Spoiling for War
• Militarism-Belief that
war and combat are
good and moral.
verse England, France,
• Imperialism-The lust
to gain more power
for other countries and
love for one’s own.
Powder Keg of Europe
• The Balkans had numerous ethnic groups
all demanding freedom.
• Austria-Hungary was a declining power in
the early 20th century. To gain power they
bullied the weaker powers in the Balkans.
• The Serbians were the number one enemy
to the Austrians.
Assassin in Sarajevo
• Franz Ferdinand was
the Arch-Duke of
gave Austria the
excuse to crush the
The Guns of August
• Austria invaded Serbia with the promise of
full support from Germany, in Response
Russia defended Serbia. This in turn led to
Germany attacking France, Russia’s ally.
• The German plan was to attack knock
France out of the War and then turn all their
armies on Russia.
• For 4 years both sides massacred one another in a
war of attrition.
• Germany bore the brunt of the war for the Central
Powers while Russia, France, and England carried
the war for the allies.
• Both sides used new weapons such as tanks and
gas warfare to break the stalemate.
• Germany eventually used unrestricted submarine
warfare to starve England into submission. In
1915 they sank the cruise ship Lusitania killing
many Americans. For a while the Germans
• In 1917 the Russian Empire could no longer
take the strains of war. The Russian army
simply got up and walked out of the
trenches back to their villages.
• In Petrograd a food riot led to the eventual
overthrow of the Tsar. A provisional
government tries to continue the war but
they were overthrown by the Bolsheviks.
• Nicholas and his
eventually killed by
• With extra troops from the Russian front the
German's decided to knock France and
England out of the War.
• Part of the plan included using submarines
on all ships, including American, that
entered English waters.
• In response the American president
Woodrow Wilson declared war on
• A final German attack was beaten back with
the help American reinforcements in 1918.
• The defeat of Germany meant the end of the
war and quickly the Austro-Hungarian,
German, and Ottoman empire were all
• The victorious powers then meant at the
palace of Versailles outside of Paris.
• The Big Three Powers were England,
France, and the United States. Germany
and Russia were not invited.
• Germany was to pay reparations(Money) to
pay fro the war damage and accept
responsibility for starting the war..
• Wilson believed in Self-Determination, so
many different ethnic groups got their own
countries. Especially in Eastern Europe
where Austria and Russia so their empires
turned into many different countries.
League of Nations
• To prevent another war the world formed a
League of Nations where countries could
come together to hammer out problems.
• The United States although an architect of
the Treaty of Versailles did not ratify the
Treaty from fear it would lead to constant
American involvement in European affairs.
Effects of the War
• Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia,
Poland, Hungary,and Finland are a few of
the countries created after World War I.
• The Germans were invited only to sign the
treaty, and many Germans felt the Treaty
• Millions were killed in the fighting and
billions of dollars of damage occurred.
• All of Germanys colonies were put under
the mandate (control) of Britain and France.