Disability presentation

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  • Arias, C. (2008). Image of Toby Macnutt, GIMP performer [Photograph]. Retrieved      from http://www.thegimpproject.com/gimp/gallery/if_toby_1.jpg 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games - Athletics - Day 10. [Photographer]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/115_2772752SYDNEY - OCTOBER 21: Ray Marlon Shirley of the USA sets a World Record in the Men's 100m T44 Final during the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games on October 21, 2000 at Olympic Stadium in Sydney, Australia.?(Photo by: Adam Pretty/Getty Images) Ray Marlon Shirley Sets A World Record. [Photographer]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/115_2772480
  • Sociology has contributions to make in terms of connection the realm of the individual with larger social roles (Barnes and Mercer, p. 4)Good example: we explain lack of employment in terms of personal failures, but we could also explain it as structural problems that lead to a lack of employment (Barnes and Mercer, p. 4)See the first contributions of sociologists in the 1970s studying accounts of chronic illness and also through “examination of social problems” (Barnes and Mercer, p. 9)Also the power of medicine to determine for sure who is allowed to leave the labor market and who isn’t (Barnes and Mercer, p. 72)
  • Historically, Judeo-Christian religions have identified some illnesses as resulting from sin or demonic possession (Barnes and Mercer, p. 15)In societies like the Green and Roman, where strength in war is prized, many of those with disabilities were treated poorlyThe late 1800s saw a rise in residential institutions for people with disabilities (DePauw and Gavron, 2005, p. 26)
  • ONDON, ENGLAND - JULY 28: Natalia Partyka of Poland serves against Mie Skov of Denmark during their Women's Singles Table Tennis match on Day 1 of the London 2012 Olympic Games at ExCeL on July 28, 2012 in London, England. (Photo by Feng Li/Getty Images) Why studying disability in sport is importantPeople who had the most access to leisure still tend to be white able bodied men (DePauw and Gavron, 2005, p. 9). Many of the barriers to sport experienced by women and minorities are common to people with disabilities (p. 13)People with disabilities were/are often perceived as frail and not able to participate in sport, regardless of their disability (Depauw and Gavron, 2005, p. 11)Socialization into sport is rare for children with disabilities, leading to decreased opportunities for participation in the future (p. 10)People with disabilities are often perceived as lacking a need for competition (p. 11)Competitions for people with disabilities are accorded less respect than other forms of competition, and people with disabilities receive substantially less funding to pursue their sports (p. 12)There is a lack of accessible training facilities (p. 14)Training equipment can be prohibitively expensive if it has to be modified (p. 14)Sociology of sport is an important place to explore this because it is able to look at barriers to sport participation that are enforced through cultural attitudes and socialization. There is a lack of accessible training facilities
  • Fay and Wolff 233 The oldest inter- national sport governing body for people with disabilities is the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf (CISS) which held the International Silent Games in Paris in 1924.9 The next international body was the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF). This organization had held international games since 1952 and served as the organizing body for the first Summer Paralympic Games held in Rome in 1960.10 Other disability sport organizations that followed, such as the International Blind Sports Association (IBSA), Cer- ebral Palsy International Sports & Recreation Association (CPISRA) and the International Sport Organization for the Disabled (IOSD), have focused on mobility-related disabilities and led to the creation of the International Paralympic Committee in 1989.11 Globalized Special Olym- pics began in 1968 with the first International Special Olympics in Chicago.12 During the late 1980s, national and international sporting events for athletes with disabilities began to be less about cultural games as part of a rehabilitation perspective and more about emerging elite competition.24 The International Paralympic Committee was created in 1989 and took control of all aspects of international competition for athletes with a disa- bility with the exception of deaf and hearing-impaired athletes and ath- letes with an intellectual disability.25 The sports movement in the United States during this period was due in part to the motivations and desires of Vietnam War veterans.26 (p. 236)With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 199027 and the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act in 1998,28 athletes with disabilities were hopeful that they would see significant increases with support from the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) and other national governing bodies (NGBs) involved in both Olympic and Paralympic sport for participatory and distributive justice issues in sport. Unfortunately, this progression did not occur as new policies from the USOC and its related NGBs pushed for significant regression by limiting resources and sporting opportunities via a stated policy of organization and practical re- segregation.29
  • “Casey Martin sued and won his right as a professional golfer to compete on the PGA Tour using a motorized cart.31 Tatyana McFadden sued and won the right to practice with and compete for her high school track team.32 Scot Hol- lonbeck and others sued the USOC over equity and distributive justice issues.33 Finally, Oscar Pistorius won his administrative appeal in the international Court for Arbitration in Sport (CAS) for the right to com- pete at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.34 During this last decade, other critical events include the creation of the DISI at Northeastern35 and the passage and ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Rights for Persons with Disabilities including its landmark Article 30.5 with its focus on sport, leisure and cultural rights for persons with a disability.36 “ (Fay and Wolff, 237)
  • he most frequently identified barriers to the active par- ticipation of children with disabilities in sports and phys- ical recreation are the child’s functional limitations (18%), high costs (15%), and lack of nearby facilities or programs (10%).27 In fact, adolescents with disabilities cited the cost of specialized equipment as the most fre- quent reason for nonparticipation.2 (Murphy and Carbone, 1059)
  • Disability presentation

    1. 1. Disability and SportLorelei RutledgeOct 2, 2012
    2. 2. • 18.7 percent of peoplein the United States(56.7 million) have adisability• 12.6 percent have asevere disability
    3. 3. Disability and Sociology
    4. 4. Disability and Disparities• There are racial and ethnic disparities in ratesof disability and treatment outcomes (Ciol etAl., 2008)• “adults with disabilities and chronic conditionsreceive significantly fewer preventive servicesand have poorer health status than individualswith the same chronic conditions who have nodisabilities” (Reichard et Al, 2011, p. 66)
    5. 5. Medical Model• Disability and impairment aresynonymous• People are disabled when theirbodies deviate from the norm• Doctors are required to diagnoseand explain disability in order toensure that disabled people aren’t“ faking”• The appropriate response toDisability is medical interventionto help the individual functionas “normally” as possible
    6. 6. How do we define disability?“The ADA defines persons with disabilities asanyone with a physical or mental impairment thatsubstantially limits one or more major life activities,has a record of such an impairment, or is regardedas having such an impairment. Major lifeactivities include: (a) walking, breathing, seeing,hearing, speaking, learning, and working; (b) activitiesof daily living (e.g., bathing, dressing, gettingaround the home); and (c) community andhome management (e.g., household chores, shopping,getting around the community) “ (Smith, 2011, p.9)
    7. 7. Social Barriers ModelImpairment is separate from disabilityDisability is the result of physical, economic,and social barriersThe appropriate response to disabilityIs to reduce barriers by making physicalspaces accessible and reducing discriminatorypracticesThe problem is society, not the individual
    8. 8. Embodiment ModelAlthough social factors do play a largerole in disabled peoples’ experiences,they are also affected by their felt senses ofImpairmentDisabled people are the experts on their ownlives and should be allowed to speak forthemselves.
    9. 9. Studying Disability and Sport
    10. 10. Early Disability Sport
    11. 11. Sports Participation• Deaflympics• Special Olympics• Paralympics
    12. 12. Therapeutic Recreation
    13. 13. Adaptive Recreation
    14. 14. Separate v. Inclusive Sports
    15. 15. Participation v. Competition
    16. 16. Ability v. Disability
    17. 17. Research Foundation for DisabilitySportIdentified seven areas of concern• “Effects of training, competition, or both;• Selection and training of coaches, volunteers, officials;• technological advantages in sport research;• sociological/psychological aspects of sport;• differences and similarities between disabled and nondisabled athletes;• demographics of sport for the disabled; and• legal, philosophical and historical bases for sport” (DePauw and Gavron,p. 163)
    18. 18. Sport Psychology
    19. 19. Exercise and Sports Physiology
    20. 20. Athletic Training
    21. 21. PETE
    22. 22. Working with Athletes with Disabilities
    23. 23. References2008 Beijing Paralympic Games - Athletics - Day 10. [Photographer]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest.http://quest.eb.com/images/115_2772752African Woman Stretching. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest.http://quest.eb.com/images/154_2896373Arias, C. (2008). Image of Toby Macnutt, GIMP performer [Photograph]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.thegimpproject.com/gimp/gallery/if_toby_1.jpgBarnes, C., & Mercer, G. (2010). Exploring disability (Second ed.). Malden, MA: Polity.[Boy in sport wheelchair]. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.wheelpower.org.uk/WPower/Ciol, M. A., Shumway-Cook, A., Hoffman, J. M., Yorkston, K. M., Dudgeon, B. J. and Chan, L. (2008), Minority Disparities inDisability Between Medicare Beneficiaries. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56: 444–453. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01570.xDePauw, K. P. (2005). Disability Sport (Second ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2448020Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2478690
    24. 24. ReferencesDisability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2432615Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2481153Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2475512Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2481568Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2448142Disability. [Photography]. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Retrieved 23 Sep 2012, fromhttp://quest.eb.com/images/158_2479705Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2437606Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2479998{Eleanor Simmonds]. (2009, February 24). Retrieved from http://www.paralympicswimming.com/news240220093.hDisability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2479998Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2432986Disability. [Photography]. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Retrieved 29 Sep 2012, fromhttp://quest.eb.com/images/158_2432986
    25. 25. ReferencesDisabled Riding School. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest.http://quest.eb.com/images/132_1259502Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2465609Disability. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/158_2438297Eli Clare [Photograph]. (2010, August 12). Retrieved from http://media-dis-n-dat.blogspot.com/2010/08/eli-clare-talks-trans-pride-disability.htmlFay, T. & Wolff, E. (2009).Disability in sport in the twenty-first century: Creating a new sport opportunity spectrum. BostonUniversity International Law Journal, 27, 231-248)Ferrara M.S., & Peterson, C.P. .(2000) Injuries to athletes with disabilities: identifying injury patterns. Sports Medicine, 30: 137-143Li, F.. (2012, July 28). Olympics Day 1 - Table Tennis [Photograph]. Retrieved http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/natalia-partyka-of-poland-serves-against-mie-skov-of-news-photo/149448765Michael Oliver [Photograph]. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.disabilitynow.org.uk/have-your-say/guest-column/ social-work-are-we-in-at-the-death
    26. 26. ReferencesMurphy N.A. & Carbone, P.A. (2008). Promoting the participation of children with disabilities in sports, recreation, and physicalactivity. Pediatrics, 121, 1057-1061. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0566Special Olympics. (2012, February 25). Playing together [Photograph]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.specialolympics.org/unified_sports.aspxRay Marlon Shirley Sets A World Record. [Photographer]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest.http://quest.eb.com/images/115_2772480Reichard, A.; Stolzle, H. and Fox, M.H. (2011). Health disparities among adults with physical disabilities or cognitive limitationscompared to individuals with no disabilities in the United States. Disability and Health Journal, 4, 59-67. doi:0.1016/j.dhjo.2010.05.003Smith, R. W., Austin, D. R., Kennedy, D. W., Lee, Y., & Hutchison, P. (2011). Introduction and overview [Introduction]. In Inclusiveand special recreation: Opportunities for persons with disabilities (Fifth ed., pp. 2-18). Urbana, IL: Sagamore.Stairs. [Photography]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. http://quest.eb.com/images/139_1990916TALCOTT PARSONS (1902-1979). - American Sociologist.. [Fine Art]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest.http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1639985United States Census Bureau, Americans with Disabilities: 2010, Rep. No. P70-131 (2012). Retrieved fromhttp://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/sipp/ disable10.htmlWar Veterans. [Photographer]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest.http://quest.eb.com/images/115_2730784

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