ul><li>May have to bargain impact of matters of inherent managerial policy </li></ul><ul><li>Can create new job but must bargain compensation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zipper Clause” allows boards not to bargain any terms during contract </li></ul>
  73. 73. Union Security <ul><li>Agreement may include a provision requiring non-union members to pay a fair share fee to the union for services rendered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No political fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must protect rights of nonmembers whose non-affiliation is based upon “bonafide religious tenets” </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Unfair Labor Practices <ul><li>Must bargain at reasonable times and confer in good faith </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair labor practice is an allegation of conduct which is prohibited in 115 ILCS 5/14. </li></ul><ul><li>Union unfair labor practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>restraining or coercing employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restraining or coercing employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refusing to bargain in good faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>violate rules of ELRB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refusing to reduce agreement to writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refusing to abide by provisions of binding arbitration </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Employer Unfair Labor Practices <ul><li>Restraining or coercing employees </li></ul><ul><li>Interfering with formation of employee organization </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminating in regard to hiring or tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Discharging employee due to involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to bargain in good faith </li></ul><ul><li>Violate rules of ELRB </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to reduce agreement to writing </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to abide by provisions of binding arbitration </li></ul>
  76. 76. After 1984 <ul><li>School administrators originally believed that collective bargaining would be mostly about compensation for teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Today collective bargaining matters continue year-round, punctuated by grievances, demands for information, mid-term bargaining, and increasing requests for union involvement for everything from seniority lists to reduction-in-force, from teacher evaluation to teacher-parent disciplinary committees, from Internet access to computer training and purchases. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Multi-Year Contracts <ul><li>Wise administrators and school board members recognize that a collective bargaining agreement is a long list of things they cannot do; and that in all but the rarest CB agreements, the union promises nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of long term contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School boards are proposing language to put into the contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must try to predict finances and also other long term implications like block scheduling. </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Non-Certified Representation <ul><li>Today non-certified unions are common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall-to-wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues are hourly wages, overtime, call-back and call-in pay and vacation. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Explain Role Playing <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul>
  80. 80. Ground Rules for Bargaining <ul><li>These are agreed to prior to actual bargaining. </li></ul><ul><li>We will exchange proposals before bargaining. </li></ul><ul><li>Each team will keep the financial information on a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who can talk and who can’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide roles of everybody at the table. </li></ul>
  81. 81. How bargaining works <ul><li>Establish ground rules to govern the behavior of both sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates, times, length, how many persons at the table, observers?, press releases, guidelines for caucusing, who prepares final agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiating proposals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union is on offense and management is on defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If board goes first they may suggest something the union has not thought of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Zero sum” management gives and labor gets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responding with counterproposals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually board first reacting to union proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write language as you want it in the contract </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Behavior at the table <ul><li>This is determined each time you bargain. There is no one correct way. </li></ul>
  83. 83. Educating Board Members <ul><li>Allow yourself room to move </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics </li></ul>
  84. 84. Surveying Administrators and Board Members <ul><li>Keep notes about what has happened since the last negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Does any part of the present contract hurt the administration of the district? </li></ul><ul><li>Set economic parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were raises in previous contract? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are fund balances? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to neighboring districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax Cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TIF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EAV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referendum history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health insurance costs </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Board Strategy <ul><li>The less the contract contains the better. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the urge to swap language for money. </li></ul><ul><li>Side letters are grievable </li></ul><ul><li>Consider letting professional negotiator take the heat. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Prioritize <ul><li>What will the Board take a strike over? These are A issues. </li></ul><ul><li>B issues are those that the management wants to get out of negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>C issues are those issues you are willing to give up. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let the union know. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of a “mole.” </li></ul>
  87. 87. Do you need a professional negotiator? <ul><li>First time contract </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of board team </li></ul><ul><li>Does union have a professional? </li></ul><ul><li>History of past negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>State of the present contract </li></ul><ul><li>Does the Board want significant “take backs?” </li></ul><ul><li>Has the leadership team of the union changed? </li></ul>
  88. 88. Role of Superintendent <ul><li>Knows key issues </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar with how the present contract has been interpreted and administrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar with past practice </li></ul><ul><li>Knows “hot buttons” for the teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Knows financial condition of district </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility? </li></ul><ul><li>Communication? </li></ul>
  89. 89. Role of Board Member <ul><li>What is each member’s temperament? </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to listen? </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment? </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility? </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Profession </li></ul><ul><li>Spouse </li></ul>
  90. 90. Employees Not Covered by IELRA <ul><li>Supervisory – having authority to hire, fire etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial – engaged in executive or managerial functions </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential – works for manager or has access to confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term – less than 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Student employees – </li></ul><ul><li>SSP employees can be covered by the act if they are not contracted employees. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Decisional & Impact Bargaining <ul><li>Decisional bargaining requires the employer to bargain with the exclusive bargaining agent over a decision to do something before the decision is made or implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact bargaining means that the employer is free to make an unfettered decision but is obligated to bargain, on demand, the effects of the decision on wages, hours, and terms or conditions of employment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central City Case (1992) </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Zipper Clause <ul><li>A zipper clause is a negotiated contract clause under which a union waivers its right to engage in mid-term bargaining over mandatory subjects of bargaining. </li></ul><ul><li>A zipper clause is a form of waiver of a union right to bargain. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Non-Union employees <ul><li>Cannot require employees to join a union. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair share </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An exclusive bargaining agent has a duty of fair representation to represent all members, even those not in the union. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Impasses and Strikes <ul><li>Impasse exists if further discussion would be futile. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bargaining history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good faith of parties in negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>length of negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>importance of the issues unsolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contemporaneous understanding of the parties as to the state of negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediator can suggest solutions but has no authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact finder suggest resolutions and makes public his recommendation. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrator makes a formal ruling, makes the ruling public and has the power to enforce ruling. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Impasse Procedures <ul><li>Bargaining must begin within 60 days of receipt by a party of a demand to bargain </li></ul><ul><li>If no agreement 90 days before start of school year then the parties must notify the Labor Board of the status of negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>If no agreement within 45 days, either party may petition Labor Board to initiate mediation </li></ul><ul><li>If no agreement within 15 days the Labor Board shall invoke mediation </li></ul>
  96. 96. Negotiations <ul><li>Do not have to submit process to binding arbitration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only need to submit grievance procedure impasse to binding arbitration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection of mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any person mutually acceptable to both parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a person assigned by American Arbitrator Association (costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal mediator assigned by Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No strike clause prohibits strike during term of contract </li></ul>
  97. 97. Strike <ul><li>Can only strike under the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented by exclusive bargaining agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation has been used without success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten days have elapsed after a notice of intent to strike has been given to employer, regional superintendent, and IELRB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective bargaining agreement has expired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer and exclusive bargaining representative have not mutually agreed to submit the unresolved issues to arbitration. </li></ul></ul>
  98. 98. After Strike <ul><li>There is no statutory requirement to make up school days. However, whether days are made up or not is a mandatory subject of bargaining. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School district loses state aid for days not in session. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot picket at the home of a school board member or administrator. </li></ul>
  99. 99. Mediator-Fact Finder- Arbitrator <ul><li>Mediator can suggest a resolution to the parties, usually does not make his recommendation public, and has no authority to enforce any solution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one required by the act. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fact finder also suggests solutions, but usually makes his recommendation public, and has power to enforce resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrator makes a formal ruling, makes the ruling public, and power to enforce the ruling. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Definitions <ul><li>Agency shop – all non union members must pay a fixed fee as a condition of employment. </li></ul><ul><li>American Arbitration Association – a private nonprofit organization to aid professional arbitrators, provides lists of qualified arbitrators to labor organizations and employers upon request. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration – method of settling employment disputes through recourse to an impartial third party, whose decision may be final and binding. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact finding – a method of settling disputes where the arbitrator’s decision may be refused by either party. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining Agent – organization recognized by the employer as the exclusive representative of all employees. </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>Caucus – when one party or the other calls “time out” during negotiations in order to discuss strategy and/or the issues under consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Negotiations – a process whereby employees as a group and their employers make offers and counter-offers for the purpose of reaching a mutually acceptable agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>C ontract – a written agreement that is legally enforceable </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive Negotiating Rights – the right and obligation of an employee organization to negotiate for all employees in the bargaining unit, including non-members. </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>Expedited Bargaining – contract bargaining within a condensed time frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service – an independent federal agency which provides mediators to assist parties in negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe Benefits – supplements to wages or salaries received by employees at a cost to employers. </li></ul><ul><li>Good Faith – the willingness of the parties to meet and discuss bargaining issues while making a reasonable effort to reach an agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance – a complaint by an employee that a provision of the collective agreement which he is working is being violated. </li></ul>
  103. 103. Bargaining in Good Faith <ul><li>Elements of good faith bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaching the table with an open mind. i.e., a state of mind conducive to reaching an agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A serious intent to adjust differences and to reach acceptable common ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good faith is inconsistent with a predetermined intent not to budge from initial position, no matter what the union says or offers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer must maintain the status quo as to mandatory terms and conditions of employment during contract negotiations until the parties have reached an “impasse” or executed a new agreement </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Impasse <ul><li>Impasse does not exist if there is “a ray of hope that a real potentiality of agreement, if explored in good faith, exists.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining history. Prior relation of the parties, understandings and expectancies of the parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The good faith of the parties in negotiations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of the negotiations. (How many meetings? How long did they last? Were proposals exchanged?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of the disagreed issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporaneous understanding of the parties as to the state of negotiations. (Does one side say it is still willing to make concessions?) </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Politics of School Bargaining <ul><li>The tension necessary for union solidarity must be developed at the bargaining table. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflated proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protracted adversarial bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time typically brings emotional stability for the union and board-management team. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining is often an adversarial process with the union on one side and management on the other. </li></ul><ul><li>School boards are vulnerable to political pressure and unions are private organizations whose only responsibility is to the vested interests of their membership. They have no responsibility to the public. </li></ul>
  106. 106. Why Unions? <ul><li>Unions provide a sense of collective power enhanced by the protection of laws and court decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the school limits communication, unions promise control over individual decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers have a tough time leaving one job for another thus they need security. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching profession includes more and more primary wage earners. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayers are resentful of increased school costs and demand evidence of results. </li></ul><ul><li>The job of the teacher keeps on getting harder and harder due to social conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates for accountability and evaluation limit the academic freedom for teachers and subject them to scrutiny. </li></ul>
  107. 107. Changes due to bargaining <ul><li>Collective bargaining has a leveling effect. All employees have to be treated alike. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual employee needs are replaced by group needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining statewide tends to equalize differences among districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining creates a special set of problems for administrators. </li></ul>
  108. 108. Nature of school bargaining <ul><li>School bargaining tends to be adversarial because it follows the traditional industrial model. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The employer has the wealth and the union wants if for its members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unions need equal footing at the bargaining table which is down via the threat of strike. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union must have the loyalty of its members to exist. </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. Problems for Boards and Superintendents <ul><li>If unions do not get what they want at the bargaining table, then </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of school spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers’ refusal to maintain acceptable relationships with students and parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect of faculty attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union works to elect new board members to fire superintendent </li></ul></ul>
  110. 110. What is winning at the bargaining table? <ul><li>Does it mean avoiding a strike? </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating the smallest possible salary increase? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting some restrictive language out of the contract? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting a settlement so school can start on time? </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A contract settlement is reached without a strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractual agreements are within the board’s parameters regarding economic benefit settlements and specific provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both the board and the union emerge looking good, as though each did its job competently and fairly </li></ul></ul>
  111. 111. Contractual provisions <ul><li>Contract may be negotiated for three years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five year contracts? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Just cause” provision limits the employer to the discipline or dismissal of employees only when there is “just cause.” </li></ul><ul><li>Employee groups cannot trade statutory rights (like tenure) for money. </li></ul><ul><li>A contract can include a cost of living increase. </li></ul><ul><li>The school board must maintain status quo after expiration of a contract before a new contract is agreed to. </li></ul>
  112. 112. Establishing a floor <ul><li>Past practice like allowing teachers to come and go as they please during duty-free periods is considered contract language. </li></ul><ul><li>Status quo, under the terms, conditions and benefits of an expired contract are continued in force until a new contract is agreed upon. </li></ul>
  113. 113. Union demands that must be bargained but should be avoided or modified <ul><li>Hours worked per day </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation time </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch periods </li></ul><ul><li>Retirement bonus </li></ul><ul><li>Work load </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Class size </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Employee discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge or termination </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for reducing work force </li></ul><ul><li>Fair share </li></ul><ul><li>Use of facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Notification of assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Dues deduction </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer and reassignment </li></ul>
  114. 114. Union demands not subject to mandatory bargaining <ul><li>Supervisory duties </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring practices </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Use of emergency days </li></ul><ul><li>Fact finding </li></ul><ul><li>Academic freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of standards </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Administrator evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum and program </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook selection </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Board definition of grievance </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing standards </li></ul><ul><li>Professional qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship and constitutional protections </li></ul><ul><li>Student teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Committee assignments </li></ul>
  115. 115. Bargaining Curriculum <ul><li>NEA and IFT started in 1997 to turn to collaborative bargaining. This has resulted in teachers being able to gain considerable authority over curriculum decisions -- a residual management right in most states -- by negotiating shared decision making into their agreements. </li></ul><ul><li>And once shared decision making for curriculum and instruction finds its way into union contracts, disputes over these topics are subject to grievance procedures -- an outcome that has caught many school officials by surprise. </li></ul>
  116. 116. Impact and mid-term bargaining <ul><li>Mid-term bargaining becomes a factor when school management decides to take an action during the term of the contract when that action involves a matter deemed a mandatory subject of bargaining. </li></ul><ul><li>Good faith bargaining requires 60 days or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Zipper clause functions as a waiver of union bargaining rights during the term of the contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact bargaining occurs when a management decision affects terms and conditions of employment. </li></ul>
  117. 117. Negotiation Theory Distributive Integrative Traditional Win-Win Interest Based
  118. 118. Win–Win Process Pre-Work First Weekend Second Weekend Activity Period Post Work In-service Training
  119. 119. Win-Win Format <ul><li>First Weekend - Circle of people, with no desk, or paper or resources available with them </li></ul><ul><li>Each party develops problem and then posts problem on wall </li></ul><ul><li>Each party speaks to their problem and takes questions from the other group </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Period – 3 to 4 weeks of meeting of a subcommittee in order to negotiate a solution to the problems stated on the first weekend </li></ul><ul><li>Last weekend negotiate the end of the contract </li></ul>
  120. 120. Win-Win Characteristics <ul><li>Best possible solution for both parties </li></ul><ul><li>Intense communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Committee – Consensus Building </li></ul><ul><li>Could be positional at end of process </li></ul>
  121. 121. I.B.B. “Techniques” <ul><li>Separate the people from the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on interest, not positions </li></ul><ul><li>Invent options for mutual gain </li></ul><ul><li>Use objective criteria </li></ul>
  122. 122. INTEREST BASED BARGAINING <ul><li>SEPARATE THE PEOPLE FROM THE PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>See the ideas of others as contributing to the solution rather than being part of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>If opinions or ideas differ, criticize the ideas not the individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Separate your relationship with others from the substance of negotiations </li></ul>
  123. 123. INTEREST BASED BARGAINING <ul><li>Put yourself in their shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Don't react to emotional outbursts </li></ul><ul><li>Speak about yourself and your feelings, not about others and their motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Be soft on the people, hard on the problem </li></ul><ul><li>See participants as partners in problem-solving     </li></ul>
  124. 124. INTEREST BASED BARGAINING <ul><li>FOCUS ON INTEREST, NOT POSITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Explore and attempt to understand interests desires, needs, goals of others, not their positions </li></ul><ul><li>Look forward, not back. Focus upon where you want to be in the future, not upon what happened or how you feel about the past </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about your interests but be flexible and open to ideas and interests of others and a void having a bottom line    </li></ul>
  125. 125. INTEREST BASED BARGAINING <ul><li>INVENT OPTIONS FOR MUTUAL GAIN   </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the act of inventing options from the act of judging them....invent first, decide later </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm alternatives individually and/or with other team members </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden perspectives upon the problem   </li></ul>
  126. 126. Bargaining Styles <ul><li>Traditional bargaining which is adversarial in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Win-win negotiations is a highly structured and elaborate set of ground rules that requires joint ownership and acceptance of certain restrictions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed ground rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal goals are of less value than institutional goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral facilitator oversees the joint session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time is one marathon weekend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams are equal in number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittees are formed to deal with issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A commitment to reach closure at end of weekend is agreed to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expedited bargaining adopts marathon time frame and predetermined closure time. </li></ul>
  127. 127. Human Relations Labor Relations Process Consensus Adversary Agenda Problems and needs Demands Arena Personal-Humanistic Legal Result Change or Development Contract Obligation Emphasis Self-actualization and Growth Economics and Security Goals Internal External Participants Individuals Union Location Local Issues Statewide Demands Benefits To organizational goals and clients through better programs To union and its members through increased benefits, power and security
  128. 128. Credibility <ul><li>Credibility is the tie that binds school board and community. </li></ul><ul><li>Union leader is adversarial and does not care if he destroys the creditability of the board or the administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents make different demands than do older taxpayers. </li></ul><ul><li>Good credibility in a school district starts with good staff relations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what you mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say what you mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean what you say </li></ul></ul>
  129. 129. Preparation to bargain <ul><li>Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backing of IEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced teachers at the table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep members uniformed after forming platform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually inexperienced board members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superintendent role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of chief negotiator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep members informed </li></ul></ul>
  130. 130. Role of administration <ul><li>Identify portions of the current agreement which make contract management difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather data from school districts with similar characteristics which indicate which direction settlements are taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop facts about school operations which will be affected by any agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as a consultant to the management bargaining team relative to any proposals being made for the new contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as a member of the bargaining team. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the confidentiality of the board’s strategy. </li></ul>
  131. 131. Common Bargaining Mistakes <ul><li>Putting the board at the negotiating table </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to recognize the beginning of negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to give authority to the negotiating team </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to learn the bargaining language of the teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Circumventing the bargaining team </li></ul><ul><li>Permitting unions to define the compensation base </li></ul><ul><li>Waving a red flag </li></ul><ul><li>Being willing to negotiate every union demand </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to differentiate rhetoric from reality </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the bait too soon </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to resolve intra-board conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting ambiguous solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting the mediator </li></ul>
  132. 132. Grievance Resolution <ul><li>Grievance is an allegation by an employee that there has been a violation of specific provision of the contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide for binding arbitration of all disputes. </li></ul><ul><li>IELRB has sole and exclusive jurisdiction to vacate or modify arbitration awards. </li></ul>
  133. 133. IASB Collective Bargaining Survey <ul><li>Superintendent perceptions regarding collective bargaining relationships and practices and needs for school board training in their districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98% of districts are organized for collective bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board members are chief negotiators 46%, consultant 32% and superintendent 18% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>82% of teacher contracts are for three years or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional bargaining = 53%, expedited bargaining = 12%, Win-win = 34% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of districts have tried and abandoned a collaborate approach to teacher negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% said collaborative bargaining will be used next time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>82% of contracts were settled without mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>82% of school boards were satisfied with result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of board members and administrators have received some formal training in collective bargaining </li></ul></ul>
  134. 134. Can public education be operated like a business? <ul><li>No profit to be made </li></ul><ul><li>Supply and demand does not fit </li></ul><ul><li>No year-end bonuses, stock options, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a bottom line. You cannot stay in business if you spend more than you earn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To compete, expenses must be as low as possible without compromising the salability of the product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The buck stops somewhere. (Superintendent and school board) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a discernable product around which everyone in the business is united. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is unity around the product. Most everyone in a business agree on what the company produces. </li></ul></ul>
  135. 135. Strike tips <ul><li>Be careful of what you say </li></ul><ul><li>Ask other administrators who have been in a strike before </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate frequently with all board members </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare board members before the strike begins of what will happen </li></ul><ul><li>Learn and practice to count to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>The end will come – there will be a settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Keep other administrators in the know </li></ul>
  136. 136. Professionalism <ul><li>Select a team which will demonstrate a high level of competence and professionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to listen to and respect the views expressed by the union even though you may disagree. </li></ul><ul><li>Take only credible positions on issues. </li></ul>
  137. 137. Preparation <ul><li>Attempt to learn what the union demands will be in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to minimize union demands without getting too close. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t put something on the table without a legitimate need or commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Share all pertinent information with the union. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the right resource people on the team. </li></ul>
  138. 138. Patience <ul><li>Be a good listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate and understand the art of timing. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize you can’t force a settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Never demonstrate impatience. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember there always will be a settlement. </li></ul>
  139. 139. Lessons Learned Bils, J. (2000 February). Labor Relations. American School Board Journal . 52-55. <ul><li>Build an atmosphere in your district that allows all three leadership parties - school board, administration, and union - to have strong and influential voices. </li></ul><ul><li>The process must create a sense of mutual benefits, a feeling among all three leadership parties that “we’re all in this together.” </li></ul><ul><li>All parties must be willing to compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid as many language changes in the contract as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>A committee of school board members, administrators, and union leaders must be small enough to allow for regular thoughtful interactions. </li></ul>
  140. 140. <ul><li>There should be minimal publicity about the committee sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish strong parent involvement in your district, because parents will push both sides to reach agreements. </li></ul>
  141. 141. School Board Common Mistakes in Collective Bargaining (Bolton, IASB, January 2003) <ul><li>School boards negotiating a contract without any outside help. </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to recognize the beginning of negotiations (give away items early) </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to give authority to the negotiating team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For effective negotiations, the board must give its negotiating team a realistic idea of the total amount of money it is willing to make available for a settlement and the issues that are important to the board. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failing to learn the bargaining language of the teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, when the union cries, &quot;The board is not bargaining in good faith,&quot; it usually means, &quot;The board isn't giving us what we want.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  142. 142. <ul><li>Circumventing the bargaining team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In almost every bargaining effort, particularly when it is difficult or prolonged, either the superintendent or a board member believes that he or she can talk to several teachers privately to arrange a settlement. This is frequently known as the savior maneuver. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permitting unions to define the comparison base </li></ul><ul><li>Waving a red flag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are far too many instances when settlements have been delayed or strikes provoked as a result of indiscriminate comments that have infuriated teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being willing to negotiate every union demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to realize that very few of the union's proposed items are serious; the job of the negotiating team and the board is to ferret out those that are truly rock-bottom demands. </li></ul></ul>
  143. 143. <ul><li>Failing to differentiate rhetoric from reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be wary of union demands that are rationalized in terms of concern for students or the professionalism of teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking the bait too soon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to remember that the essence of collective bargaining is discussion and compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failing to resolve intra-board conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting ambiguous solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting the mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mediator will attempt to gain the trust of both parties, often by meeting with both parties separately and attempting to ascertain what concessions each party might be willing to make to reach an agreement. </li></ul></ul>
  144. 144. Interest Based Bargaining <ul><li>Focus on issues not personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Using reason, not power to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on interests not positions </li></ul><ul><li>Needs an attitude of collaboration and an atmosphere of trust </li></ul>
  145. 145. Getting to Yes <ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should produce a wise agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should be efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should improve or at least not damage the relationship of the parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells the other side what you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an anchor in an uncertain situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can produce the terms of an acceptable agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arguing over positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiators lock themselves into positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger in becoming entrenched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be more interested in “saving face” </li></ul></ul>
  146. 146. Positional Bargaining <ul><li>Soft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants are friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make concessions to cultivate relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be soft to the people and to the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change your position easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make offers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclose your bottom line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants are adversaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand concessions as a condition of the relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be hard on the problem and the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distrust others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dig in your position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make threats </li></ul></ul>
  147. 147. Principled Negotiation <ul><li>People - separate the people from the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the personal emotions out of the issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interests – Focus on interests, not positions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to focus on what people really want </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options – generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often takes time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria – insist that the result be based on some objective standard. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get parties to agree on a fair standard of acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  148. 148. Stages of Negotiations <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate ideas and decide what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each side should come to understand the interests of the other </li></ul></ul>
  149. 149. Separate the people from the problem <ul><li>Negotiators are people first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust, understanding, respect and friendship are built up over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger, depression, fear, hostility, frustration and offense are normal reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each negotiator has substance and relationship interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going relationships are usually more important than the outcome of a particular negotiation. </li></ul></ul>
  150. 150. Separate the relationship from the substance <ul><li>Relationship should be based on accurate perceptions, clear communication, appropriate emotions and a forward-looking, purposive outlook. </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with people problems directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with psychological problems with psychological techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Where perceptions are inaccurate, educate. </li></ul><ul><li>If emotions run high, let people let off steam. </li></ul><ul><li>Where misunderstandings exists, work to improve communications. </li></ul>
  151. 151. Perception <ul><li>Conflict lies not in objective reality, but in people’s heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Put yourself in the other people’s shoes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withhold judgment while you try on “their views” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covey’s “Indian Stick” metaphor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss each other’s perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Look for opportunities to act inconsistently with their perceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the other side in coming up with a solution to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Face saving” should not be an issue at settlement. </li></ul>
  152. 152. Emotion <ul><li>Recognize and understand emotions, both yours and theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with people on the other side about their emotions, talk about your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the other side to let off steam. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good strategy is to listen and not respond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t react to emotional outbursts </li></ul>
  153. 153. Communication <ul><li>Negotiation is a process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching a joint decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not talking to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One side not hearing the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solving communication problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen actively and acknowledge what is being said. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak to be understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak about yourself, not about them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak for a purpose </li></ul></ul>
  154. 154. Prevention works best <ul><li>The best time for handling people problems is before they become people problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a working relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the other side personally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face the problem, not the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change “face to face” to “side by side” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  155. 155. Focus on interests not positions <ul><li>For a wise solution reconcile interests, not positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests define the problem (desires and concerns) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your position is something you have decided upon. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your interests are what caused you to so decide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behind opposed positions lie shared and compatible interests, as well as conflicting ones. </li></ul></ul>
  156. 156. How do you identify interests? <ul><li>Ask “Why” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask “Why not?” Think about their choice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To change somebody’s mind, the starting point is to figure out where their minds are now. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realize that each side has multiple interests. </li></ul><ul><li>The most powerful interests are basic human needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic human needs include security, economic well-being, a sense of belonging, recognition, and control over one’s life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make a list of the opposition points. </li></ul>
  157. 157. Talking about interests <ul><li>The purpose of negotiating is to serve your interests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The chance of that happening increases when you communicate them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make your interests come alive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge their interests as part of the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ As I understand it, your interests are …” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put the problem before your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Look forward, not back. </li></ul><ul><li>Be concrete but flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>Be hard on the problem, soft on the people. </li></ul>
  158. 158. Invent options for mutual gain <ul><li>Major obstacles that inhibit a solution in negotiations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Premature judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical negotiations appears to call for practical thinking, not wild ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for a single answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It may be wise to select from a large number of possible solutions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption of a fixed pie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All or nothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking that “solving their problem is their problem.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a negotiator to reach an agreement that meets his own self-interest he needs to develop a solution which also appeals to the self-interest of the other. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  159. 159. Prescription <ul><li>Separate inventing from deciding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invent first, decide later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postpone all criticism and evaluation of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm with your side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider brainstorming with the other side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broaden your options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop room in which negotiate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look through the eyes of different experts </li></ul><ul><li>Invent agreements of different strengths </li></ul>
  160. 160. Look for mutual gain <ul><li>One side does not always win and the other side lose. </li></ul><ul><li>Both could win. </li></ul><ul><li>Both could lose. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify shared interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The negotiator will almost always want to look for solutions that will leave the other side satisfied as well. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dovetail differing interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences can lead to a solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask for their preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invest several options all equally acceptable to you and ask the other side to choose. </li></ul></ul>
  161. 161. Make their decision easy <ul><li>Whose shoes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who on the other side are you trying to satisfy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What decision? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settle items that can be settled early. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making threats is not enough. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you were they, what results would you most fear? </li></ul></ul>
  162. 162. Insist on using objective criteria <ul><li>Deciding on the basis of will is costly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No negotiation is likely to be efficient or amicable if you pit your will against theirs, and either you have to back down or they do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The case for using objective criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commit yourself to reaching a solution based on principle , not pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principled negotiation produces wise agreements amicably and efficiently. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts such as precedent, fairness and independent standards </li></ul></ul>
  163. 163. Developing objective criteria <ul><li>Fair standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of each side’s will </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use fair standards for the substantive question or fair procedures for resolving the conflicting interests. “One cuts, the other chooses” </li></ul></ul>
  164. 164. Negotiating with objective criteria <ul><li>Frame each issue as a joint search for objective criteria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree first on principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each standard the other side proposes becomes a lever you can then use to persuade them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reason and be open to reason as to which standards are most appropriate and how they should be applied. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not come to the table with closed principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never yield to pressure, only to principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite opposition to state their reasoning, suggest objective criteria you think apply, and refuse to budge except on this basis. </li></ul></ul>
  165. 165. What if they are more powerful? <ul><li>Protecting yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having a bottom line makes it easier to resist pressure and temptations of the moment. But it also may keep you from inventing and from agreeing to a solution it would be wise to accept. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know your BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the standard against which any proposed agreement should be measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to think about what you will do if you fail to reach an agreement. </li></ul></ul>
  166. 166. What if they won’t play? <ul><li>They state their position in unequivocal terms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can try to settle on the position of merits rather than positions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can focus on what they may do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of fighting back, sidestep their attack and deflect it against the problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You focus on what a third party can do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invite a mediator to try to solve the differences. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  167. 167. What if they use dirty tricks? <ul><li>How do you negotiate about the rules of the game? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that the other side is using a dirty tactic, raise the issue explicitly, and question the tactic’s legitimacy and desirability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate the people from the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on interests not positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invent options for mutual gain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insist on using objective criteria. </li></ul></ul>
  168. 168. Common tricky tactics <ul><li>Deliberate deception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phony facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dubious intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressful situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul></ul>
  169. 169. Ten questions people ask about getting to Yes <ul><li>Does positional bargaining ever make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>What if the other side believes in a different standard of fairness? </li></ul><ul><li>Should I be fair if I don’t have to be? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I do if the people are the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Should I negotiate even with terrorists or someone like Hitler? When does it make sense not to negotiate? </li></ul>
  170. 170. <ul><li>How should I adjust my negotiating approach to account for differences of personality, gender, culture, and so on? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I decide things like “Where should we meet?’ ‘Who should make the offer?’ and ‘How high should I start?” </li></ul><ul><li>Concretely, how do I move from inventing options to making commitments? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I try out these ideas without taking too much risk? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Can the way I negotiate really make a difference if the other side is more powerful? And How do I enhance my negotiating power?” </li></ul>
  171. 171. Questions <ul><li>Does a collective bargaining agreement have the full force and effect of law? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract cannot supersede the law, if any provision is held to violate the law, that provision is subject to renegotiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can a contract be unilaterally changed by a party to that contract? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides have to agree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a union is formed, will union members have to go on strike? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A strike can only be authorized by a vote of the union. </li></ul></ul>
  172. 172. <ul><li>Does the union have to defend a faculty member who is unfit to continue in his/her position? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union ensures that all faculty have the right to due process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty member should only be subject to discipline or discharge for just cause. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must everyone join the union? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair share agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only to cover costs of collective bargaining and not for political issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union is exclusive representative for all members </li></ul></ul>
  173. 173. Arbitration Mediation A third party, the arbitrator, has authority to decide the outcome of the dispute. The parties are in control of the final outcome of their discussions. They tailor the solutions to meet their needs. The parties, or their representatives, argue the merits of their case before the arbitrator, by preparing and presenting evidence which validates their position and defends against “the opposition.” The parties may obtain the advice of an attorney which can help their negotiations but the non-adversarial forum will be preserved. The arbitrator will render a decision that can be entered as a judgment of the court. The mediator will facilitate communications between the parties, will help develop options and solutions, and can prepare a final agreement. Although the fees for legal representation can be substantial, the process is more focused and costs less than traditional litigation. By combining their resources to pay for costs of mediation, the parties can resolve their differences less expensively. The goal is for each party to present its case before the arbitrator, avoiding the complications and delays of procedural conflicts and court schedules. By emphasizing collaboration and communication, under strict confidentiality, the parties can preserve and improve existing relationships. The authority and finality of a court-like setting, but with less formal rules of evidence and procedure. The flexibility and creativity of solution-building that enhances the interests of the participants, allowing all parties to win.
  174. 174. Hired Gun or Not? <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They get to leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board, Superintendent and Teachers have to work with each other when negotiations are concluded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts cold without any preexisting personality conflicts and can stick strictly to the issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opposition cannot accuse him or her of having any local sweetheart interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other side cannot bring up his or her position on a recent local controversy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It allows for hard feelings to be focused on the outside negotiator, and not the local superintendent or administrators. </li></ul></ul>
  175. 175. Role of the Superintendent <ul><li>Stay away from the table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as a resource team member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement at the table automatically puts the superintendent in an adversarial role with the employees of the district. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if the superintendent says nothing at the table, his or her mere presence creates the perception that he or she is negotiating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings up question about his or her salary and benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements made to the media could be taken as anti union. </li></ul></ul>
  176. 176. Role of Board Members <ul><li>Board members are unpaid elected officials who often do not have the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Question if board members at the table are speaking for the entire board. </li></ul><ul><li>Board member knowledge of contract language and operations of school district could be questionable. </li></ul>
  177. 177. Chief Negotiator Role <ul><li>Articulate, able to think on his or her feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to control the other members of the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Must inform team on a regular basis what is transpiring at the table. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to reject proposals with angering the opposition. </li></ul>
  178. 178. Recorder Role <ul><li>Documents all actions at each meeting and each negotiation session. </li></ul><ul><li>Pays special attention to any movement made on a particular team. </li></ul><ul><li>When movement occurs, the recorder must note the date that this movement occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Must keep a record of the date of any tentative agreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Must keep a record of any relevant statements made by the opposition. </li></ul>
  179. 179. Financial Expert <ul><li>Provides a financial analysis of cost of wages, benefits, contract language. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be responsible for analyzing all proposals for their cost impact to the district. </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide clear, understandable, and accurate financial data to the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to project revenue with expenditure trends for several years. </li></ul>
  180. 180. Observer <ul><li>Watch for emotions and nonverbal behaviors of the other team’s members. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to determine whether each member is in agreement with the other members of the team. </li></ul>
  181. 181. Language Analyst <ul><li>Carefully study the impact of each word in every proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: “Would” and “Should” are much different than “shall” and “will” </li></ul>
  182. 182. Give ‘Em What They Want… and Get What You Want <ul><li>The way to long term success in negotiation is to help the other parties get what they want. </li></ul><ul><li>You first need to know what you want and what the other party wants out of negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>Search for interests on both sides. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs and desires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns and fears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put yourself in the other sides shoes </li></ul></ul>
  183. 183. How to identify interests <ul><li>Ask why? Make it clear you are not asking for justification, but for an understanding of their needs, fears and desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask why not? Ask yourself why the other side has not taken the action you want them to take. What interests of theirs stand in the way? </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that each side has multiple interests, not just one. Each person on the other side may have a different view of the same interest. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most powerful interests are human needs, security, economic well-being, a sense of belonging, recognition, and control over one’s life. </li></ul></ul>
  184. 184. <ul><li>Acknowledge the importance of the other side’s interests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t attack or criticize the other person’s interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make a list of each party’s interests on paper. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will help you focus your negotiating efforts and may stimulate ideas on how to meet those interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make your interests visual and tangible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe to the other side exactly how important and legitimate your interests are. Concrete details make your description more credible and add impact. </li></ul></ul>
  185. 185. <ul><li>FMCS </li></ul><ul><li>Memo of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>mid-term bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Past practice </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval bargain </li></ul><ul><li>Side bar </li></ul><ul><li>Win win </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on Super & Board </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on union </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of statewide bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair labor practice </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Sum </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Rules </li></ul>
  186. 186. Financial Variables <ul><li>Student attendance </li></ul><ul><li>General State Aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding by state legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wealth per pupil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EAV of local school district </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truth In Taxation Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Caps </li></ul><ul><li>TIF District </li></ul><ul><li>Medicaid revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Issue of resigning teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of retiring teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher RIF </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of hiring new teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Special education costs </li></ul><ul><li>Contingencies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Watch List Figure </li></ul><ul><li>State and Federal Funding </li></ul>
  187. 187. Budget Variables <ul><li>Revenue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EAV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPPR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State funding level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low income count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADA 3 Year Average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed State Aid Payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflate IMRF & SS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State pro-ration of transportation and other categorical expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicaid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher resignations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff additions or deletions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies & materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchases Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Outlay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction costs </li></ul></ul>
  188. 188. Education Fund Revenue Sources <ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Levy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tort Levy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPPR taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>District </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cafeteria income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletic income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook rental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General State Aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gifted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADA Block Grant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other grants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title I, II, IV, VI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicaid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free and Reduced Lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other grants </li></ul></ul>
  189. 189. State Sources of Funding <ul><li>General State Aid formula = 45% of state education funding </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical and special program grants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School lunch and breakfast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifted and remedial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pension systems </li></ul>
  190. 190. State Sources of Revenues <ul><li>FY 2007 = 37.8 billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal grants = 25.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and corporate taxes = 24.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales tax = 17.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor fuel tax = 6.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois State Lottery = 2.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pari-mutual betting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real estate transfers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private car sales </li></ul></ul></ul>
  191. 191. General State Aid Formula <ul><li>GSA is basically a foundation approach with three separate calculations, depending on the amount of property wealth in the school district. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have available resources below 93% of the foundation formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least 93% but less than 175% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least 175% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  192. 192. Federal Funding <ul><li>Title I </li></ul><ul><li>School food program </li></ul><ul><li>Special education </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational education </li></ul>