Games as Innovative Teaching What You Should Know About  Play, Games, and Learning Richard Van Eck, Associate Professor In...
Pick the Commencement Caption Option A: “ Man, am I going to miss school; those twelve years went by SO FAST!” Option B: “...
12th Graders’ Views of School 1983–2000 Source:  The Condition of Education 2002 , National Center for Education Statistic...
Why Do They Feel This Way? <ul><li>Pianta et al., March 30, 2007 (Science, 315) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning in grades 1...
<ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic skills vs. problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5:1 for fifth; 10:1 ...
Their Technology Use <ul><li>Technology is what became available AFTER you were a teenager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For many ...
From Diane K. Danielson, Welcome to the Matrix, Pink Magazine, August/September 2006, page 80 Based on Pew Internet & Amer...
How Does this Change Them? <ul><li>Flynn effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented increase in IQ scores across all cultures...
30% Which of the following is the current U.S. high school dropout rate?   5%   7% 10% 13% 20% UNLESS you are Black, Hispa...
Which of the following was the number ONE reason they cited for dropping out? Boredom Had to get a job Had to take care of...
They Are Not Slackers* <ul><li>These were kids who had the grades to graduate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% had passing grades...
What Should We Do? <ul><li>Nothing new </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation means doing something DIFFERENT </li></ul><ul><li>Lots...
Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play, 400 B.C.* Experiential Learning & Play, 400 B.C.* <ul><li>Latin </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Renaissance philosophers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge derived through interaction with the world </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production in industry leads to economies of scale </li></ul></ul...
Experiential Learning Today <ul><li>Recess is being cut out to make time for NCLB mandated testing* </li></ul><ul><li>Test...
...Something New (Different)...  “Everything I ever really needed to know... “ Everything I ever really needed to know... ...
Gabriel Knight 2 ...Something Borrowed...  Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Games
EverQuest II ...Something Borrowed...  Socialization & Community in Games
Teamwork, Leadership, Community <ul><li>Work with others </li></ul><ul><li>Partition attention, divide tasks </li></ul><ul...
Lost Planet ...Something Blue.  Organization, Multi-tasking, Detail Orientation in Games
Organization, Multi-tasking, Detail Orientation <ul><li>Attend to multiple channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audio-visual inp...
How many channels in typical classroom?
A Belated Introduction <ul><li>Born in 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen X; outside range of digital native </li></ul></ul><u...
Principle One :  Games Rely on Play to Generate Cycles of Learning & Engagement <ul><li>Play requires interaction and part...
Principle Two:   Games Employ Problem-Based Learning <ul><li>Benefits of PBL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PS is highest level of ...
Problem Solving = Engagement
<ul><li>Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence of learning & performance contexts </li></ul></ul>...
Principle Four :  Questioning, Cognitive Disequilibrium, Scaffolding <ul><li>Question asking  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improv...
GBL: PART of the Solution <ul><li>Games can help, but NOT because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are new ways of learning, </l...
Final Thoughts <ul><li>Use GBL when, where, and with whom it is appropriate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-based learning, ...
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Microsoft Innovative Teacher Conference--Keynote

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This is my keynote presentation for the Microsoft Innovative Teachers Conference held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, CA

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  • Thank Chris Webb, NDATL leadership Jody French, EduTech (good work they do--interns--two graduates there Tabitha Lang and Lynne Anderson) You guys are all leaders in education and the technology that supports and enhances--on the cutting edge--honored to be here
  • Microsoft Innovative Teacher Conference--Keynote

    1. 1. Games as Innovative Teaching What You Should Know About Play, Games, and Learning Richard Van Eck, Associate Professor Instructional Design & Technology University of North Dakota [email_address] idt.und.edu Copyright Richard Van Eck, 2008. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author. Keynote Presentation, Microsoft Innovative Teachers’ Conference May 28, 2008
    2. 2. Pick the Commencement Caption Option A: “ Man, am I going to miss school; those twelve years went by SO FAST!” Option B: “ No more teachers, no more books; no more teacher’s dirty looks!”
    3. 3. 12th Graders’ Views of School 1983–2000 Source: The Condition of Education 2002 , National Center for Education Statistics Percent School work is meaningful Courses are interesting School will be important in later life 40 31 36 28 35 29 24 21 51 41 47 39 1983 1990 1995 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 * Thanks to Mark Beno, Apple Computer, for sharing this slide
    4. 4. Why Do They Feel This Way? <ul><li>Pianta et al., March 30, 2007 (Science, 315) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning in grades 1, 3, and 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 students recruited at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2500 classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 elementary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>400 districts </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic skills vs. problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5:1 for fifth; 10:1 for first & third </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% math PS; 11% science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology: 2% </li></ul><ul><li>Richness of methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>92% whole-group/independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>52% chalk and talk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>38% working on own </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptually focused instruction “minimally characteristic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One mode of teaching observed </li></ul></ul>Why Do They Feel This Way?
    6. 6. Their Technology Use <ul><li>Technology is what became available AFTER you were a teenager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For many born in the 20s and 30s, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>radio and the telephone were technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For many born in the 40s and 50s, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>television was technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For many born in the 60s and 70s, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computers and cell phones are technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For many born in the 80s, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computer games, the Internet, and iPods are technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For those born in the 90s and beyond... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOTHING is technology yet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes IM-ing, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Wikis, blogs, RSS feeds, alternate reality gaming... </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. From Diane K. Danielson, Welcome to the Matrix, Pink Magazine, August/September 2006, page 80 Based on Pew Internet & American Life Project, Generation Online, December 2005, Susannah Fox and Mary Madden. Generational Differences in Online Activities Activity Online Teens (12-17 yrs.) Gen Y (18-28 yrs.) Gen X (29-40 yrs.) Trailing Boomers (41-50 yrs.) Leading Boomers (51-59 yrs.) Online Gaming 81% 54% 37% 29% 25% Instant Messaging 75 66 52 38 42 Text Messaging 38 60 44 29 15 Downloading Music 51 45 28 16 14 Reading Blogs 38 41 30 20 21 Downloading Video 31 27 22 14 8 Creating Blogs 19 20 9 3 9
    8. 8. How Does this Change Them? <ul><li>Flynn effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented increase in IQ scores across all cultures that do standardized testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot easily be attributed to education, nutrition, or other factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive complexity of mass entertainment like video games may be responsible (Johnson, 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 30% Which of the following is the current U.S. high school dropout rate? 5% 7% 10% 13% 20% UNLESS you are Black, Hispanic, or Native American, in which case it is 50% 30% How Does this Affect Learning?
    10. 10. Which of the following was the number ONE reason they cited for dropping out? Boredom Had to get a job Had to take care of family Gangs Unplanned pregnancy Boredom How Does this Affect Learning?
    11. 11. They Are Not Slackers* <ul><li>These were kids who had the grades to graduate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% had passing grades when they dropped out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% percent placed primary or only blame for dropout on themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% are confident they could have graduated if they had been more challenged and engaged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why aren’t we reaching them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are 2.0 learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They’re all about interaction & engagement, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and schools are all about passive reception. </li></ul></ul></ul>* Gates Foundation Civic Enterprises study
    12. 12. What Should We Do? <ul><li>Nothing new </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation means doing something DIFFERENT </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of different things we can do that are not new </li></ul>
    13. 13. Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play, 400 B.C.* Experiential Learning & Play, 400 B.C.* <ul><li>Latin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Otium (all leisure activities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes ludus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ludus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Games in the arena </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports & competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word for otium = skole (school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skole includes paideia (education) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play, games, leisure, & education all related </li></ul></ul>* Thanks to Luca Botturi, University of Lugano, for the use of this information
    14. 14. <ul><li>Renaissance philosophers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge derived through interaction with the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All knowledge connected & interrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master and apprentice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul></ul>Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play in the Middle Ages
    15. 15. <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production in industry leads to economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economies of scale lead to ‘widgetizing’ of education & training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production model of learning </li></ul></ul></ul>Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play in the 18th Century
    16. 16. Experiential Learning Today <ul><li>Recess is being cut out to make time for NCLB mandated testing* </li></ul><ul><li>Testing is driving curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>What’s next? </li></ul>* Along with science, social studies, art, & physical education: Center on Educational Policy, Feb 20, 2008, http://tinyurl.com/yumcz8
    17. 17. ...Something New (Different)... “Everything I ever really needed to know... “ Everything I ever really needed to know... <ul><li>...I learned from playing games” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games teach me how to solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games teach me how to work with others and lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games teach me to be organized and detail-oriented </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Gabriel Knight 2 ...Something Borrowed... Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Games
    19. 19. EverQuest II ...Something Borrowed... Socialization & Community in Games
    20. 20. Teamwork, Leadership, Community <ul><li>Work with others </li></ul><ul><li>Partition attention, divide tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate via variety of technologies and media </li></ul><ul><li>Establish shared goals </li></ul>
    21. 21. Lost Planet ...Something Blue. Organization, Multi-tasking, Detail Orientation in Games
    22. 22. Organization, Multi-tasking, Detail Orientation <ul><li>Attend to multiple channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audio-visual input & feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic information displays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrate information to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize incoming data according to goals </li></ul>
    23. 23. How many channels in typical classroom?
    24. 24. A Belated Introduction <ul><li>Born in 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen X; outside range of digital native </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Immigrant with DSL issues, but... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Father a systems analyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heathkit H8 running CPM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A gamer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First game was Cave/Adventure in 1976 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disaffected student </li></ul><ul><li>Last 11 yrs. technology in education/ID </li></ul><ul><li>An advocate and a voice of caution </li></ul><ul><li>Must understand how & why games work </li></ul>
    25. 25. Principle One : Games Rely on Play to Generate Cycles of Learning & Engagement <ul><li>Play requires interaction and participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t be passive, constant cycle of action/reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to engagement (engagement ≠ entertainment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes learning events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching & learning should, too </li></ul>
    26. 26. Principle Two: Games Employ Problem-Based Learning <ul><li>Benefits of PBL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PS is highest level of learning (Gagne, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsumes all lower intellectual skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle for teaching all content and promotes transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two critical attributes of any problem (Jonassen, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The unknown (goal requires generation of new knowledge) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A value to learner in solving the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Games are problem solving </li></ul>
    27. 27. Problem Solving = Engagement
    28. 28. <ul><li>Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence of learning & performance contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance and “anchoring” of knowledge in authentic contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves learning (Anderson, 1995; Bower, 1981 & 1987); Clark, Milberg, & Ross, 1983; Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork, 1978) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All learning in games is situated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal (unknown) drives everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything learned is relevant and applied </li></ul></ul>Principle Three: Games Support Situated Cognition & Learning
    29. 29. Principle Four : Questioning, Cognitive Disequilibrium, Scaffolding <ul><li>Question asking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves learning (e.g., Graesser & Person, 1994; Otero & Graesser, 2001; Graesser et al., 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games, as PBL, promote question-asking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Disequilibrium (Piaget) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving and question-asking triggered by CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games thrive on cycles of CD & resolution ( = engagement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky’s “Zone of Proximal Development” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Players want to be challenged, want only minimal hints, NOT the answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games keep players in the ZPD </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. GBL: PART of the Solution <ul><li>Games can help, but NOT because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are new ways of learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are fun, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we have to entertain our students. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Games CAN help because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are interactive, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are engaging, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they support problem-based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they encompass proven instructional strategies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they promote 21st century skills. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Final Thoughts <ul><li>Use GBL when, where, and with whom it is appropriate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-based learning, multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical support is sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Game & lesson are aligned with curriculum, standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to plan, design, and implement is sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bang for the buck justifies the effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More to the story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal information, fluency, automaticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COTS GBL vs. Game Design vs. Serious Games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember all this AND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GBL is “Not for entertainment , not for all learners , not for all content , & not all the time” </li></ul></ul>

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