UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
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UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

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Introduction to the 21st Century Technology i.e.,Ubiquitous Computing and all other related Research Areas.

Introduction to the 21st Century Technology i.e.,Ubiquitous Computing and all other related Research Areas.

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    UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING Presentation Transcript

    • The Computing of 21st Century !!! Seminar On
    • ThreeWaves of Computing  Mainframe computing (60’s-80’s)  Desktop computing (80’s-90’s)  Ubiquitous computing(00’s-?) 2
    •  Ubiquitous computing is the method of enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user – Mark Weiser  Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. 3
    • Classification of Ubiquitous Computing The Major trends in Computing (Source : Image © MarkWeiser/PARC) 4
    •  Mark Weiser is the father of ubiquitous computing. He coined the phrase "ubiquitous computing" around 1988  He was working as ChiefTechnologist at the CS Lab of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in the late 1980’s and was articulated the current of computing  He wrote some of the earliest papers on the subject, largely defining it and sketching out its major concerns  He developed the initial initiatives of ubiquitous computing in the form of tabs, pads, and boards, built at Xerox PARC, 1988-1994. 5
    • EnablingTechnologies : • Processing • Cheaper, faster, smaller, more energy efficient • Storage • Big, fast and small in size. • Networking • Global, local, ad-hoc, low- power, high bandwidth, low latencies • Sensors • Types,speed,accuracy,price and robustness. • Displays • Projection, flexible materials, low power • Actuators • Computer controlled What makes Ubiquitous Computing Possible 6
    •  There are three general features that are shared across a wide variety of ubicomp applications.  These features are :  the ability to provide transparent interfaces  the ability to automatically adapt the behavior of a program based on knowledge of the context of its use,  the ability to automate the capture of live experiences for later recall. 7
    •  UbicompVision: “pervasive computation without intrusion.”  Remove the physical barrier between user and computational device  Keyboard and mouse are still the most commonly used interfaces !!  Need:  Flexible interfaces  Varied interfaces that can provide similar functionality 8
    •  Context – information about the environment in which the application operates and reacts accordingly.  LOCATION andTIME are simple examples of context !  Context aware application:  is one which can capture the context  assign meaning to it  change behavior accordingly  Need:  Applications with context awareness allow rapid personalization of their services. 9
    •  Capture everyday experiences and make the records available for later use.  Constraints:  Multiple streams of information  Their time synchronization  Their correlation and integration  Need:  Automated tools that support capture, integration and future access of info. 10
    • 11
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 12
    •  An environment in which people interact with embedded (and mostly invisible) computers (processors) and in which networked devices are aware of their surroundings and peers and are able to provide services or use services from peers effectively.  It subsumes Distributed Computing and Mobile Computing . 13
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 14
    •  Wearable computers, also known as body-borne computers or wearable are miniature electronic devices that are worn by the bearer under, with or on top of clothing.  This class of wearable technology has been developed for general or special purpose information technologies and media development.  Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that require more complex computational support than just hardware coded logics.  Features:  There is a constant interaction between the computer and user.  The ability to multi-task 15
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 16
    •  In computing , Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. Ambient intelligence is a vision on the future of consumer electronics ,telecommunications and computing.  As these devices grow smaller, more connected and more integrated into our environment, the technology disappears into our surroundingsTOWARDS UBIQUITY !!! 17
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 18
    •  Mobile computing is HCI by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage.  Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software.  Communication issues include ad hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies.  Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. 19
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 20
    •  Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.  A distributed system is a software system in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages.  The components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal.  Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are:  concurrency of components ,  lack of a global clock ,  independent failure of components. 21
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 22
    •  Context-aware computing refers to a general class of mobile systems that can sense their physical environment, and adapt their behavior accordingly.  Context-aware systems are a component of a ubiquitous computing or pervasive computing environment.  Three important aspects of context are: where you are; who you are with; and what resources are nearby. Although location is a primary capability, location-aware does not necessarily capture things of interest that are mobile or changing.  Context-aware in contrast is used more generally to include nearby people, devices, lighting, noise level, network availability, and even the social situation, e.g., whether you are with your family or a friend from school. 23
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Wireless Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 24
    •  AWireless Sensor Network (WSN) of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location.  The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity.  The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, and so on. 25
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive System 7. Wireless Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 26
    •  Augmented Reality (AR) is a live, copy, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer- generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.  As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality.  With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. 27
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. WearableComputing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Wireless Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. SentientComputing 10. Human Computer Interaction 28
    •  Sentient Computing is a form of ubiquitous computing which uses sensors to perceive its environment and react accordingly. A common use of the sensors is to construct a world model which allows location-aware or context-aware applications to be constructed 29
    • 1. Pervasive Computing 2. Wearable Computing 3. Ambient Intelligence 4. Mobile Computing 5. Distributed Computing 6. Context Aware Pervasive Systems 7. Wireless Sensor Networking 8. Augmented Reality 9. Sentient Computing 10. Human Computer Interaction 30
    •  HCI involves the study, planning, design and uses of the interaction between people (users) and computers. It is often regarded as the intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design and several other fields of study.  Because HCI studies a human and a machine in conjunction, it draws from supporting knowledge on the machine as well the human side.  On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, and development environments are relevant.  On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and human factors such as computer user satisfaction are relevant. 31
    •  Supplies tools to manage information Quickly, Efficiently and Effortlessly.  Dramatically increased automation without much obtrusive or visible use of computer infrastructure  It supports a new class of intelligent and portable appliances or "smart devices" .  Helps people make effective use of computing tools without requiring the knowledge of complex devices  It gives people convenient access to relevant information .  It removes the complexity of new technologies and enables us to be more efficient in our work.  It simplifies life by combining open standards-based applications with everyday activities. 32
    •  Healthcare  Personal Scheduling  Remote computers will monitor our heath statistics  Cars will use the Internet to find an open parking space or the nearest vegetarian restaurant for their owners  Used in Digi-tickers or implanted heart monitors  In development of Smart Clothes and Smart watches .  Flight Schedules:Your phone rings. Its the computer at American Airlines.Your flight departure is delayed by 20 minutes.  Advancement in Fire Fighters tools.  Speech Recognition on Face/Thumbprint Detection.  Instant presentation given with the help of Surface Computing. 33
    •  The trends in Pervasive Computing are increasing the diversity and heterogeneity of networks and their constituent devices .  Pervasive computing is expected to bring an explosion in the number of devices in our local environments.  UbiComp encompasses :  System infrastructure, networking, security,UI,embedded systems, AI, perception, speech recognition.  With more progress in the fields like MANET, Artificial Intelligence, Natural language processing capabilities and energy management, the infrastructure limitation present currently is supposed to be broken, which will result in revolutionary changes through the implementation of Pervasive computing technology. 34
    • Questions ??? 35