Solar Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee for the Electrical Industry
Market Drivers for Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation
Increasing costs and dependence on imported energy from unfriendly countries
Environmental impacts from fossil fuel use – pollution and global warming
Electric utility restructuring and deregulation
Net metering and interconnection rules
Legislative mandates for new generation – renewable portfolio standards
Utility surcharges and public benefit funds
Federal, state and other incentives – rebates, tax credits, production incentives and tradable renewable energy credits Financing, power purchase agreements and energy services contracts
Increasing public awareness and interest
U.S. Total Energy Consumption
Since 1950, U.S. annual energy consumption has increased three fold to over 100 quadrillion Btu (Quads), accounting for 25% of total world consumption! (U.S. population is 5% of world)
Since 1970, U.S. net energy imports have grown from zero to 30% of total consumption.
Source: U.S Dept. of Energy Energy Information Agency http:// www.eia.doe.gov The turning point: production peaks, consumption exceeds production
U.S. Energy Flow: 2007 (Quadrillion Btu) Source: U.S Dept. of Energy Energy Information Agency http:// www.eia.doe.gov
Renewable Contribution to U.S. Energy Supply: 2007 Source: U.S Dept. of Energy Energy Information Agency http:// www.eia.doe.gov
U.S. Electricity Generation: 2007
70% of U.S. electrical energy is produced from burning non-renewable coal and natural gas
Source: U.S Dept. of Energy Energy Information Agency http:// www.eia.doe.gov
U.S. Electricity Flow: 2007 (Quadrillion Btu) Source: U.S Dept. of Energy Energy Information Agency http:// www.eia.doe.gov
Conventional Central Power Generation
Conventional thermal power plants convert only 30-40% of the energy content in the fuel source to electrical energy, with the remainder wasted as heat.
Most power plants are located remote from population centers and thermal energy users, resulting in this excess heat going unutilized.
Electricity 33% Fuel 100% 67% Waste Heat CO 2 + Pollution Power Plant (Remote from thermal users)
Distributed Generation: Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
When smaller, distributed power generation is located closer to end users and thermal loads, waste heat can be recovered and utilized.
While many CHP technologies rely on fossil fuels, their value lies in utilizing the fuel more efficiently and providing power where and when it is needed.
Fuel 100% Steam Electricity Chilled Water 90% 10% Waste Heat CO 2 + Pollution CHP Plants (located close to thermal users)
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
The total components and subsystems that, in combination, convert solar energy into electrical energy suitable for connection to a utilization load.
load energy source power conditioning energy conversion Inverter PV Array power distribution Load Center Battery energy storage electric utility
Types of Photovoltaic Systems
Operate independent of the utility grid
Utility-Interactive (Grid-Connected) Systems
Operate interconnected (in parallel) with the utility grid, a bi-directional interface is required
May operate in either utility-interactive or stand-alone mode, but not concurrently
Interactive PV Systems
A solar photovoltaic system that operates in parallel with and may deliver power to an electrical production and distribution network.
Adapted from NEC ® Electric production and distribution network connection Interactive Inverter Photovoltaic source circuits Photovoltaic output circuit Inverter output circuit Inverter input circuit
Basic Utility-Interactive or Grid-Connected PV System Load Center PV Array Inverter AC Loads Electric Utility
Utility-Interactive PV System with Energy Storage PV Array Inverter/ Charger Battery Critical Load Sub Panel Backup AC Loads * Arrows indicate directions of power flows Bypass circuit Main Panel Primary AC Loads Electric Utility
NJATC Photovoltaic Systems Textbook
Developed in partnership with American Technical Publishers, SMEs and training partners in 2007.
An industry standard on the fundamentals, design and installation of PV systems.
Emphasis on safe, code-compliant and accepted industry practice.
Curriculum Scope Task Analysis for PV System Installers Working Safely with PV Systems Conducting a Site Assessment Selecting a System Design Adapting the Mechanical Design Adapting the Electrical Design Installing Components and Subsystems Maintaining and Troubleshooting Systems Performing System Checkout and Inspection
Full-color, durable hard-bound book; 15 chapters, 450 pages, including appendix and glossary.
Detailed, full-color illustrations depict the principles of PV systems, and testing and measurement procedures.
Photographs are used extensively to detail components used in PV installations, and to exemplify best installation practices.
Factoids contain technical tips or background information.
Vignettes highlight cases studies, additional technical, historical or safety information that supplement the text material.
Chapter Summary and Review
CD-ROM Main Menu
Solar Radiation Data Sets
Instructor Resource Guide
PowerPoint ® Presentations
Test Development Software
NJATC Training and Workforce Development
Meeting the Needs of the Electrical Industry DVD
Markets and Opportunities
NJATC Solar Industry Training Partners
World’s leading PV module manufacturer
Largest U.S. distributor of PV products
Contact: David Love, 888-870-9493
Worldwide PV Markets are Booming!
Record high 2,826 MW installations in 2007 - 62% growth from 2006!
Germany's PV market reached 1,328 MW in 2007, 47% of world total
Spain grew 480% to 640 MW
Japan declined 23% to 230 MW
United States increased by 57% to 220 MW
Show Me the Money
The PV industry raised nearly $10 billion in 2007
84 identified financial transactions accounted for $7.5 billion in 2007, including
$5.3 billion from equity financing
$2.2 billion from debt financing
The PV industry generated $17.2 billion in global revenues in 2007
$30 billion expected by 2012
2007 U.S. Grid-Connect PV Market
The U.S. grid-connect market grew 57%, from 112 MW in 2006 to 175 MW in 2007
California Solar Initiative funded at $3.3 billion, 63% of total US market
PV systems above 1 MW accounted for 23% of the market
Over 1 GW of PV projects planned in utility, corporate and government sectors
Solar Big-Box Boom
Big-box stores across the country are going green and investing in PV systems and energy efficiency measures.
Safeway plans to install solar arrays on the roofs of 23 stores as part of a broad renewable energy initiative.
Wal-Mart plans installations at 22 stores across California and Hawaii, totaling 20 MW, meeting about 30% of energy use.
Best Buy plans PV installations on 35 stores in 2008.
Others with announced plans include Staples, Target, Home Depot and Costco.
Financial Incentives for PV Installations
Typically based on $/watt of PV capacity installed
Offered by states, local government and utilities; qualified participation
Federal tax credits, depreciation
Production incentives, feed-in tariffs
Grants and loans
Sales and property tax exemptions
Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE)
National resource for PV project developers:
Includes financial incentives, grants, rules, regulations and policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency
Also see SEIA Guide to Federal Tax Incentives for Solar Energy:
Power Purchase Agreements (PPA)
A legal contract between an electricity generator and a purchaser of energy.
Used by owners of power generation assets to raise financing and capital, and create revenue streams.
Depends on accurately defining costs and performance, typically based on unit energy price and escalation factor.
In 2007, 50% of non-residential photovoltaic installations in the U.S. used a PPA, and expected to exceed 90% by 2009.
Major financial and venture capital firms are accelerating investments in PV markets.
Typical Big Box Retail 500 kW PV System Home Depot Daytona, FL Total roof area: 100,000 sq. ft. If 50% of roof (50,000 sq. ft.) can be covered with PV, a 500 kW array can be installed. A 500 kW PV array will produce enough energy on an average basis to meet the electrical load in typical light commercial retail. 270 ft 370 ft
http:// rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codes_algs/PVWATTS /
Clean Power Estimator
Back of Napkin:
DC Rating x 75% = Peak AC Output (kW)
75% factor includes inverter efficiency, losses and temperature derating
AC Output x peak sun hours = Energy Production (kWh)
PVWATTS Performance Calculator for Grid-Connected PV Systems
Based on array DC rating (sum of module ratings)
Factors in system losses for AC output
Energy production determined by array orientation and solar resource
Provides monthly total energy production and value
Green Building Technologies and the Electrical Industry
Electrical Contractor Magazine
Electrical Construction and Maintenance (EC&M) Magazine
GreenBiz opportunities for electrical markets: E-mail
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
(LEED) Green Building Rating System™
National benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high performance green buildings
Over 50% of LEED points can be attained by work under the scope of the electrical contractor:
Photovoltaics and other renewable and distributed energy systems
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
LEED certified buildings:
have lower operating costs and increased value
are healthy and comfortable for their occupants
reduce waste sent to landfills
conserve energy and water
reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions
qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities
demonstrate an owner's commitment to environmental stewardship and social responsibility
NABCEP PV Installer Certification
North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP)
Voluntary credential for PV professionals
Not a contractor’s license
A job task analysis for PV installations is the basis for the certification program and examination content
Becoming increasingly important to participate in this industry
Over 500 individuals certified nationwide
Electrical industry is encouraged to attain certification
NABCEP Entry Requirements
Due to numerous issues, the NJATC/IBEW/NECA have gained NABCEP board approval to modify candidate entry requirements for installation experience.
Qualfied JWs will be able to take exam based on “installation training equivalent” – to be defined by special committee.
Will include compulsory hands-on training and independent recognition for such training programs
Qualifying candidates will be permitted to take exam in September 2009, look for details early next year
International Association of Electrical Inspectors (IAEI)
Regular articles in IAEI News on PV installations, code compliance and inspections:
Article on licensure and qualifications for PV installations to appear in September issue of IAEI News.
http:// magazine.iaei.org /
Bigger is Better
A total of 30 systems larger than 500 kW accounted for 30% of the 2007 U.S. installed PV capacity.
IBEW and NECA are involved with some of the largest installations in the U.S.
Nellis Air Force Base - Las Vegas, NV 14 MW Installed by Bombard Electric
Largest PV system in U.S.
Google Complex – Mountain View, CA 1.6 MW Installed by Cuppertino Electric
Habilitation Center - Portland, OR 870 kW Installed by Dynalectric
Largest PV system in Pacific Northwest
Denver International Airport 2 MW Inter-Mountain Electric
Wind Turbine Generators
Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy resource in the world.
U.S. wind generation capacity has increased three-fold over the past 5 years and now totals over 7000 MW (< 1% of total U.S. generation)
Utility-scale wind power projects now under development will add at least 5,000 megawatts of U.S. capacity over the next five years.
Wind turbine systems are generally classified as either small scale (<100 kW) or large scale (> 100 kW) generating units.